Case review remedial writing programme

The reason for this study program is to determine if students from the elementary degree of Hin Hua High School (Chinese Independent Institution) upgraded in their ability to write in British after having analyzed specifically developed curriculum. The 7-hour remedial program is to be conducted after the academic department releases the final evaluation grades. Fifteen students with the cheapest score were determined using the criterion solution to go through the remedial program. the importance of all six major

aspects of writing assessed in the British Test which comprises mainly punctuation, grammar and utilization, sentence structure, strategy, group, and style. It is believed by attending the remedial program selected students would be able to show the ability to make and articulate judgments by firmly taking position on an issue or problem. Besides sustaining a position by concentrating on the topic throughout the writing. They may be alson likely to create a position by presenting support or proof using specific details and make inferences predicated on support or evidence. Most importantly, they should be able to coordinate and present ideas in a rational way by logically grouping and sequencing ideas. Hence communicate clearly by using terms effectively and by watching the conventions of standard written English


As a language tutor, I often choose writing jobs from language books to help students improve their writing potential. Behaviorists, communicative, cognitive, and discourse theories could effect writing methods in language textbooks. Each theoretical framework has provided us with an improved knowledge of the multiple dimensions and purposes of educating writing. A review of the innovations in writing pedagogy leads us to summarize that we could teach writing as a means to boost linguistic, rhetorical and communicative competence or as a discovery and cognitive process. The writing projects that we select from language textbooks and assign to students could mirror one or many of these pedagogical purposes. As instructors, we need to question and understand the pedagogical assumptions of textbook writing jobs so that we can select jobs that will assist our students become self-assured writers and unbiased thinkers.

Primary students coming into the secondary university level (high School) are challenged not and then learn new content in the disciplines but also to connect this. A significant range of students will not have adequate educational literacy levels to be able to do this effectively (Jones and Bonanno, 1995 (1). Atlhough traditionally students were expected to develop academic literacy skills with no explicit teaching of these skills, universities now recognize the increasingly diverse backgrounds of their student populations and also have put in place mechanisms for helping students develop their educational literacy. These have included the establishment of literacy and learning models as well as the requirement for college curricula to handle the teaching of writing skills including communication skills.

English Learning Centre of Hin Hua High School Klang, like other literacy and learning items, has been involved in a number of collaborative jobs with teachers involved in teaching Junior Someone to integrate the coaching of communication skills in to the curriculum (Webb et al, 1995, Taylor and Drury, 1996). These initiatives have resulted in the development of new teaching materials and techniques as well as new practices of assessment and feedback. However, as subject area curricula are being designed to computer-based kinds of learning, it is also necessary to consider how the teaching of communication skills can be integrated into these programs or the way the teaching of communication skills can be contextualized within the learning of subject area knowledge. With the current demand for propheciuency in British Language great importance has been given to expanding programs to instill good writing settings to the primary learners which seeks to help students achieve success editors of their own writing.


Writing skills have been determined concerning improve students' thinking. Moffett and a few others are suffering from cognitively sequenced curricula for primary and secondary writing, college structure, when it is sequenced by any means, tends to count on structural or rhetorical arrangements, which can be neither sequential nor cumulative. Progressions from word to sentence to paragraph to theme mistake quantitative with qualitative expansion, while rhetorical sequences confront students with cognitive problems of different but similar complexity. In short, from a cognitive point of view, most writing teaching in higher education is consistent start in supplementary education: what Stephen Judy referred to as "Advanced Hodgepodge" in senior high school offers way to "Arrogant Hodgepodge" in college.

A large and growing body of research, however, implies that cognitive development follows a hierarchical series of periods and suggests that a curriculum can be sequentially structured to promote cognitive development.

Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Targets provides some essential contacts between your cognitive capabilities we expect of college students and a curriculum that can stimulate those talents Bloom's Taxonomy is one way to the cognitive hodgepodge of the writing curriculum. It allows us to sequence education and assignments with techniques that speak directly to students' developmental needs.

