A Play Established Curriculum | Analysis


Parents select the type of college and curriculum they need because of their children. There are numerous factors influencing parents' selection of college, but practicality, location, affordability, and past experience with the institution are some of their most important considerations. Knowledge and understanding of the different the different parts of the early childhood curricula is a necessity, but such is still dependent on many factors influencing parents' choice.

We know from the books (Brain & Klein, 1994; Reay & Lucey, 2000) that parents enrolling their children in an early childhood education program that implements a play-based curriculum may did so only because the school has met their expectations for some reason, and not because they are alert to the benefits associated with the play-based program. Nevertheless, whatever we don't know is if parents would only understand and appreciate the curriculum, would they have made another choice, would they become more involved and also have realistic expectations of the child's learning opportunities?

This review explores the beliefs and behaviour of parents regarding the play-based curriculum. Using qualitative methods, I try to collect information in narrative form on parents' values and behaviour regarding play-based curriculum The analysis of the info depends on the narrative responses of the parents, and concentrate on commonalities, dissimilarities, and emergent topics.

Chapter 1: Introduction

"I just want my child to have a great time!" is a comment I hear regularly from parents touring my preschool. But the magic of fun somehow disappears as children reach age three or four, and when they start to prepare for "real college. " Benchmarks, standardized exams, honors, grades etc. , soon become parents' biggest concerns. Somewhere across the line, the fun comment is changed with questions pertaining to kindergarten readiness and requests for worksheets, homework and some type of "grade".

As a preschool owner/educator, I remember so vividly your day I decided to leave an unbelievable 13-year profession as a general public school teacher in another of Ohio's wealthiest university districts to possess and run my own preschool. This was not a simple decision, because I really like teaching; departing the school room was one of the hardest professional decisions I've ever made. However, the expectations and standardized evaluation that were dictating our curriculum routines were in complete discord with my beliefs. Fortunately, I put options and decided to stay in education by moving to youthful ages, which at the time, seemed exempt from the overt pressure of standardized assessment. I envisioned a service that embraced play as the principal learning beliefs - the one that valued child hobbies and focus organizations, one that included multicultural facets.

I could not be more happy with my decision to leave from an amazing retirement, good salary, and summers off with my own children to offer my ideals to other young learners. Little do I recognize that the same nightmares that plagued me recently would continue to haunt me at my preschool. Although research on play and cognitive development provide a great deal of support for the play-based curriculum for our small children, the recent state and national emphasis on proficiency test performance has reinforced the idea of minimal play time, even in the primary environment. Many preschools and primary colleges have reduced or even taken away play of their schedules ( Bodrova & Leong, 2003; Brandon, 2002; Johnson, 1998; Murline, 2000; Vail 2003). Play, even the small segments, are being substituted with academic readiness practices, particularly literacy and reading to complement this content of standardized assessment (Brandon, 2002; Fromberg, 1990; Johnson, 1998; Steinhauer, 2005; Vail, 2003).

The constant struggle for accountability, as well as "top-down standards and coercive pressure to raise scores by using an endless group of standardized test"- (Kohn, 2004, p. 572), in addition to the battle of increasing education, all seem to be dictating current educational tendencies. Even if an application embraces the importance of play, the outside forces that continue steadily to press for academics is constantly threatening the foundation that our young children build their educational future. "We strip them of their finest innate self-assurance in directing their own learning, hurry them along, and frequently put them on out. " (Almon, 2003, p. 20). This push for a far more academic groundwork in the first years may find us losing sight of the true reason for learning. If we continue down this way of fabricating a test-prep curriculum in which our emphasis is about how the child ratings over a reading test rather than on allowing children to learn for pleasure and information after going out of school, we might generate quite contrary result and negatively impact cognitive development.

Nevertheless, the global obstacle that the info Age has enforced on us has furthermore prompted education representatives to redefine institution achievement. The government's move to establish educational standards through the (No Child LEFT OUT Take action) NCLB was based on the drop of education expectations since the start of 70s (Peterson, 2003). At the moment, most schools put into practice standard-based curricula, formal analysis methods, and numerical grading system in response to the decision for a wider educational transformation. Suffice to mention, the U. S. rates only 19th in the Literacy Index proven by the US Educational, Scientific and Cultural Company (UNESCO) (2007). Such data support the existing style in education, and imply the need of preschool educators to respond accordingly. In this consideration, it is worth it to consider what we realize about the significance of play-based curriculum as it contradicts using what officials in Higher Education promote, the standard-based curriculum. By using parents who themselves have witnessed the relevance of play-based curriculum to the current education system and to the broader areas of their children's lives, this analysis shall gain book findings about how parents understand the play-based curriculum. Focusing on how parents understand play-based curriculum is important, it will provide insight into what information parents sketch upon in making early educational decisions because of their children. .

