Using e-commerce in various segments of the economy and international business: current state and prospects
The practice of using EC in international business shows that there are separate directions that would not exist without the EC. For this reason, it is expedient to allocate mobile commerce, remote ( remote ) work, e-government.
Mobile Commerce ( M-content ) is based on using mobile devices instead of stationary personal computers. In modern conditions - this is primarily tablets, as well as laptops and smartphones. The use of mobile devices allowed the company to withdraw from private homes and offices to any place on the globe, it is important only that there is access to the Internet in this place. Thanks to mobile commerce it has become extremely convenient to travel by buying on the Web, bypassing queues at ticket offices, electronic travel documents for a train or plane, while choosing convenient seats and demonstrating when boarding a vehicle only a tablet or smartphone screen confirming the purchase of the ticket. Mobile commerce also increased the traffic of Internet providers and telephone operators, initiated technological changes in the telecommunications industry related to the increase in the data transfer rate and the steady reception of the signal in a variety of places, including the subway, tunnels on highways and railways, mountain gorges, large water bodies.
Essentially all the features of traditional EC can be used in mobile commerce. However, there are some peculiarities peculiar only to mobile commerce. One of them is the use of customer positioning on the ground. Positioning systems (the most common - GPS - Global Positioning System and others - Galileo, Beidou, Glonass, etc.) allow, by reading signals from satellites , determine the location of the receiver of such signals in the terrain to within two or three meters. The use of systems like GPS is very common in various areas of life - from synchronizing the exact time to studying the movement of lava during volcanic eruptions. At the same time, the technologies mentioned above are most widely used in car navigation systems (GPS-navigators), traffic control automation systems (for example, ships and aircraft), while delivering mobile content of telephone operators (regional news and weather reports), and also in the marketing of goods (services).
Think about how often, when roaming, we get offers tied to the point of our current location, not only from telephone operators (like a weather report at the place of our stay or regional news), but also from taxi services, consular offices, hotels and traditional stores.
An interesting and promising direction is the creation of GIS ( Geographic information system - GIS). GIS is usually understood as systems that provide collection, storage, processing, access, display and dissemination of spatially coordinated data. Sometimes such GIS are created on the initiative of governments of different countries. In this case, it is a question of combining the databases of various government bodies at different levels (states, counties, cities, municipalities, etc.) • At the same time, information on communications, terrain, geological features , available buildings, the cost offered by the services located at this point, and possibly also the level of criminality, ecological features, etc. Of course, information from such GIS will be in demand both by various state structures (for example, the Ministry of the United States for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters) and private companies - utilities, real estate agencies, industrial enterprises, as well as private individuals .
Remote ( remote ) work ( telecommuting, teleworking, Work-At-Home (W AH), remote work, freelance work. For the first time the term telecommuting went into use by the American expert Jack Nilles (Jack Nilles) in 1973. He drew attention to the fact that in some cases it is more economical to take an employee than work, on the contrary - work for the employee. This becomes a particularly topical issue for large metropolises with their remoteness of "sleeping areas" from offices and constant traffic jams.
With remote (remote) work, the staff of an organization can work at home or in a special room adapted for this - the center for home workers ( telecommuting center). Each individual worker receives a personal task from the manager in electronic form, performs it and sends the results of work on the Internet to his supervisor. With this method of work, both employers and employees themselves benefit.
The employer saves on renting or buying into the ownership of office space, the arrangement of workplaces in the office, communal payments (heating, electricity, water supply, etc.). The turnover of staff is also decreasing, the personnel reserve is expanding, due to the flexible working day schedule with the floating time of the beginning and the end of the work, labor productivity is increased. And besides, when conducting international business activities due to the spread of business operations to several time zones at once, it is possible to extend the time of business processes up to 24 hours a day at constant costs. According to some studies, remote (remote) work of staff allows companies to save up to $ 20 thousand per employee per year.
An employee with a remote form of labor organization also benefits from: he can more flexibly plot his own professional activity and personal life, he does not spend money (according to some studies - from 4 to 21 thousand dollars a year) and his time ( from 15 to 25 days a year) on the way to work and back. In addition, people who are unable to work full-time (caring for the sick, disabled, women on maternity leave, students, pensioners, etc.) have the opportunity to work and earn.
Remote work is also considered a positive phenomenon for the state as a whole. Here, first of all, usually reduce the load on transport and social infrastructure (public transport, kindergartens and day nurseries), reduce traffic congestion and road accidents, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, save fuel, and reduce energy consumption. In addition, it should be noted additional opportunities for the development of economically depressed regions, the attraction of temporarily unemployed to work, which reduces the marginalization of society, as well as a number of other positive effects.
Try to speculate: what positive consequences for you personally, for your potential employer, as well as for the public sector of the economy, would be your possible work activity in the remote mode (for example, as a call center operator or a corporate site moderator) during your study at the university? Is it possible to work remotely on business structures involved in international business?