From least to many complex, For writing training the taxonomy offers a flexible model of what happens cognitively in the learning process Bloom defined a six level sequence: Knowledge, Understanding, Application, Research, Synthesis, and Analysis. (See Number 1)

Figure 1. 0 The circulation graph of Bloom's Taxonomy

At each new level, thought operations build on and encompass prior levels. Implicit in this composition is the assumption of the ascending size of difficulty and comprehensiveness. Thinking at the comprehension level is more demanding than at the knowledge level; cognitive problems necessitating synthesis or evaluation encompass all the preceding levels.

A review of Bloom's definitions for each and every taxonomic level suggests what such a cognitively-based writing course might entail. But the focus of every level is cognitive, rhetorical issues of audience and goal are equally appropriate and can be specified for any task.

Most of most, the taxonomy allows us to contemplate the worthiness and feasibility of your cognition-based curriculum on paper. Such a curriculum would mirror the hierarchical relationships of the many thought procedures and would help to control for cognitive complexness on paper and considering distorting natural discourse. With this form, writing or writing-intensive training would systematically develop students' thinking skills alternatively than leaving them to chance or, worse, blunting the writer's still-developing ability to explore and share ideas. In short, a cognition-based curriculum ensures that students participate fully in using writing as a method of learning.


The remedial programme is targeted for the primary learners who are along the way of changing their writing skills to the pre -intermediate level. A total of 15 students are picked from this group of 13 years of age based on the final semester examination results. The assessment basically structured in accordance to the textbook currently used in the institution curriculum, New Opportunities (Pearson Longman-Cambridge). Simply the (Stiggins to highlight achievement variations between and among students to produce a, 1994). School systems might want to classify students in this manner so that they can be enhance their competency level even more. The major reason behind utilizing a norm-referenced test (NRT) is to classify students. NRTs are designed on dependable ranking order of students across a continuum of success from high achievers to low achievers be properly positioned in remedial or gifted programs. These types of assessments are also used to help teachers choose students for different capacity level reading or mathematics instructional groupings. As the selected students fall under the below average group in Newspaper 1(Writing Assessment) whereby there are two parts that the were required to complete here: SECTION A Notes Enlargement and SECTION B Constant Writing (Choose one matter out of five given) In the academic research it was discovered that bulk students failed in Section B where it contains 25% of the full total grades of 40% of the Writing newspaper. Thus they are required to show up at a 7 hour remedial program to boost their writing skills by at least 85%.




































































The known reasons for the remedial program to be initiated is to raised the learners in their writing skills and enhance it in order that they have all functions to be marketed to the next level but scheduled to certain minute factors they fail to abide by the requirements of the pre-intermediate level. Thus these students are carefully selected using the criterion solution to experience the 7 hour remedial program.

In order to drill and stimulate these students in the remedial program an enriching lessons plan is created to create a positive outcome by the end of the the 7 hour remedial program. The purposes for emphasizing writing skills are to create who can understand coaching and learning in an optimistic mental attributes. There is a huge body of research suggesting that assessing students' written performance is a valuable undertaking. Not only is an instructor able to help a student's improvement, but also the instructor can facilitate the training process and the learning outcomes by being aware of university student performance throughout the academic session.

Purpose for coaching writing

Writing for Words Practice

Writing for Rhetorical Practice

Writing for communication

Writing as a Breakthrough and a Cognitive process

Figure 2. 0: THE REASON for Coaching Writing

Undeniably, 3R skills are important and necessary in everyday living. They are also needed to support the development of a knowledge-based overall economy.

Recognizing these needs, the institution has initiated and integrated programmes to identify students who've not perfected the 3Rs. These programs are made to specifically solve and overcome the inability of students to understand the 3Rs. That is based on the essentialism which instills students with academics knowledge and figure development.

Among the programmes which may have been integrated in schools will be the Early Intervention Reading and Writing Course, Basic Skills for Reading, Writing and Keeping track of Programme and the Literacy and Numeracy Programme at Level One.

3. 1 Sub-skills of Writing

Besides drilling and enriching the remedial learners with the central writing skills, there are also exposed to the value of sub-skills in their learning such as

I Manipulating the script of the dialect: handwriting, spelling and punctuation.