Since parents will be the ones who determine where to enroll their children, it might be best to understand how they feel towards play-based curriculum. To secure a well-informed research finding, in this study I am going to give attention to interviews, observations and documents/documentation, with parents whose children are currently enrolled in a play-based curriculum. I plan to interview five parents; executing three interviews: a Life Background interview, a present-day Context interview which includes a listing of their present situation, and a Follow up interview. In addition to the three interviews, observations will be conducted and artifacts will be gathered to enhance the info collection.

I presently own and operate a preschool located in a Northeastern Ohio suburb. The demographics encompassing my school contain upper middle income, educated, two-parent households. In the recent past, we were functioning with 248 Caucasian households but have found a cultural style changing our school's human population: we now house six indigenous Asian family members, eight indigenous Indian individuals, three African-American people, and two biracial family members out of a complete of 257 young families. This trend, I believe, is due to a fresh 30-acre hospital center opening across the street. This study will take place in an identical preschool. The commercial brand preschool (pseudonym) has similar demographics and utilizes a play-based curriculum.

As I head to families, I am always guaranteed that parents want the best because of their children. The decision to leave a kid to a non-family member is difficult but common, and it is what brought me up to now in my life: a 43 year-old mother of two daughters, ages 10 and 13, seeking a PhD in Curriculum and Teaching with an early childhood target.

A very attractive, well-dressed woman in her mid-thirties, got into my institution foyer holding an expensive handbag, and armed with a set of questions, began her quest for the perfect childcare company. This well-spoken mommy has a two-year-old kid and a child princess. She, an lawyer and her husband, a resident doctor, just changed to our community from Washington, DC. My travel involves a brief launch of myself and my record, as well as the school's. I usually include a short description of our philosophy, which includes play, a head to of the center, an introduction to all or any instructors, and, finally, a meeting in my office where we dwelling address all questions on their list. Such a list typically includes: safety and security, ratios, sick coverage, discipline coverage, sanitation procedures, lunch break and snack, tuition, etc. In this situation, curriculum was never stated, even when i spoke of the play-based viewpoint, our Flex Learning Program, etc. Such things did not seem important to this mother. She asked about teacher turnover, how many infants were currently enrolled, how many educators were in the school room, if her baby would be rocked to sleep. She asked if her young young child would go to the fitness center, which is found in the old building; if he'd go outside every day; and if he could participate in karate and sports. Literature supporting everything discussed through the head to, including curriculum issues, was handed to her, as well as a business card with the net address for just about any additional information.

This is very much indeed a typical head to. The mother called later to announce that her decision was complete and her children would be starting another Mon. That was two years back. Her children still sign up for my school full time, now age range three and five. Both kids are in the Western facility that stores older children: elderly Preschool, Pre K, Jr-K, K, and after university classrooms/program. Her children are flourishing academically and socially. Yet, 2 yrs later, her matter shifted to academics readiness. She made a scheduled appointment with me to review the Ohio Pre K benchmarks which she received from her neighbor. Our hour-and-half hour conference consisted of examples of precisely how these standards are being integrated, met, and learned without the utilization of paper/pencil, drill, skill worksheets, and evaluation tools. Although our philosophy has not modified, nor has her desire to have her children to have a great time, worries of success in school has crept into this mom's thinking. Walking through her son's and daughter's classrooms daily and observing kids building blocks, doing dramatic play, using sand and drinking water, and working at art stations, reassures her that the kids are indeed having a great time, but what are they learning? How can she be certain they'll be ready for "school?"

This has me posing several opposing questions. What exactly are parents' beliefs

and attitudes towards an early on years as a child play-based curriculum, and has their values and attitudes modified since coming into the play-based program? What research may i offer parents that play-based curriculum can be an appropriate curriculum for principal school readiness? How do you advocate for preschoolers as a period in life to cherish play as a basis for all natural development and learning?

