A Research into Bruners Constructivist Theory

Bruners Constructivist Theory asserts that learning can be an active process in which learners develop new ideas or ideas based after their current or earlier knowledge. Instruction can be produced more efficient by providing a careful sequencing of materials to allow learners to make upon what they already know and go beyond the information they are given to uncover the key principles independently. Bruner's constructivist theory is situated upon the analysis of cognition. Cognitive constructions are being used to provide so this means and organization to experiences and allow the given individual to go beyond the info given. Regarding to Bruner, the teacher should try to encourage students to create hypotheses, makes decisions, and find out principles by themselves. The instructor's activity is to translate information to be learned into a format appropriate to the learner's present state of understanding and plan it in a spiral manner so the student continually builds upon what they have already learned.

For Constructivism theory, pursuit of student questions and interests is appreciated. The teacher really helps to create situations where in fact the students feel safe questioning and reflecting on their own operations, either privately or in group conversations. The learner is the individual who creates new understanding for him or herself. The professor coaches, moderates, advises, but allows the students room to test, ask questions and try things that don't work. Learning activities require the students' full participation (like hands-on experiments). An important area of the learning process is the fact students reflect on, and talk about, their activities. Students also help established their own goals and method of evaluation. Students have ideas that they could later see were invalid, wrong, or insufficient to make clear new encounters. These ideas are non permanent steps in the integration of knowledge. Constructivist coaching considers students' current conceptions and builds after that.

Piaget's Theory is predicated on the theory that the producing child builds cognitive constructions or in other words, mental "maps, " plans, or networked concepts for understanding and responding to physical experience within his or her environment. Piaget further attested a child's cognitive composition increases in class with development, moving from a few innate reflexes such as crying and sucking to highly complicated mental activities. Piaget believed that children should play, test and reason in order to discover. He believed that humans couldn't get information that they immediately understand. Assimilation is the process of taking in, of absorbing some event or experience for some system". Accommodation is when one changes the scheme as a result of new information and equilibrium is when one strives for and grows to a balance of the info collected.

Gagne's theory should be categorised as instructional theory instead of a learning theory. A learning theory take into account how changes in individual performance abilities happen. Alternatively, an instructional theory seeks to spell it out the conditions under which can intentionally request the training of specific performance results. Gagne's Taxonomy of Learning state governments that we now have five major categories of learning final results

verbal information,

intellectual skills,

cognitive strategies,

motor skills, and

attitudes;

The five subcategories of intellectual skills are hierarchical in character (low-level skills to high-level skills). Gagne's hierarchy of intellectual skills employs programmed education since one skill must be discovered before another can be perfected.

Behaviorism as a theory was most produced by B. F. Skinner. It loosely includes the work of such people as Thorndike, Tolman, Guthrie, and Hull. What characterize these investigators are their main assumptions about the procedure of learning. Essentially, three basic assumptions are placed to be true. First, learning is manifested by way of a change in action. Second, the environment shapes behavior. And third the rules of contiguity (how close with time two events must be for a relationship to be performed) and support (any method of increasing the chance that an event will be repeated) are central to detailing the learning process. For behaviorism, learning is the acquisition of new action through conditioning. You will discover four types of Operant Conditioning that are Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment, and Extinction. Both Positive and Negative Reinforcement strengthen action while both Abuse and Extinction weaken action.

Objectives:

To allow students to

1. Demonstrate understanding of constructivist approach to learning.

2. Analyze how far constructivist approach to learning has been carried out in primary school.

Procedures:

1 Tutor A, taken by Ho Mee Kiet at school 6H, SJK(C) Chung Hua, Sibu at 9. 30 am on 23 March 2010:

I reached the school early in the morning and went right to the principal's office to see the principal of the school, Mr. Wong.

I got the authorization from Mr. Wong to consider videos to do the SCE 3102 task first before I asked for the determination of the Technology teacher in the institution to be observed by me.

Luckily one of the Knowledge educator, Madam Wong Kiu Sieng was willing to help me and I waited for enough time of her Research period to come at the getting together with room when i have validated with her.

I used the Science teacher to the Technology lab during the fourth period to observe her science lessons.