II Expressing grammatical [syntactic and morphological] relationships at the word level

III Expressing information or knowledge on paper



IV Enrichment of Vocabulary


4. 0 Aims of the 7-hour remedial programme

The primary goal in launching and implementing the remedial program specifically in the facet of writing skills is to mainly

to develop competencies on paper skills among learners

to move from a teacher-centered didactic model to a student-centered constructivist model

to acquire the ability to create in a far more clear, concise and satisfactory manner

5. 0 Instructional Design : Utilizing the ADDIE Model to develop Writing Competency Among Remedial Learners

Table 2. 0 ADDIE's Model

5. 1 Framework

The universal term for the five-phase instructional design model comprising Analysis, Design, Development, Execution, and Evaluation. Each step comes with an result that feeds into the next step in the series. There are most likely over 100+ different variations of the generic ADDIE model. Instructional design shoot for a learner -focused rather than a traditional teacher-centered method of training, so that effective learning may take place. This means that every element of the teaching is governed by the learning outcomes, which were determined after a thorough analysis of the learners' needs.

This phases sometimes overlap and can be interrelated; however they provide a strong, flexible guide for expanding effective and reliable instruction.

Figure 3. 0 Instructional Design: While using the ADDIE Model

5. 2 ADDIE'S Theory

The ADDIE instruction model for this desin is discussed by Smith and Ragan(1995) in their publication entitiled Instructional design. The target is n 5 points Research, Design, Development, Execution and Evaluation. Out of this theory the examination has proved that there is a need to conduct remedial programme for the elementary low scorers where an opportunty was presented with to learn and develop basic essay writing skills.

6. 0 Remedial Education Programme

In Malaysia, the value of remedial education gained attention in the 1960s. Results of an pilot job in nine institutions between 1967 and 1970 demonstrated a need for remedial education, specifically for pupils in rural areas. This paved just how for remedial education programs in primary colleges. The pioneers in the field went to a two-year intense course on remedial education in britain. Subsequently, a countrywide series of seminars and workshops on remedial coaching were organized. With the exception of small schools or under-enrolled colleges, every school is allocated one remedial education instructor. At the institution level, a Remedial Education Committee is shaped, composed of the headmaster, remedial education tutor, class teacher, subject teacher, resource centre planner, and other professors as customers.

The release of a new curriculum for major universities in 1983 implied a go back to the basics in education. The best goal was to ensure that no pupil is illiterate by the

year 2000. The execution of the remedial education programme for children in

Primary 1-3 is to ensure that they get better at the 3Rs. Children who have been recommended for remedial education must enroll in remedial classes. By 1999, 54, 000 major college children have undergone the involvement programme.

In addition to increasing and enhancing professor development, the Malaysian administration also works towards enhancing the curriculum at institution to meet the changing needs of the overall economy. Through the Fourth Malaysia Plan, the primary institution curriculum was revised with the purpose of providing and creating a company education in reading, writing, and arithmetic. This led to the introduction of a fresh curriculum emphasizing the 3Rs. Studies taking a look at the profits to education in Malaysia have found positive results in those who have had some type of formal education, in doing so providing support to the government guidelines on the principal curriculum which stresses the acquisition of basic skills. Education in Malaysia, changing very rapidly responding to the emerging emphasis of lifelong learning; the growing emphasis on learning; as opposed to reaching and the introduction of the new delivery systems

6. 1 The Educational, Philosophical and Psychological foundation

Elementary education shall try to develop the religious, moral, mental and physical features of the kid, provide him with encounters in the democratic way of life, and inculcate ideas and attitude necessary for enlightened, patriotic, upright and useful citizenship. To accomplish these objectives, primary education curriculum shall give the

inculcation of spiritual and civic beliefs and the introduction of a good resident based on an abiding faith in God and genuine love of country;

training of the young resident in his protection under the law, duties and obligations in a democratic world for active participation, in a progressive and productive home and community life;

development of basic understanding about Malaysian culture, the advisable custom and virtues of our people as essential requisites in attaining national awareness and solidarity;

teaching of basic health knowledge and the formation of desirable health patterns and practices;

development of useful literacy in British as basic tools for even more learning; and

acquisition of important knowledge, attitudes, patterns, and skills in technology, civics, culture, background, geography, mathematics, arts, and home economics and livelihood education and their wise request in appropriate life situations.