It is not surprising that the governments of developed countries in every way stimulate business to use the remote form of labor organization. In the EU, the Framework agreement on the terms of distance work ( Framework agreement on telework) , adopted in 2002 in the United States, is still well known in the context of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act ) Benefits are defined for companies using remote work. The relevant recent regulatory documents signed by the US president administration also confirm that the state's efforts in this direction are not weakening.
In a similar direction, there are also the governments of Australia, Japan, leading EU countries, etc.
As a result, in 2011, slightly more than 3 million Americans (which accounted for 2.5% of the working-age population of the United States) worked remotely. It should be noted that since 2005 this figure has been increasing every year even despite the crisis of 2008-2009. In general, with the spread of personal computers and the development of the Internet, this direction of the organization of labor activity of the population has invariably developed and is currently being used in business.
E-government (E-Government). In the literature, you can find different definitions of e-government. We will focus on the definition of the World Bank, which understands by the e-government the use of information technologies (computer networks, the Internet, mobile technologies) by state bodies to improve the provision of public services to citizens, interaction with business, better public administration and equal access of citizens to information. Thus, it is possible to identify a key element of e-government - the conclusion of government services and information on the Internet and ensuring unhindered access to this information by the public and business structures. E-government should not be seen as a complement or an analogue of the existing government, it simply defines a new way of interaction between citizens and business on the one hand and state authorities on the other, in order to improve the efficiency of public services.
All the tasks of e-government are currently being implemented on the basis of one of the two classic EC-B2C and B2B models. However, due to the importance of this direction for the whole society, it is customary for an electronic government to use a different terminology that characterizes its separate lines of activity. So, G2B (Government-To-Business) assumes the provision of public services in the EC mode to the business, and G2C <( Government-To-Consumer) - population. B2G ( Business-To-Govemment ), on the contrary, is based on the fact that the provider of information products for state structures is private business. G2G ( Government-To-Government) means electronic transactions between government bodies. Sometimes other schemes are singled out separately, for example G2E (Govemment-To-Employees - provision of government e-services to workers) or even M-govemment - use of mobile technologies to implement e-government functions .
With regard to the interaction of governments at different levels with citizens (G2C), the government needs to implement the functions of this direction (receiving pensions, allowances, scholarships, passport and visa services, public health and education services, obtaining any personal information and information etc.) in electronic form with remote access to them in need.
In this case, all functions should be implemented on the principle of a single window - after all, a citizen does not care which official issues this or that information. It is also important to implement the tracking function of documents (tracking), sent to state structures, which allows to know at any time the status of the document, who is considering what resolutions are imposed on it, what decisions on this document are taken and how this document is executed. Information of a personal nature must be confirmed by an electronic digital signature or other algorithms that exclude it from falling into the wrong hands.
With regard to the interaction of governments of different levels with business (G2B and B2G), it is necessary to implement the functions of the government of this direction (public procurement, issuance of licenses, patents, payment of taxes, duties, management of state property, development and implementation of economic development programs , the region, the municipality, etc.). First and foremost, special attention should be paid to procurement systems for state needs (state bodies and state subordination structures, state educational and medical institutions, federal state unitary enterprises and their foreign counterparts, housing offices, etc.). Transparency of procurement procedures should be ensured, since this area of government activity is often the most corrupt.
Think about how e-government can be assisted by international business. In which cases, the provision of public services or public procurement, carried out by EC methods, allow the attraction of foreign business entities as contractors? In which cases can foreign companies and individuals be consumers of such forms of business as G2B and G2C?
One of the first who approached the practical implementation of electronic government interaction with business, were the Americans. October 26, 1993 in the speech of US President Bill Clinton for the first time raised the question of the introduction of an electronic system of procurement of products for public use. At present, the governments of the vast majority of developed countries are making some efforts to develop electronic governments. And already there are positive results. For example, based on the results of the creation of the electronic government of Singapore iGov2010, studies were conducted on the degree of satisfaction of citizens of Singapore with the interaction with the electronic government of this country. The results were amazing:
• 8 out of 10 users were very satisfied with the overall quality of government e-services;
• 9 out of 10 users recommend that the rest communicate with the government through electronic services;
• 8 out of 10 users were very pleased with the level of clarity and usefulness of information published on-line, regarding government policy, programs and initiatives.
Define those areas of business in which the implementation of business processes using EC methods gave particularly effective results. About the use of CRM and SCM systems by industrial companies, we already have an idea from paragraph 10.1. Particularly effective was their use by assembly plants with a wide range of used raw materials and components and in the presence of a large number of suppliers/consumers. However, the use of EC methods was equally effective in companies providing various types of services. Note that many services fall very well on EC methods. Consulting in various fields of activity, information services, banking services to enterprises (Internet banking) and individuals (Internet billing), real estate sales - these and other services are implemented by EC schemes by many companies and give positive financial results. Let us consider in more detail three areas of international business, the application of EC methods in which significantly changed the traditional ideas about the technologies of rendering the corresponding kind of services. Such types of international business activity include trade operations in the world financial markets, insurance and tourism.
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