SECTION I. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE WORLD ECONOMY
Chapter 1. THEORY OF THE WORLD ECONOMY: THE BASIC CATEGORIES
1.1. Object, Concept and Definition Objectives
A scientific work or a textbook always has its own tasks and goals, and if they are clearly described, it helps to more successfully master the content of the author's work, a specific subject, the disclosure of which constitutes the main task of the work.The economic history of the state has fundamental importance in the analysis of the world economy, together with other factors it makes it possible to determine the typology of world economic processes revealing the content of the system of the world economy. These are typical, characteristic, defining relations between national economies (economies). This, in turn, requires the identification of the features of these links, their economic agents and the signals they send to the economy.
Methodologically for our subject are important questions: when the world economy (world economy) was formed; what are its stages and what are they characterized by; what is the evolution of the modern world economy; why in recent years, scientists are increasingly asserting that the world economy is rapidly evolving into a global economy; why so often there are world economic crises.
The objective of the subject is the study of the modern world economy as part of the economic theory of global macroeconomics. This requires, first, the derivation of the universal categories used in modern ecocomical theory, and secondly, the illustration of their manifestation in the world economic evolution, both in the case of individual countries, and at the global macro and micro level. Thus, in the most general form the task of the object is the study of the world economy as a scientific mapping of the world economic processes in their unity and integrity, generating certain economic phenomena, trends, patterns, studying the dynamics of these processes.
The subject of the study of the world economy:
o the basic concepts, categories, schools of the special theory of the world economy;
o a complex of links and relationships, its constituent, national and international institutions (institutions, organizations);
o analysis tools for both the world economy as a whole, and the economies of individual countries, phenomena and processes in the system of the world economy;
o the main structures of the world economy, their development trends, including TNCs and TNBs;
o features on individual countries in the system of the world economy (material, monetary and external sectors of the national economy);
o technology development of international financial markets and financial mechanisms serving the functioning of the world economy;
o the institutional framework for international regulation; trends in the light of the global economic crisis 2008-2010. and post-crisis development.
The subject of the special theory of the world economy is the same as that of the general economic theory: the mutual relations of people about the production, distribution, exchange and consumption of vital goods. Specificity of the world economy is determined by the fact that relations in civil society, in particular between social strata, are carried out across state borders and appear as world or international economic relations. Hence the differences in the methodology of considering historically developing categories, the relationship of concepts. At the same time, the whole multifaceted and complex set of issues of the world economy is an object of global and regional macro and microanalysis as groups of countries (developed, developing, new capitalist) and those important agents (subjects) of the world economy that link the latter to a single metasystem.
The object of studying the theory of the world economy - is the economy of the whole world (ie the world economy on the basis of national economies in its entirety in the essential elements of composition, structure, structure and integrity in historical and logical dynamics), as well as international institutions operating in the system of the world economy. The diverse and complex set of questions of the world system of the world economy is an object of study of the following groups of countries and international institutions in accordance with the approach established in the world scientific literature:
o the general system of the world economy, the nature and features of its movement, structure and structure;
o developed capitalist countries;
o developing countries;
o transforming countries;
o groups of countries in the composition of regional economic integration;
o analysis of the activities of the main international agents operating in the system of the world economy (international industrial, financial and economic organizations, etc.).
Accordingly, the objects of study are:
o new manifestations (events, facts) in the internationalization and globalization of world economic relations as specific phenomena in MRI;
o international value-added corporate structures, such as TNCs, TNBs; world financial markets;
o international trade;
o international investment;
o world monetary and financial system;
o international regulatory institutions (IMF, WB, WTO), etc.
o regional integration associations of countries.
The world economy as a complex system is characterized by the multiplicity and hierarchy of its constituent elements, the multi-level "skeleton", the mosaic structure. It has its own stable, "mature" core, which attracts asymmetric subsystems, differing in the level of development and other indicators that characterize them (and the system as a whole). The social and economic heterogeneity of the world economy, therefore, makes it very difficult to learn both the subject as a whole and its components, including the identification of certain trends.
At the same time, the world economy must have certain common common goals and a single common economic order , which is caused by real threats. Otherwise, it can not progress as a system and, therefore, may well die. This global aspect of the problem, however, is not only poorly researched, but also camouflaged for some active activity of international organizations that have little influence on the states and governments of countries on which important international relations influencing the dynamics of the world economy depend critically.
Subject world economy and other Edge There is a multiplicity of terminology related to the world economic problems, which indicates the lack of unity among international economists in the main methodological approaches to the study of the dainty problem. In this context, it is necessary to understand more clearly the substantive part of those issues that are combined within the framework of established concepts, in particular, such as "international economic relations", "world economy", "foreign economic relations".
The fact is that attempts are being made, on the one hand, to broadly interpret the concept of "world economy" and drown in it the subject "international economic relations"; or, conversely, broadly interpret international economic relations and "dissolve" in them the subject of the world economy; while we are talking about two independent subjects, equally important for the study of modern world economic processes. In this case, the theory of MEO is a derivative of the special theory of the world economy and is based on the latter.
It is required to describe in the methodological plan the nature of the study of the subject "foreign economic relations"; it is equally important to determine the range of problems studied within the subject of the International Economics, which, from the author's point of view, is not identical to the concepts of "world economy" (world economy) and "international economic relations", although such attempts are made quite vigorously by some authors, introducing a considerable methodological and theoretical confusion.
The subject of studying international economic relations (IER) is close to the subject "world economy", because it is based on the relations, connections and interrelationships arising in the system of the world economy, its functioning . Through the IER, the world economy itself is manifested. But if we regard the world economy as a complex set of national economic systems, then we approach the concept of international economic relations differently. The IER studies the forms, relationships and interrelations arising from the functioning of the world economy, both the economy as a whole and its individual links. These links and interrelations, as well as the various forms of their manifestation in the context of intensive processes of the international division of labor (which gives a special dynamism of intensification and internationalization), lead to acceleration of the movement of the world economy as a single global system.
Thus, the subject of MEI is based on the methodological basis, first, the fundamental political and economic provisions (as the basis of economic theory), and secondly, on the theoretical and methodological basis underlying the study of the subject "world economy".
Conditionally (and far from exhaustive), we can distinguish the following key areas of issues (problems) to be studied within the scope of the subject of the IEA:
o international trade and economic flows and their regulation, including through that sphere, which is called economic diplomacy;
o foreign exchange, financial and credit activities of the states of the world and international organizations;
o Development, application and regulation of customs rules as an important component of the entire external economic complex of the countries of the world;
o links and relationships, as well as new international relations arising in the process of the continuous expansion of TEC activities in the global economy (and national economies);
o the activities of the leading international monetary, commercial, and other regulatory supranational institutions and organizations, "technology"; and the mechanisms of their activities, the specific influence exerted as a result of their activities and on the world economy, and on countries.
All this allows us to give the following definition of the subject of the IER.
The subject "international economic relations" is a system of economic, scientific, technical, production-management, commercial, monetary and credit-monetary relations and relations of national economies of various countries based on the international division of labor, as well as the activities of international organizations in the regulation of international trade, business and other services, labor, capital flows, etc.
One of the features of modern MEI is the growing politicization of these relations: an ever greater mutual penetration into the IEA system of political relations, primarily through economic diplomacy.
The subject of the economy of foreign countries studies the national economies of individual states as integral economic systems. This is the most expressive feature that distinguishes this subject from the subject of the world economy, studying countries in their unity and aggregate as a world economic system. If strictly and consistently follow the logic of the subject of the economy of foreign countries, then the study of international economic organizations, international integration processes, etc. falls out.
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