I had taken the possibility to take some photographs of the musical instruments provided in the lab before all the students came to the laboratory.

Before the lesson started out, Madam Wong explained briefly about this issue that she was going to teach upon this lessons so that I could catch up and understand the content of her lessons later on.

After that, Madam Wong provided me a chair and asked me to stay behind the lab so that I could record down the complete process of the lesson.

I registered down the complete coaching and learning process when the class started utilizing the camera.

The lessons was about this issue of food preservation which included the techniques of conserving food.

The ways of preservation of food described by the professor during the lesson included drying, freezing, canning, vacuum treatment, sugaring, salting, and pickling.

2. Teacher B taken by Voon Ann Joo at class 3Z, SJK Chung Hua Sungai Tapang at 9. 20am on 22 Mac 2010:

I acquired the permission from Principal to adopt videos to do the SCE 3102 task.

Thus, Principal established a period to i want to go ahead a class to see the tutor.

It was Thursday and I was presented with 1 hour to see the teaching of Mr. Kong in 3Z course.

I used the Science tutor, Mr. Kong during the fourth amount of the second day in the institution Structured Learning (SBE) to see his science lesson.

I had taken the possibility to take some images of the equipment in the school room before all the students showed up to the school room.

After that, Mr. Kong asked all the students to greet me and my friend and asked us to stay behind the classroom so that I could record down the complete process of the lessons.

I registered down the whole coaching and learning process when the class began by using the camera.

The lesson was about this issue of the magnet.

The two types of things that talked about by the educator in the category includes the thing that may be enticed by the magnet and the object that cannot be fascinated by the magnet.

Data analysis

Analysis for Instructor A

School : SJK(C) Chung Hua, Sibu

Teacher A: Madam Wong Kiu Sieng

Class : 6H

Topic : Food preservation

Date : 23 March 2010 (Tuesday)

No need for this column

No.

Observation

Learning Theory

Explanation

1

The students sat matching to their groups in the lab. (to carry out discussion?)

Constructivism Theory

Constructivism Theory induces group work and the use of peers as resources (collaborative learning). Professor A set up the students to take a seat in their teams during every Research lesson to encourage them to discuss among themselves if received any problems to solve.

2

At the beginning of the lesson, the teacher modified this issue, food preservation methods with the students. Professor A asked the students to take into account the meals they eat usually and what types of preservation methods are being used to preserve the food.

Bruner's Constructivist Theory

For Bruner, the teacher should try and encourage students to create hypotheses, makes decisions, and discover principles by themselves. Professor A has asked her students to represent back the meals they have ever before eat before and encouraged them to believe and determine which of the food preservation method which have used to maintain the food.

3

Teacher A gained the students' attention by asking them their knowledge about the means of food preservation. She urged the students to take into account it and provided her the examples of food which are not mentioned in the written text reserve that are maintained using the ways described at the moment.

Gagne step 1 1 - gaining attention

Gagne step one says that the instructor should supply the learner a stimulus to ensure reception of coming instruction. Professor A asked the students about their current knowledge on the topic and asked them to give her some examples.

4

After that, Educator A gave the students a few examples of the food that are preserved using drying method and asked the students their thoughts and opinions about it based on their own encounters and knowledge. She also did the comparisons between the different methods of food preservation and explained the food illustrations using different preservation solutions to the students so the students would not mistake about it.

Constructivism Theory

It says that individuals create their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those encounters. When we come across something new, we have to reconcile it with this prior ideas and experience, maybe changing that which we believe, or maybe discarding the new information as irrelevant. Instructor A encouraged her students to think and informed their point of views predicated on their own experience.

5

Then, she led them to stimulate and recall back again the food they have ever consumed and take into account the food preservation methods that are being used to preserve the meals.

Gagne step three 3 -Rousing recall of prior learning

Asking for recall of existing relevant knowledge. Teacher A asked the students to remember back what kind of food they have ever eaten before and think about the food preservation method used.

6

Besides that, Professor A also provided a food sample which was preserved using the pickling method to enable the students to believe and understand more. She handed the food sample to the students and asked these to taste it one at a time. After that, she picked and asked a few of the students to share her what were the items and the flavor of the food sample.