The Elementary Basic Education Curriculum focuses on the tool learning areas for an enough development of competencies for learning how to learn.

The goal of Instructional design is to support the cognitive techniques that lead to learning (McGriff). The expected end result of instructional design is to provide knowledge and skills to the people. The three major learning theories are Constructivism, Behaviorism, and Cognitive. Instructional Design is dependant on constructivist guidelines. Instructional design is associated with instructional systems development (Leshin et al, 1992). An Instructional System is the "arrangement of resources and strategies to market learning" (Berger and Kam).

6. 2 Program Design: ADDIE Model

ADDIE is a general-purpose model, which may be used to set-up instructional products and program design. ADDIE is the acronym for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluate and summarizes the five steps in the Instructional Design process. The instructional creator makes decisions critical to making sure the effectiveness of the educational experience in each period of the process. In accordance with the process improvement model, the five stages are a "loop, " with the improvement of learning outcomes as the goal.

Dick and Carey and Kemp (Kemp, et. al, 1998) widened the ADDIE Model into nine elements. The Dick and Carey Model runs on the Reductionist approach in breaking teaching into smaller segments focusing on sub skills. The learner is required to learn of sub skills, which are aggregated to accomplish overall skill mastery and discovered behavior. It provides a systematic method of curriculum and program design.

Teaching is essentially a philosophical endeavor and therefore educational activity can be conceived within the framework of a viewpoint or worldview. The curricukum refelects the art work and build of coaching. Educational technology provides diversity of pondering regarding curriculum and instructions which would be curriculum theorizing.

6. 2. 1 Analysis

Basically the nature of the students whom the remedial program to be conducted are students who learn English Language as a second language. These are originally from Chinese language speaking families with a minimum exposure to English Language. Because of the expectation of the institution and the educational needs in adhering English among the core subject matter in institution these students are required to have comprehensive knowledge and skill in it. Most of them have been educated in the Chinese language primary college education system.

Based on the final semester assessment results 15 students are determined to endure remedial programme as they land in the border line circumstances. The students acquire poor writing skills, while being able to construct sentences quite well, they seem to be to have great difficulty in arranging and producing their ideas in to the form of an essay that has an introduction, body and realization.

In order to promote these students to another level this is the pre-intermediate phase using their origin elementary level the English Language Team found it essential to allow them to attend a 7-hour remedial program and discover solution to this situation. All of them need to help expand develop their writing skills in term of cohesion and coherence; time and practice.

6. 2. 2 Design

The main design goal for our program would be on the cognitive strategies to be able to develop an idea for writing since all of them com e from a very similar background and have basic word writing skills. Aside from the development of terminology in the technicians of sentence construction such as syntax, grammar, composition, etc given concern.

R. Gagne(1965) divided learning into 5 categories: Verbal or declarative knowledge, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, behaviour and psychomotor skills. The training goals are also in link with these categories to try to put educational value behind our goals. At exactly the same time the target also displays competences outlines by Benjamin Bloom (Bloom, 1956). These include: Knowledge, Conprehension, Program, Analysis, Synthesis an Evaluation. These give our goals validity whereby competencies are included in causing concrete process for learners that people assign in order to achieve their goals. Hence in the analysis phase, we can use this aspect to discover the validity and the achievement of the learners in employing the program.