It is my desire, as a strong advocate of play for small children, to raised understand where parents are coming from, the way they are informed, and what they pull after to make their last conclusions. Therefore, in my study, I am going to ask parents their beliefs and frame of mind about play-based curriculum in the anticipation of better understanding where parents are via. These details will better notify educators in their mother or father education tactics as well as parents in their visit a preschool.

About Early Years as a child Education Programs

Early childhood education programs provide foundational learning experience to very young children in planning for formal schooling. Early childhood education programs make an effort to provide children with the essential skills in literacy and numeracy, which are necessary for all levels of education, while, at the same time, providing the cultural, emotional, and cultural connections that children dependence on maturity and public development. There is a wide variance in child care programs in america ranging from basic care-based, and sometimes simply custodial-based good care to nationally certified early childhood programs such as those advertised by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Several early childhood education models are in place: Montessori, Reggio-Emilia, Waldorf, Play-Based, and Academics-Based, each creating a different philosophy and educational target, but all striving to donate to the readiness of children for formal training (Singer, Performer, Plaskon, & Schweder, 2003).

Theoretical Frameworks

Earlier ideas on child development do not directly specify play as an essential aspect of cognitive development yet constructivist theories identify it as a significant factor impacting on children's interest and social development. In addition, neuroscience plays a part in the view that physical and age-related play boosts brain, physical, and overall development (Frost 1998).

The cultural constructivist theory is the power that establishes this analysis. It claims that individuals' perceptions of the "reality" around them form their thoughts and action (Berger & Luckman, 1966) and that the construction of interpretation is an activity "forged in the crucible of day-to-day discussionmeanings are negotiated, exchanged, and customized through everyday interactions with others" (Rosenholtz, 1989, p. 3). In addition, it says that individuals build their own understanding and understanding of the world through experiencing and reflecting upon those activities.

Constructivism posits that children develop their own principles of things predicated on preceding knowledge and experience. Led by people, prior knowledge or experience, they perceive, analyze, and finally make up their own ideas about the world. Therefore, preceding skills used at play may be employed relevantly to other situations, such as problem resolving, examination, or decision-making. This makes play an important part of children's life, as it functions as the intro to raised skills and more difficult difficulties of life.

In particular, Lev Vygotsky (cited in Palmer, 2004), a well-known constructivist facilitates the importance of play in the child's development. In his previous lecture, "Play and the Psychological Development of the Child, Vygotsky emphasized the importance of play through the child's early on years. Regarding to him, play is part of any child's Area of Proximal Development (ZPD). ZPD is the difference between what a child can do and what s/he cannot. During play, the child behaves beyond his get older, and discovers new ways of doing things such as different designs and levels of blocks. As the child does this, s/he explores the depths of ZPD, which consequences to an improved learning potential.

In the same way, neuroscience provides support for child's play. Frost (1998) documents that brain development is further increased as children engage in age-appropriate play. Conversely, he illustrates that deprivation of play could result in "aberrant tendencies" (8). It can be compiled that in Vgotsky's communal constructivist theory, parents form a knowledge when it comes to figuring out the "fit" educational environment for his or her child based on their expectations

Research Methodology Target and Questions

Based on the goals of this study, the employment of technique through the acquisition of narrative inquiry and the research study design are appropriate. Narrative research study will be used for this research study as it will allow me, the researcher, to witness and report a descriptive environment in order to share experiences

Case Study

This analysis adopts the research study design with the view that individual instances provide more in-depth information. Circumstance studies give attention to the average person, his/her experience, and immediate truth, which is needed to derive meaning and understanding of the issue or notion under examination. Furthermore, it offers real good examples from real folks who are unencumbered through predetermined steps or studies, and whose replies will only lead to numbers and reports (Bogdan & Biklen, 2007). In this particular research, individuals, the parents (either father or mother in a single family) should have a kid or children who are enrolled in a school that implements play-based curriculum. They will be interviewed and asked to share their stories predicated on open-ended questions that match the over-arching research questions. In doing so, the individuals' experiences and beliefs will be mentioned in order to arrive at a better understanding of the study topic, which respect parents beliefs and attitudes of any play-based curriculum. It really is expected that other factors such as race, religion, and socioeconomic status would effect the activities and thoughts of parents. Thus, the parents chosen for the analysis should come from different backgrounds. As well as the three planned interviews, observations including parent/ teacher conferences, PTO conferences, various parent celebrations such as "EACH DAY in the life span of PreSchooler", "Muffins With Mom", "(Root)Beer and Pretzels with Dad", Parents Night Out, Parents' Information Evening etc will be observed. Artifacts such as Parent or guardian Handbook, School's books like the school's mission statement, student rights, pupil collection information will be submitted to supplement