Bruner's Constructivist Theory

Teachers Asking Questions - help students with critical thinking skills by requesting them open-ended guiding questions about a study they are executing. Teacher A allow students to tastes the meals themselves so that they would really know what the meals exactly tasted and the method that truly used to maintain it.

7

Then she talked about with the students and corrected their misconceptions about the topic learned.

Constructivism Theory

Constructivist teachers ask about students' understandings of ideas before showing their own understanding principles. Tutor A asked the related questions about the topic to the students to start to see the understanding degree of the students before she added in some new information.

8

After been through all the meals preservation methods with the students, Educator A gave time for the students to do exercises in the exercise book. From then on, she talked about the questions with the students.

Constructivism Theory

Constructivist teachers allow wait around time after posing questions. Professor A gave her students time to let those to do the brain storming and take into account the questions that were given to them.

Conclusion for Instructor A: (Conclusion is based on the analysed data. It ought to be brief)

Madam Wong Kiu Sieng acquired used Gagne's Learning Theory, Bruner's Constructivist Theory and Constructivism Theory in her lessons. Teacher A helped the students to construct new ideas based mostly upon their current knowledge. At the beginning of the lessons, Teacher A revised this issue; food preservation methods with the students. She asked the students to think about the meals they eat usually and what types of preservation methods are used to preserve the food. For Bruner, the instructor should try and encourage students to create hypotheses, makes decisions, and find out principles by themselves. Educator A has asked her students to represent back the food they have ever before eat before and urged them to think and determine which of the food preservation method that contain used to preserve the food. Besides that, Professor A also provided a food test which was preserved using the pickling method to allow the students to believe and understand more. She transferred the food sample to the students and asked those to taste it one at a time. After that, she picked and asked some of the students to share with her what were the items and the tastes of the food sample. Teachers requesting questions can help students with critical thinking skills by requesting them open-ended guiding questions about an investigation they are executing. The teacher allow students to tastes the meals themselves so that they would know very well what the meals exactly tasted and to let them speculate the method that truly used to preserve it.

Gagne step one expresses that the teacher should give the learner a stimulus to ensure reception of approaching instruction. Instructor A asked the students about their current knowledge on this issue and asked them to give her a few examples. Instructor A gained the students' attention by requesting them their knowledge about the ways of food preservation. She inspired the students to take into account it and offered her the examples of food which are not mentioned in the text booklet that are preserved using the ways mentioned just now. From then on, she gave the students some examples of the food that are preserved using drying method and asked the students their judgment about it based on their own activities and knowledge. She also do the evaluations between the various ways of food preservation and identified the food samples using different preservation solutions to the students so the students would not confuse about any of it. Gagne third step is stimulating recall of previous learning that asking for recall of existing relevant knowledge. Madam Wong also guided them to energize and recall again the food they have ever ingested and think about the food preservation methods that are used to preserve the food giving them some hints and instructions.

Constructivism Theory says that folks develop their own understanding and knowledge of the planet, through experiencing things and reflecting on those activities. When we face something new, we have to reconcile it with this prior ideas and experience, maybe changing what we should believe, or maybe discarding the new information as irrelevant. This instructor is a constructivist professor who inquires about students' understandings of concepts before showing her own understanding ideas. Instructor A asked the related questions about the topic to the students to start to see the understanding level of the students before she added in some new information. Teacher A encouraged her students to believe and advised their point of views based on their own experiences and she'd correct their misunderstanding if there is any after that so the students could find out more effectively. She actually is also a constructivist professor who allows wait time after posing questions. After been through all the food preservation methods with the students, Teacher A gave her students a while to let them to do the brain storming and take into account the questions which were given to them. Teacher A gave time for the students to do exercises in the exercise reserve. From then on, she discussed the questions with the students. Constructivist instructors cause questions and problems, and then guide students to help them find their own answers. They encourage group work and the utilization of peers as resources (collaborative learning). Constructivism Theory induces group work and the utilization of peers as resources (collaborative learning). Professor A arranged the students to sit down in their groupings during every Technology lesson to cause them to become discuss among themselves if received any problems to resolve.

