Acquisition of Manipulative Skills in Chemistry

Practical or hands-on activity is an essential tool of assessment in an active science coaching and learning process. Technology sensible is a hands-on activity where the students receive the possibility to practice what they have discovered in the ideas of science. It really is a musical instrument for the students to obtain Knowledge Process Skills (SPS) and Manipulative Skills (MS). Through sensible activities a student's Technology Process Skills, Manipulative Skills as well as critical thinking and learning are developed. Also, technology practical is students centered and dynamic learning process, which prepares students to learn how to think, analyse, solve problems and produce appropriate answers to it. This knowledge practical is said to be a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Model.

To identify and evaluate the level of the acquisition of SPS and MS, an analysis should be conducted on students. Assessments are important means of gaining energetic picture of students academic development. As a musical instrument of assessment, PEKA Chemistry was introduced in Malaysian university curricular.

PEKA Chemistry is school-based sensible assessment which was introduced in the entire year of 1999 to replace SPM Chemistry Practical Paper. This instrument is designed with a few constructs and criteria to determine student's SPS and MS at the upper secondary level.

The assessment is performed continuously for two years, starting with the proper execution Four students which is continued before said students complete their Form Five. Students are evaluated formatively by their chemistry subject teacher within the procedure of coaching and learning.


From other way to obtain research, a few problems were discovered in the execution of PEKA. From the study by Siti Aloyah Alias (2002) 'Analysis Of The Execution ON THE PEKA Biology Program' it is shown that even though the students appreciated the assessment, many students are not sure of the skills they may be suppose to master. With this, it is proven that the studied students have never perfected the SPS and MS skills as mentioned in the objective of PEKA. This review also implies that teachers are uncertain of using and building their own credit scoring rubrics. They find it hard to indicate the students research as they do not have a proper standard marking guide.

The review on Student Capability in PEKA Biology Among Form Four Knowledge Stream Students by Nor Aziah Darus demonstrates time constraint in doing experiments was one of the main problem identified. This means the quantity of experiments recommended by the ministry has got no proper time allocation. The quantity of workload for professors is too taxing. Educators are under stress where these are suppose to finish the topic syllabus and the all the PEKA in a restricted time of period. This in one way or other leads to lack of interest in teaching and learning of PEKA. Perlaksanaan Peka Kimia Di Sekolah Menengah di Sekitar Daerah Batu Pahat, Johor by Lee Soh Hoon (2007) confirmed that the regularity of the PEKA execution is not sufficient.

Faiza (2002) feels that the teachers are experiencing problem in marking the sensible article because the rating scheme given by the ministry is too rubric. Additional to the, teachers using university are facing issue of insufficient lab equipment which contributes to limitation of test to determine. She also quoted that student's excellent performance in PEKA (Biology) does not promise an excellent cause Biology theoretical examinations.

According to the research done by Yeow (2002), teacher's attitude and perception of PEKA is beginning to detoriate. Most instructors (73. 2%) find PEKA as a burden to them. 65. 9% of educators feel the intro of PEKA is not any better set alongside the practical examination carried out previously before PEKA. He also condition, that students show bad attitude towards PEKA.


Lately, we can see that the demand towards science competence is increasing, either in Malaysia or about the world. Because of this, our authorities has used necessary steps to create young technology expertise to fulfill the demand. Thus, the Ministry of Education (MOE) has unveiled the 'College Based Practical Analysis' to ensure that the school students are trained on technology process skills from young. The purpose of this assessment is to judge the acquisition of research process skills of university students. PEKA is executed at institution level for Form Four technology students and sustained until the said students complete Form Five.

However, the effectiveness of execution of PEKA at college level has been questioned. Because of some factors and problems encountered while utilizing PEKA, college students still missing on the acquisition of technology process skills. The educators cum PEKA moderators find execution of PEKA as too taxing and unmanageable. As a remedy to the problem, I have decided to present Hands-on Practical Examination method instead of PEKA. It really is presumed that the Practical Assessment would provide a better acquisition of research process skills to students.


PEKA is Penilaian Kemahiran Amali, the examination of research process skills. The themes that involve PEKA are Research, Physics, Chemistry and Biology. It is implemented (designed, administered scored, reported and certified) in Malaysian schools as part of the teaching and learning process to develop the mastery of technology process skills among students. It is executed in Malaysian schools to enhance the potency of coaching and learning of research in institutions. However, educators are facing problems and drastic increase of workload in managing and documenting the PEKA results.