Narrative Inquiry

For the goal of this study I'll also be drawing on narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000) to investigate five parents values and behaviour towards a play -structured early childhood curriculum within a privately owned early childhood facility. From the social constructivist perspective, I believe that experience are significant. Clandinin & Connelly also suggest experience is significant in their three dimensional framework for learning how the members former, present and future contexts effect their beliefs and attitudes towards a play -based mostly early years as a child curriculum. Concentrating on narrative inquiry will help me to underdtand how parents values and behaviour towards a play-based early on child years curriculum have been proven. This unique approach is attractive because it provides the opportunity for the parents' voices to be noticed. In understanding their beliefs and attitudes of your play-based early years as a child curriculum, narrative inquiry will allow me to explore how their values and attitudes influence their decsion to sign up or not in sign up for a center that helps bring about a play-based curriuculum and how these beliefs and behaviour have advanced, through the experiences that they talk about.

This study will use the narrative in-depth interview as a qualitative data collection method, which can elicit far richer information when compared to a survey. Further, interviews offer the researcher a way to clarify responses and validate participant replies. Cohen et al. (2000) posited that each behaviors can only be realized by understanding individuals' interpretations of the world around them. Therefore, important social action must be interpreted from the idea of view of the actors or the individuals who are for the reason that particular situation. It can be said that parents who've already enrolled the youngster in a play-based preschool would in a natural way feel more firmly about it than parents who have not sent their child to a play-based preschool (Bryman, 2004).

This qualitative research study will analyze preschool parents' values and attitudes by using a narrative inquiry data-collection strategy to be able to showcase the experience and perceptions of parents towards play-based curricula in early childhood programs. Case study and narrative inquiry seek to comprehend this details in a historically and socially bounded framework (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000).

Main Research Questions

The main research question because of this analysis is "what are parents beliefs and behaviour towards an early child years play-based curriculum?"

Supporting Research Questions

I have determined several assisting research questions to mirror after throughout Clandinin and Connelly (2000) three-dimensional interviewing process. In looking forward/backward I am interested in focusing on how individuals' life histories inform their current beliefs and behaviour towards play-based curriculums. In looking inward/outward I am interested in understanding what outdoors factors influence their current values and attitudes towards play-based curriculums. .

  • What are their beliefs on play?
  • What are parents' values regarding developmentally appropriate methods?
  • What are parents' perceptions of early on learning?
  • What information can I offer parents that play-based curriculum can be an appropriate curriculum for primary university readiness?
  • How do you advocate for preschoolers as a time in life to cherish play as a basis for holistic development and learning?

. Children have different needs and the preschool program should be able to dwelling address those needs. From my experience, I have found that parents often choose preschools that are child-friendly; that is, they have passed safety requirements, provide enough learning materials, make use of qualified and nurturing teachers, and keep maintaining an attractive facility. Rarely do parents enquire about the school's curriculum or its academic offerings. In my experience, parents expect preschools to teach children fundamentals like patterns, colors, alphabet, numbers, and reading. Most preschools incorporate these basic skills to their learning programs, but each preschool varies in how the said skills are shown to the kids for teaching purposes.

Exploring parents' values and attitudes would help identify the relevance of play-based curriculum, whether they have helped aid their children's readiness and capability to learn and develop skills needed for the "real university" or for living. Moreover, their replies will serve as valuable insights to teachers generally, including those who are not putting into action play.

Considering its target, play-based curricula may be basically misperceived as not providing enough focus on skills and learning. Also, the existing standard-based education being executed, may consider play unimportant, thus curtail time for it or totally disregard it. Such would be deterrent to children whose basic needs include play and fun. In this view, the questions that I would like to expound on include: What exactly are parents' values and attitudes towards play-based curriculum? What factors resulted in the development of the beliefs and behaviour? How do/have play-based curriculum influence their children's learning and development? and Just how do parents' values and attitudes regarding play impact the execution of play-based curriculum and standard-based curriculum/formal instructions?