Overall, we can easily see that Madam Wong had consumed several steps in Gagne's Learning Theory, Bruner's Constructivist Theory and Constructivism Theory through her coaching. However, her lesson was insufficient fun that she didn't maintain any activities to let her students to involve themselves in making use of the knowledge they have discovered.

Analysis for Teacher B

School : SJK Sungai Tapang, Kuching

Teacher A: Mr. Kong Jian Chai

Class : 3Z

Topic : Magnet This column not needed.

Date : 23 March 2010 (Wednesday)

No.

Observation

Learning Theory

Explanation

1

After greeting, tutor B asked the students to start the exercise literature about today's subject, which is the thing that may be enticed by magnet and the thing that cannot be enticed by magnet and explain briefly.

Gagne step 2- Informing the learner of the objective

Step 2 is revealing learner what they'll be in a position to do for the education. Teacher B offered some justification about this issue then he informed the students that what they will do in the current lesson.

2

Teacher B divides all the students into few categories according with their seats in the class.

Constructivism learning theory

Students work mostly in teams. They worked along in groups according to their couch in the course to do tests.

3

He offered the magnets to all or any the teams and asked them to get the object that can be fascinated by magnet and the object that can't be drawn by the magnet.

Ausubel learning theory

New information is sorted out under higher-level principles already existing in the learner's brain. Students knew that all iron-made things can be attracted by magnet. However, educator B stated more good examples to let the students try to see if they can be attracted by magnet or not.

4

Teacher B courses them during doing the test. He also strolled around the classroom so that the students do the test successfully.

Constructivism learning theory

The teacher coaches, moderates, suggest, but permit the students to test, ask questions, try things that don't work. Professor B stated more samples to let the students make an effort to see if they can be attracted by magnet or not though he recognizes the effect already.

5

He exhibited to the students that only one 1 cent coin can be enticed by magnet and 10 cent magnet cannot be seduced by magnet to identify misconceptions of the students.

Constructivism learning theory

Students should use productive techniques (tests, real-world problem handling) to build more knowledge and then to reflect on and talk about what they are doing and how their understanding is changing. Students' misunderstanding of every coin can be seduced by using magnet are corrected plus they have new understanding.

6

Teacher B asked the students to categorise the things and draw the object under both categories.

Bruner constructivist theory

People disagree when their ideas aren't in alignment with one another. When learning is a finding format, there may very well be times when there is certainly disagreement, different people will dsicover the same situation in a different way, however, it is then up to the professor to steer students to the desired outcome. Inside the video, instructor B will ask the university student what they are attracting throughout their categorisation and correct their errors.

7

He also responded some questions from the students if the students ask him questions.

Constructivism learning theory

Students have ideas that they may later see were invalid, inappropriate, or insufficient to make clear new encounters. These ideas are short-term steps in the integration of knowledge. Constructivist coaching considers students' current conceptions and builds following that. Teacher B will answer some questions from the students and the students can learn new knowledge from the questioning.

8

He praised the college student if that university student does correctly.

Behaviorism learning theory

Teacher will smile and enhance the students on good performance. Inside the video, tutor B will compliment the student if he or she does correctly.

9

Teacher B asked the students to do the clipping and paste in their exercise catalogs. He gave clear instruction so that the students would not do wrongly.

Gagne Steps 9 - Enhancing retention and transfer

Teacher will provide diverse practice to generalize the capability. In the video tutorial, teacher B let the students to do the exercises by chopping and pasting the picture into the exercise book. Exercising enable students to have better understanding.

10

Teacher B courses them during performing the exercises. He also strolled around the class room to be sure all the students are doing their homework.

Constructivism learning theory

Teachers have a dialogue with students, supporting students develop their own knowledge. Professor B helped the students if indeed they have any problems in doing their exercises.

Conclusion for Professor B:

After greeting, tutor B asked the students to open up the exercise catalogs about today's subject, which is the thing that may be drawn by magnet and the thing that can't be drawn by magnet and explain briefly. The theory used is Gagne step 2 2, which is informing the learner of the target. Then, educator B divides all the students into few groups according with their seats in the category. He used Constructivism theory so that every student can consistently reflect on their encounters, students find their ideas getting in complexity and power, plus they develop progressively strong talents to integrate new information. From then on, he provided the magnets to all the groups and asked them to get the object that may be seduced by magnet and the thing that cannot be captivated by the magnet. Ausubel learning theory is employed by teacher B because new information is structured under more impressive range concepts already existing in the learner's mind. Teacher B guides them during doing the test. He also walked around the classroom so that all the students do the experiment successfully.