The execution of PEKA Chemistry is becoming more of a burden to the assessor as well as students. In regards to of this, students and teachers find a fairly easy way out to solve the condition by replicating the answers of the statement. So much so, the potency of PEKA Chemistry has been questioned. Educators and students believe that the PEKA Chemistry is merely extra workload which is ineffective in determining the teaching and learning technology.

The above said problem has business lead to ambiguity on the validity and reliability of the examination. Teachers, who are supposedly to be noble, are pressured to break their integrity and offer students with credit scoring rubrics to be copied. The educators feel, that the easiest way out, enabling ease of marking. It will save a lot of time and allows the instructors to carry out teaching and learning process easily. Students welcome this gladly, as copying is done easily without the need to think, and so eliminating mistakes for them to correct it the second time. Come to think about it, teachers who are to teach students with knowledge and noble values can't be entrusted any more. Who then, is to be blamed?

This research is performed to find an improved and effective procedure of school-based analysis. Hands-On Practical Analysis is performed at college level where students are examined as a genuine exam during college time. Hands-On Practical Analysis is done by watching the students carrying out an experiment. The teachers monitor students and evaluate them in line with the criteria and manipulative skills list of guidelines directed at them. In a way, it saves the task of teachers to mark studies. Students aren't pre-informed about the functional that they would be examined on. It differs from PEKA Chemistry, as with PEKA Chemistry one of the requirement is to see students previously about the useful that might be examined on. An analysis is more valid and reliable if the students aren't pre-informed exactly on what is to be analyzed on. Using this method, students will need the initiative to revise and make themselves completely for the entire topic alternatively than to focus only using one particular experiment. This will also curb the problem of cheating and copying among students.



Hands-On Practical Analysis is an tool to assess the SPS and MS of students after acquiring the chemistry knowledge. This examination is performed by the Chemistry teachers at school level. The Chemistry tutor shows the theoretical understanding of a topic to students. As a part and parcel of the teaching and learning process, applications of tests on that issue are completed. A specific date is defined for the useful evaluation and students are informed about any of it and the topic they would be analyzed on. Within the diagnosis day, students are quarantined and evaluated batch by batch. The exact title and goal of experiment is held private until all the students are assessed. This is to be sure that the students prepare themselves extensively for the entire useful activity. Small students' group composed of two persons are made.

Students are positioned in a laboratory, where they'll be outfitted with the title of experiment, apparatus and materials. Following this, students will carry out the test without information from the teacher or literature. Students are given the time shape of 50 minutes to execute the experiment and acquire the results. Within this time shape, students are also necessary to tidy up their place and apparatus. The next 30 minutes is directed at the students to complete a written report individually. The article should contain aim, hypothesis, variables, apparatus and materials, procedures, data tabulation (observation) and final result.


This research has two targets

To explore Hands-On Practical Examination method as an alternative method for PEKA Chemistry.

To measure the implementation of Hands-On Practical Analysis.

a) Authenticity of Hands-On Practical assessment

b) Feasibility and efficiency of Hands-On Practical Assessment

c) Efficiency of hands -on useful assessment

As the researcher, I feel that this Hands-On Practical Analysis will certainly reduce the workload of instructors and students. It will motivate students for more information effectively and know their and MS extensively.


How genuine is the implementation of Hands-On Practical Assessment in classes?

How feasible is the implementation of Hands-On Practical Diagnosis in classes?

How effective is the execution of Hands-On Practical Analysis in schools?


A quantitative research method can be used in this review. On this quantitative research sizing, the test model based on a pre-test and post test with research-control categories was implemented.

The research is conducted among students in Form Four at one extra school in Selangor. The examples are random samples of two knowledge category students with same level. Each school has 30 students with merged potential (A-30 and B-30). Students are assessed on the topic of Electrochemistry. A pre-test with 30 multiple choice questions on SPS and MS (TISPS II) is distributed by the researcher to the students early on of the entire year. The test was presented with to the study group and the control group. Altogether 60 students participated in the research. The A-30 students (research group) are evaluated through Hands-On Practical Assessment as the B-30 students (control group) are assessed through PEKA Chemistry. The two groups will carry out the experiment based on the same title. To avoid leakage of question to the study group, the A-30 students are evaluated first then accompanied by the B-30 students. Each group is analyzed on 4 tests in the topic of electrochemistry.

At the finish of the study, the post test questions were given to the students again. An interview is also conducted on the researched group to interpret the perception of students on Hands-On Practical Assessment.

The instrument used in this research is TISPS II (Test Integrated research Process Skills II) questions which is consist of 30 multiple choice question on SPS and MS. The instrument is edited in line with the reliability and validity predicated on the test students. Corresponding to Gagne, any students who scores 70% to 100% has experienced and learned the SPS and MS.


In the study, success test is completed.

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