Purpose of the Study

I believe that it is very important to all parents to truly have a thorough knowledge of the curriculum that the youngster will be experiencing, whether in preschool or in virtually any other educational setting up. Preschools like a certain amount of flexibility in that they teach young children. Different coaching models can be found, and some institutions assimilate two models (i. e, Montessori and Reggio Emilia). When parents know and understand the curriculum with their child's preschool, they are more likely to get involved in the school's activities. They then know how to reinforce their child's learning at home, and have a tendency to collaborate more with instructors (Sission, 2009).

My quest to understand the beliefs and behaviour of five parents towards a play-based curriculum has multiple purposes. First, is to provide viewers and the first youth education sector with information concerning parental beliefs and behaviour towards play-based curriculum; second, to understand how, regarding to parents' views has play-based curriculum damaged their children's learning and development; and third, to discern if they believe it serves as an effective tool for early childhood education.

Statement of the Problem

Early childhood research workers have reported that small children learn best through activities that support the development of the complete child (Elkind 2001). David Elkind (2001), in a bit similar to Piaget's constructivist views, entitled "Young Einstein: Much Too Early, " argued that young children learn best through direct interaction with their environment. Before a certain get older, they simply are not capable of the amount of reasoning essential for formal teaching. However, national concern with accountability, competition, examining and "back-to-basics, " puts an over-emphasis on academics and single-subject teaching (Elkind, 2007; Ornstein, 2002; Perrone, 2000). In response to these concerns, early on years as a child programs may target the curriculum on the teaching of academics skills (Morrison, 2004). These factors have resulted in narrowly-defined curricula, which deny young children valuable life activities found in play. Although a growing concern on math and language capacity in the bigger time levels has prompted the execution of standard-based curriculum, it isn't enough to impose such kind of system in the preschool level. To begin with, children are a lot different from men and women in their ways to learn. Unlike individuals, children, especially small ones, need play (Ginsburg, 2007); they need to be enthusiastic about what they do to be able to continue with it. Therefore, the need for play in the preschool should not be disregarded. Nevertheless, the importance of play in education should be backed by research and by parents' notion in the curriculum. Therefore, a study of the parents' values and attitudes towards a play-based early on childhood curriculum might provide information useful to instructors and administrators when planning approaches for implementing an effective preschool program.


With the demand for effectiveness, test achievement scores, and accountability, many preschool programs have adopted and strengthened formal instruction, and also have used play as a recreational period rather than learning medium. Within an Oregon state-wide study sent to all kindergarten professors and principals with first-grade instructors, Hitz and Wright (1998) discovered that sixty-four percent of kindergarten instructors, sixty-one percent of principals, and seventy-two percent of first-grade educators reported that formal educational instruction was more prevalent in kindergarten than it was 10 to 20 years ago. On this scenario, creative manifestation may be considered much less important as cognitive development. Ingenuity may be viewed as irrelevant to the introduction of thinking and problem solving. Conversely, it's possible that educators and administrators have adopted academic instruction and other formal methods, even though most of them considered such developmentally unacceptable. This last situation implies the loss or insufficient academic flexibility among educators, thus contradicting democratic principles.

Early childhood teachers have shown concern with the sort of instruction used in their education programs. Techniques found in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten classes shown an environmentalist-behaviorist view, even though educators reported having other views. From a report of teacher practice, Hatch and Freeman (1988) found that two-thirds of early childhood instructors were employing programs incompatible using their philosophies relating to children's learning. Early childhood experts have long asserted that programs for small children should provide for the development of social, mental, physical, cognitive, and creative skills, however the abovementioned results do not indicate this anymore. In a nutshell, there's a gap between experts' recommendations and educators' techniques (Bredekamp, 1997; Logue, Eheart, & Leavitt, 1996).

Parents will be the deciding authority as it pertains to the sort of education that their children should acquire. Their values and attitudes towards a curriculum and later their decisions are typically affected by their own values, experiences, and attitudes. As a result, their views have an effect on the execution of programs for small children. This study will not confirm that parents' views regarding curriculum execution are sufficient to use a favorable program. Nevertheless, it considers their views because they form part of children's learning environment. It is important to get their views about play-based education because apart from the teacher, they will be the ones who've access to information regarding their children's development and ability whether in institution or outside it.