Teacher B uses Constructivism learning theory and he coaches, moderates, suggest, but allow the students to test, ask questions, try things that don't work. Next, he demonstrated to the students that only 1 1 cent gold coin can be drawn by magnet and 10 cent magnet can't be seduced by magnet to recognize myths of the students. Once again, Constructivism learning theory is used. Instructor B asked the students to categorise the things and draw the thing under the two categories. Bruner constructivist theory is employed when learning is at a breakthrough format, there may very well be times when there may be disagreement, differing people will dsicover the same situation differently, however, it is then up to the instructor to guide students to the required outcome. He also clarified some questions from the students if the students ask him questions. Constructivism learning theory is utilized again because constructivist coaching takes into account students' current conceptions and builds following that. He also praised the pupil if that scholar does accurately.

Behaviorism learning theory is employed because educator will smile and enhance the students on good performance. Teacher B asked the students to do the cutting and paste in their exercise books. He offered clear instruction so that the students wouldn't normally do wrongly. Gagne Steps 9 - Enhancing retention and transfer is employed so that students can have better understanding. Finally, Educator B books them during performing the exercises. He also strolled around the class room to make certain all the students are doing their research. Constructivism learning theory can be used and tutor B has dialogues with students, helping students develop their own knowledge.

Suggestions

Suggestions for coursework:

We need to understand the idea of all the training theory so that we can apply the data to do the job more effectively and not confuse when doing the project.

When interpret the data, we need to refer to all the learning theory before we decide which learning theory the professor is using.

Suggestion for Teacher A:

Even though the teacher acquired used Bruner's Learning Theory in teaching this topic, she didn't apply the learning theory more effectively. Science teaching should be hands-on activities, which requires critical thinking by students for minds-on. She should perform more hands-on activities for students. For example, the teacher can take an experiment for the students to maintain any sort of food themselves in order that they will know the precise ways to preserve the meals and understand more on this issue. From the online video, the teacher acquired provided a food test which was preserved using the pickling method and allow students to flavour it but she didn't give chances to the students to try preserving any food themselves.

Besides that, the instructor should apply Bruner's Learning Theory- Students Asking Questions more in her coaching. It is because natural curiosity is built around asking questions. From the video clip, we can easily see that the educator only apply Bruner's Constructivist Theory- Teachers Asking Questions and the students only answering the questions she asked without requesting any questions themselves concerning the matter. She should encourage her students to develop questions they want to know about something they may be investigating.

The teacher's coaching was somewhat messy and unorganized. She should apply all the Nine Situations of Education in Gagne's theory in her teaching so that the students will not confuse and can learn more effectively during her lesson.

We found that the tutor is too with regards to the textbook. It's more likely a traditional lecture which will cause her students to feel bore and lost their interest on this subject. It would be fine and better if the tutor uses different ways to transfer knowledge such as using the ICT provided or organised some activities to let all the students involved with it.

Although the instructor got allow students to stay in communities, we can rarely observe that she let the students to do group dialogue during the lessons. She can in fact conduct an organization debate among students and gave some time for them to discuss and solve the condition among themselves. These benefits the students especially can help those students who are poor in their academics. Through group discourse, they can help and learn more from one another.

Suggestions for Educator B:

Teacher B should encourage recall of prior learning by requesting the students for recall of existing relevant knowledge. This step in Gagne learning theory is vital so that his students can recall the existing relevant knowledge to do the experiment and activate their thinking.

Teacher B should offer an immediate responses on the actions done. After test, teacher should discuss the answer with the pupil immediately. That is for their reinforcement and their errors are corrected in those days.

There should be considered a computer and LCD in each category so it is way better for teacher to work with the ICT provided to instruct. Through ICT, the learning process will become more interesting and permits students to comprehend about the topic easily.

Teacher B shall apply Needham Phase IV (Request: Concepts that are learned are then to be applied to everyday living) by relating the data that educated into daily lives.

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