Tax Accounting - Taxes and Taxation System of the US Federation

Tax Accounting

Tax Accounting is a system for summarizing information for determining the tax base for a tax on the basis of primary documents. The tax accounting system is organized by the payer independently, and the order of its keeping is reflected in the accounting policy.

FROM HISTORY

Prior to the introduction of the concept of tax accounting, the difference between the reflection of business transactions and financial results in accounting and in the calculation of taxable profits was reflected in a special form of tax reporting, namely in the Certificate of the procedure for determining the data reflected in line 1 of the "Calculation of tax on the actual profits .

The tax accounting data should reflect the procedure for determining the taxable profit. Confirmation of tax accounting data are: 1) primary accounting documents (including an accountant's certificate); 2) analytical tax accounting registers; 3) calculation of the tax base.

The forms of the analytical registers must contain the following requisites: the name of the register; the period (date) of the compilation; Measures of operation in kind (if possible) and in monetary terms; name of business transactions; signature (decryption of the signature) of the person responsible for compiling the indicated registers.

Analytical registers are summary forms of systematization of tax accounting data for the reporting period, grouped in accordance with the requirements of the Tax Code, without reflecting on the accounts of accounting. Analytical accounting should disclose the order of formation of the tax base.

The main objectives of tax accounting are the formation of complete and reliable information on the amount of income and expenses of the organization that determine the size of the tax base for income tax, as well as providing this information to internal and external users to monitor the correctness of the calculation, completeness and timeliness of settlements with the budget on the profit tax of organizations.

The difference between accounting and tax accounting results, in particular, in the following cases:

- with a difference in the method of forming income and expenses in accounting and tax accounting;

- when choosing different methods of writing-off of materials in accounting and tax accounting;

- when acquiring materials using borrowed funds, carrying out settlements for purchased materials in rubles, provided that their contractual value is expressed in conventional units when importing materials;

- when choosing a non-linear method for calculating depreciation in tax accounting;

- in the presence of over-limit costs (advertising costs, hospitality, travel expenses);

- with the free receipt of property;

- otherwise.

The tax registration system is organized by the taxpayer independently, but in such a way as to provide transparency formation of indicators of the tax declaration starting with the primary document. The tax accounting system can consist of four groups of registers:

- registers of accounting for business transactions;

- registers of intermediate calculations;

- registers of accounting for the state of the unit of tax accounting;

- registers of reporting data generation.

Business accounting registers are the source of systematized information about the operations conducted by the organization, which in one way or another affect the size of the tax base in the current and future periods. These include, in particular, the register of accounting transactions for the acquisition (disposal) of property, the register of cash receipts, the register of accounting for taxes, etc.

Interim settlement registers (register-calculation of the cost of written-off materials, the register-calculation of expenses for voluntary insurance of employees, etc.) are designed to reflect and store information on the procedure for conducting a taxpayer calculations of intermediate indicators necessary for the formation of a tax base in the manner prescribed in Ch. 25 NC, i.е. their values, although they participate in the formation of reporting data, but not in full, but through special calculations or as part of a generalized indicator.

Registers of accounting for the state of the unit of tax accounting (register of information about the fixed assets object, the register of accounting for future expenses, the register of accounts receivable, etc.) are the source of systematized information on the status of indicators of the accounting object, information about which is used for more than one reporting (tax) period.

Maintaining registers of reporting data (the register of income of the current period, the register of non-operating expenses, the register- calculation of the financial result from the sale of depreciable assets, etc.) provides information on the order in which the values ​​of the specific declaration lines are received. A general characteristic for all the listed registers is the formation in them of the final data of tax reporting.

The taxpayer has the right to use the data of the accounting registers to form the tax base for corporate income tax. In the event that the accounting registers contain insufficient information to determine the tax base for income tax of organizations in accordance with Ch. 25 of the Tax Code, the taxpayer has the right to independently expand the applicable accounting registers with additional details, thereby forming tax registers or maintaining independent tax accounting registers.

***

Corporate income tax is a direct personal tax. In accordance with the Tax Code, this tax is applicable to federal taxes. It forms a significant share of the consolidated budget. The payers of the profit tax are United States and foreign organizations. The income tax rate is set at 20%. The rate of income tax is the same for both United States and foreign organizations. It is the same for all industries and types of production. The corporate profit tax is paid according to the results of the calendar year (tax period). As a result of reporting periods, taxpayers pay advance payments.

The object of taxation on income tax is the profit received. For the proper formation of profit, it is important to classify income and expenses. In accordance with the tax legislation, incomes are divided into income from sales, non-operating income. Non-taxable income is provided for. Expenditures are divided into expenses related to production and sales, and non-operating expenses. The Tax Code also allocates expenditures that are not considered for tax purposes, which is important for reducing the real tax burden on business.

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