Learning Goals and Kind of Learning





Learners will identify an essay matter and 3 sub-topics

Criteria founded by Hin Hua High School, English Vocabulary Department

Cognitive strategies


Learners will be able to write a 3 paragraph essay with an introduction, 2 sub issues to add their opinions, ideas and conclusion

Criteria proven by Hin Hua SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, English Dialect Department



Intellectual Skills




Learners will be able to use the library and Handouts to analyze printed information on the topics

Criteria established by Hin Hua SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, English Terminology Department

Procedural knowledge (declaration knowledge)


Learners will be able to use proper mechanics of grammar syntax

Criteria proven by Hin Hua High School, English Language Department

Intellectual Skills


Learners can present their issues in class

Criteria proven by Hin Hua High School, English Vocabulary Department

Declaration knowledge


Table 3. 0 Learning Goals and Kind of Learning

6. 2. 3 Development

In order to establish a approachable remedial programme for the elementary learners, we English teachers have developed a remedial program which will undertake a 7 hour learning process. The instructors from the same level have brainstormed and think of a course content for the 7-hour teaching and learning program.

The educators from the same coaching level will be the best person to create the lessons as they offer with the same competency level of students constantly and are considered experts in their area. Besides this, they'll be able to make he printed out and computer materials and added step to getting the right content for the level. In addition since they have been completely educating in the same range so they will be undoubtedly familiar along the way of teaching and guiding the learners to make the remedial program a success.

6. 2. 3. (1) Procedure

The remedial programme would maintain the British medium since the key objective is to boost writing skills among primary learners.

The programme consists of 6 regular lessons and accompanied by a review and a test day. Each hour is planned to be conducted for 60 minutes

***Details overall programme given on Part D

6. 2. 4 Implementation

Further to the development to the development the instructors would be outfitted with intact course content for he program. The component would prepare yourself in balance with enough time structure allotted for the programme. Any teacher who's selected for this task should prepare yourself to attempt the teaching process predicated on the scheme that is prepared.

Al l 15 students will be instructed to attend the program for 7 hours. These are the many aspect of implementation emphasized in the learning process


Discovery and led breakthrough- instructional techniques

Observation-modeling illustrations by teachers

Guided participation - assistance of teachers and learners in a task

Strategy instruction

Direct Explanation

Self Training Training

Dyadic Instruction

Table 4. 0 Learning Process Implementation

6. 2. 5 Evaluation

The evaluation period includes two parts: formative and summative. Formative analysis exists in each level of the ADDIE process. Summative evaluation consists of lab tests designed for area specific criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for opinions from the users.

Primarily the evaluation is done in two parts. The first period would be the evaluation of pupil work based on the objectives in the "Learning goals and type of learning" listed above. Students will be rated by their teacher based on the A, B, C, F criteria established by the English Office. An A is great work, B is average, and C means learner needs improvement. An F means that scholar failed the writing assessment with below 60% of make. Students will be examined at each stage of the course. The section will use this evaluation to be able to learn how they might need to modify the programme in the future.

A summative evaluation will be conducted as outlined by Smith and Ragan(1999, p. 352). Those creators explain that in order to evaluate the effectiveness, appeal, and efficiency of education, a collection, analysis and brief summary of data on students ia essential.

In our designed program an exam was created to access students of their mastery on the abilities taught through the program. Students are to show their features in their understanding and knowledge trained to them by completing the group of homework geared to them. Students will be graded on from 1 to 5 for his or her abilities in each of the following parts

Student name

Student able to choose a topic n sub-topics

Student able to use handouts information

Student able to complete the essay

Score dated from 1 to 5

1 : poor

2 : In a position to understand the writing theory with some guidance

3 : In a position to complete the duty with help and support

4 : Able to understand the concept and complete the task individually

A pre-test and post-test can assess how well learners achieved the

learning goals. However, it usually takes additional time and work to measure

things such as if the learners use their training. This evaluation phase

can increase for a few months.

Upon conclusion of the program the students' opinions will be collected to further gauge the success of the programme. Questions are also clarified on a scale of 1 1 to 5. 1 is low and 5 is high. The standard questions constructed are as below

Were you content with the content of this course?

Were you in a position to understand the teacher's justification?

Were you able to put into practice elements that you learnt?

Did you fond the course interesting?

On a scale of 1 1 to 5, what's your general sense about the course?