As an experienced most important educator, and an up-to-date preschool owner and educator, I am interested in parents' beliefs and attitudes towards an early on youth play-based curriculum and whether their decision to sign up their child in a play-based curriculum is borne out of these understanding of the program or other factors. I personally believe in the play-based curriculum and would like to determine if this attitude is shared by the parents. If they do not, I would like to know the foundation for his or her dislike of the curriculum. Parents of my students are educated of our own play-based curriculum at enrollment. Not surprisingly, however, some still confront me with disbelief about the curriculum. As an educator and business proprietor, this study would lead me to a better understanding of parents' values and behaviour about play as a vehicle for learning Understanding how parents understand play-based curriculum is significant and will add to the literature in lots of ways. In exploring how parents understand play-based curriculum this review will donate to current literature available offering new ideas

Contributions to the Research

Children's play has come under renewed attack. Encouraged by my own experiences as a preschool owner I hope to contribute through this narrative research study various lived experiences of parents and exactly how their values and attitudes towards a play-based early youth curriculum have improved. Since parents will be the "customers" of early childhood programs, is it important to comprehend their values and attitudes.

While there is enough of research supporting play-based curriculums in the first childhood classroom, it's mostly from the educators' and child's view point, books is lacking in this area as it pertains to the parents, their own beliefs and attitudes. While not meant to portray generalized information the wealthy descriptive stories of the five parents will stand for the larger community.


In section two of this research proposal, Literature Review, I identify the context where preschool programs, play-based curriculum, and parental options have been researched before, and the implications of research conclusions to current practice. . The books review is arranged from the overall to the specific, meaning a general overview of preschool programs is provided, accompanied by a talk of the play-based curriculum, and concluding with parents choice.

. In chapter three, Methodology, I further express the utilization of case study and the narrative inquiry approach to justify the utilization of such methods and design as suggested for this analysis. The section also supplies the description of the study setting, the study sample, the info gathering process, data research, the timeline, and validity and consistency concerns, as well as the expected limitations of the analysis. The primary research question as well as the promoting questions will be specified in detail as well within the section three.

Chapter four, Studies, will bring on common topics that exist within the individuals stories that illustrate their beliefs and attitudes towards an early on child years play-based curriculum. The implications this research is wearing informing the preschool community will be found within section five, the final chapter, Discussions and Implications.


Preschool Programs: refers to the pre-kindergarten programs that are intended for preparing children ages 2-5 years old for kindergarten. The programs offer various services for different age ranges and choose different curriculum models. In such a review, preschool programs refer to the setting and subject of the study work.

Curriculum Models: refers to an educational system that combines theory with practice. A curriculum model has a theory and knowledge platform that reflects a philosophical orientation which is supported, in differing certifications, by child development research and educational evaluation. The practical application of a curriculum model includes rules on how to create the physical environment, structure the activities, connect to children and their own families, and support staff members in their preliminary training and ongoing execution of the program. In this study, the model used by the preschool program is a play-based curriculum.

Play-based curriculum: refers to the learning model based on developmentally appropriate play. This model is child-centered; it is based on children's interest to ensure maximized involvement, concentration, and learning.

Developmentally appropriate techniques: tactics that are "designed for the age group served and executed with focus on the necessity and dissimilarities of the individual children enrolled" (Bredekamp, 1998 p. 53). With this analysis, developmentally appropriate procedures refer to the teaching practices of kindergarten educators as manifested in their classes.

Beliefs: refer to a couple of ideas or thoughts a person locates important or that affects his or her feelings, attitudes, and behavior. Beliefs are subjective and can be assessed by asking individuals to elucidate their thoughts on a certain matter or concern.

Attitudes: refer to a social construct that is predetermined by someone's beliefs. In case the notion is negative, then the attitude toward the problem or problem is also negative. Behaviour are associated with stereotypes of what's socially appropriate.

Feelings: refer to the affective component of an individual's perception and frame of mind towards a certain concern or topic. Feelings are from the personal experience and evaluation of the said issue.

Understanding/Belief: refers to the totality of the individual's values, attitudes, and thoughts towards a certain concern or subject.

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