Below is the synopsis of the opinions received from two of the Older Instructors from the English Language Section of Hin Hua SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL about the 7hour remedial program on writing skills.

Reviewer 1: Mdm Annaletchumy Reviewer 2: Ms Sastina

The advantages and weaknesses of the recently developed Remedial Programme for Elementary Students


1. Learning by actively participating in group discussion

2. Stimulating students to create their own ideas and knowledge of the topic

3. Student-centered somewhat than educator or subject-centered

4. Coaching aid added to student's visualization on this issue given

5. Suitable to student's development level

6. Group work allows students to self - exhibit, to be self-confident and self-


7. Encourage instructor to build up student's creative thinking abilities

8. Emphasizing the idea of group work and peer analysis where no student

Is still left behind

9. Motivating the co-operation among students and tutor positively

10. Enables scholar to have a positive mentality in creative writing


1. Unsuitability of activities for crowded room

2. Insufficient materials used as aid for pre-writing task

3. Insufficient teacher's analysis on the first stage of writing

4. Certain task may take additional time than the organized time

5. Peer evaluation on writing inappropriate approach for primary learners

8. 0 Conclusion of Review

Summarized here are a few of the achievements and challenges I personally experienced in building the remedial programme

8. 1 Strengths

8. 1. 1 Improved students frame of mind and motivation

Students are emotionally prepared to participate in the program because students consent to a particular speed, workload, and learning environment right from the start.

8. 1. 2 Creating Learning Communities

Classes function as teach neighborhoods both instructor and their students advantage - in both interpersonal and academics areas - from working with each other over the entire programme.

8. 1. 3 Getting rid of Stigma of Dependency

The concept group work and peer analysis removed the stigma to be too reliant on the educator Writing materials.

8. 2 Weaknesses

8. 2. 1 Students participation

Some learners won't contribute in because of the insufficient interest or proficiency

8. 2. 2 Stipulated Time

The period allotted may not be sufficient for several activity. Thus this will

delay or sometimes interrupt the whole programme composition.

8. 2. 3 Sincerely in peer marking

Some learners will not adhere by the rules occur peer marking as it pertains to

assessment. Favoritisms and do it yourself -centered will impact the observation

9. 0 Conclusion

It is expected that by attending this model of English remedial instruction it'll be good for low British achievers. Students will gain substantially in grammar and vocabulary and they will also little by little improve in their overall English competence. Predicated on the comments from the reviewers it could be concluded that learners will be effectively enhance their English writing skills through the prepared course module for the remedial programme. A well-designed course will definitely give them encouragement and support to elevate their English effectiveness and be ready for the next level, pre=intermediate.

10. 0 PART D

7 HOUR Lessons PLAN REMEDIAL Program - British LANGUAGE


Aim: by the finish of my lessons, students will be able to write a full-length essay on Endangered Types and improve their way of writing strategies.

Subsidiary aim: students can improve their use of linking words in handled and less controlled writing activities on Endangered Species

Evidence: (How am i going to know I have achieved desire to?)

Students can complete gist and brief writing strategy jobs: Quizzes, Test

Students will be able to complete their group demonstration and write a full length article on Endangered Types.


Course Content made by Elementary instructors from the British Department of Hin Hua SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, Klang.

1. New Opportunities Students Publication (Module 7- Endangered Kinds)

2. Multi-media devices

3. Cultural awareness

Context: Endangered Species

Anticipated Problems

(e. g. Subject matter, the Words, Management, Activities, Learning, Styles)


1. Students have no knowledge of Endangered Species

Encourage them to check out the photos

2. Students are not able to make connection with the topic

Encourage these to work in groups

3. Students find writing within enough time body very demanding

Set and keep stringent time limits

4. Students may well not understand the right vocabulary utilization for the task

Pre-teach the vocabulary before students do the tasks

5. Students may well not produce much about Endangered Species

Get these to work in teams and share ideas.


1. Some students have knowledge of Endangered Species and have check out them

2. Students have knowledge of the extinction of pets.

3. Some students have had publicity through the multimedia and internet on the Endangered Varieties development.

4. Students have sufficient vocabulary to get started on the writing.

5. Students understand and use some linking words and series connectors taught.


Stage name





Ice- Breaker

Teacher sticks up various varieties of dog pictures on the whiteboard and asks students to produce a guesses on pets or animals of endangered types.

T talks about the pictures and T displays activity.

T gets reviews on activity and writes a few guesses on WB

To warm-up the class also to set up a game- like atmosphere

To explore throughout the course, to be unveiled to the topic of endangered kinds, gradually

To exchange views for his or her options with reasons given

T -S

T - S

S - S

T - S

S - S


Pre-writing (a)

After responses, T gives a presentation on several kinds of endangered pets and their character types and living habits using PPT

(Large Pandas, North China Tiger, African Elephant, Dolphin and Gorillas)

T prepares a clip of video "ICE Years" in order to guide the students to discuss on the reason why of people eliminating animals

To establish framework and use learner's schematic understanding of the animals on the whole to combine it with the lesson's topic

T - S

T - S


Pre-writing (b)

i. After opinions, T gives each group a set of pictures of pets or animals and asks them to identify the endangered varieties.

ii. After responses, T advises learners to check out it complete which time, to find out what makes these animals in peril and the reason why for it.

To promote group work to recognize the pictures, to work through context in categories and to stimulate bottom-up reading skills

To workout in context goal and audience, in groupings and activate top-down reading skills

S - S

T - S

S - S

T - S


Pre- Coaching Vocabulary

After reviews, T holds the attention of Ss to the anonymous term in the context;

T elicits their so this means in context, using little- dictionary from the New Opportunities Students Publication,

To pre-teach unknown vocabulary, to work out its so this means in framework, using the dictionary and also to practice stress, intonation and rhythm

T - S

T - S

S - S


Pre - Writing (c)

After reviews, T assigns two paragraphs for every group to focus on, and hands out a wh-comprehension task to complete for his or her paragraphs

Ss are to come to the w/b and put the strips of newspaper one under the other

To practice reading skills, such as scanning and reading for detail

To reorder the strips of newspaper on the w/b, to present it as a whole, and to use it as a springboard for the brainstorming session

S -S

T - S

S - S



T asks Ss to believe why some family pets are endangered and means of assisting the endangered animals

T prepares a clip of video "ICE Era" in order to steer the students to discuss on the reason why of people getting rid of animals

During the activity, T encircles, monitors and provides help where necessary.

To activate their schematic understanding of the endangered pets or animals, to incorporate their schemata to culturally targeted topics

All ideas should be brainstorm in their group for producing drafts

S - S

T - S

S - S


While - Writing (Abrasive Draft)

Peer evaluation

T informs them that they will have to create their own ideas down, in order they like on a piece of newspaper, -one group member will write the draft and the others gives help and assistance.

During the activity, T encircles monitors and provides assistance

Ss exchange papers with the other team and give reviews on each other's work

To write a rough draft, to choose ideas and also to set up a viewpoint

To promote collaboration amongst group members, to peer-evaluate, to offer support and guidance with written work

S - S

S - S


While - Writing (First Draft)

Peer evaluation

T advises S to rewrite the article as well as select which ideas should go to each paragraph, in their teams

T explains to them that one of them will write and the others can help out

After writing, T explains to Ss to swap papers and give those to the other group to comments

To arrange information, to structure the text (White and Arndt 1991)

To work collaboratively to achieve an aim

To promote co-operation to accomplish an objective, to peer evaluate, to respond to the first draft and to give responses on this content (Raimes cited in Gaith 2002)

T - S

T - S

S -S

T - S

S -S


While - Writing (Second Draft)


T advises S to rewrite the drafts, far better, now, they have got the reviews from other groups

After writing, T tells Ss to learn out what they've written

To increase the skill of writing (Charles 1990)

To edit, to proof-read content

S - S

T - S


Post - Writing (Finished Draft)

T advises Ss to start out their specific writing on the foolscap paper provided

T provides Ss assessment marks based mostly the writing produced

To present their bits of complete writing

S - S

T - S

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