Comparison between Piaget and Bruner

Bruner suggest that learning occurs through discovery. Ausubel says it can occur through important reception learning. If we take a look at Ausubel's perspective, discovery learning includes rote learning. Relating to Ausubel, rote learning refers memorization this means no real interconnection between what was already known and that which was memorized (Driscoll, 2005). However, his meaningful reception learning refers to the process of relating new information (meaningful information) and prior knowledge. So learner constructs his meanings cognitively. While in Bruner's finding learning process, learner rearrange given information, website link with existing knowledge and discover end product, in Ausubel's receptional learning, content of exactly what will be learned exists as a whole and learner must internalize the info with a proper form for later use(Driscoll, 2005). Alternatively, Bruner offers information about how precisely education should be sorted out. Ausubel also suggest subsumption which is similar with Piaget's Assimilation strategy. Subsumption means placing any knowledge into a more substantial, more comprehensive existing knowledge category. In subsumption theory, Ausubel shows that learning occurs when new information is associated with what have already known. For Bruner, every knowledge should be thought at every get older, but it's important that how the knowledge is presented. There's a sequence of presenting knowledge from enactive representation, iconic representation to symbolic representation. Both of these give importance readiness for learning. While Ausubel provides importance learners' developmental degree of cognitive structure in terms of existing knowledge, Bruner focuses on not only preceding knowledge for breakthrough but also setting of thinking or representations(enactive, iconic, symbolic). Also both of these stress learning through associated with existing knowledge and interpretation is anchored by linking to known concepts (ITD, 2004).

Instructional approaches

As Ausubel's instructional way can be thought as expository teaching, Bruner's method is discovery learning.

According to Ausubel the basic process for appropriate teaching strategies is regardless of who the learner is. Like Bruner, Ausubel remarks that instructional materials should be appropriate for the child. However, while Ausubel takes into account previous knowledge for appropriateness, Bruner gives importance child's dominant mode of thinking (enactive, iconic, symbolic) as the basis for appropriateness. According to Bruner, to choose which representation is suitable for learner when organizing instruction, knowing something about learner's prior knowledge is vital. (Driscoll, 2005). So, activating learner's prior knowledge is also important both of these to make interconnection new inbound information.

While Bruner emphasized inductive learning whish relates making general rule from specific cases to standard learning from experience (experiential learning), Ausubel focuses on deductive learning this means having a general rule and putting it on to specific. Ausubel suggests using analogies, questions or instances about lifestyle as move forward organizers at the start of lessons. His move forward organizer concepts identifies information that is presented before learning process for managing and interpreting new information by the learner. According to Ausubel's viewpoint, in addition to analogies, concept maps or Vee diagrams can be appropriate instructional tools to make learning meaningful by linking principles each other.

According to Bruner's point of instructions should be organized by giving opportunities to learner for obtaining. For instance, in classes role playing, group assignments or computer simulations can be help for finding (Schunk, 2008). For Bruner, series is important while presenting materials. Also for effective teaching, Bruner suggests that instruction should associated with learners' predisposition. In both of the ideas, teaching should encourage the kid for discovery learning.

Role of teacher

For both Ausubel and Bruner, educator is helpful information. Regarding to Bruner's theory teacher plays a crucial role in conditions of guiding students' learning For Bruner, feedbacks are essential for training and tutor should give feedbacks as a guide. The instructor should provide adequate materials and support to induce the college student into discovering the knowledge on his own. For Ausubel teacher's role is making information significant for learners. Professor can use different materials to make students learn on by own. As Ausubel's educator have a job of providing a brief introduction about the way that information is likely to be shown and help learners to make important cable connections to existing knowledge, Bruner's tutor leads learner to discovery and learning on by own. In both of the ideas teacher have a role as helpful information when learners constructs their meanings in cognitive schemas.

Social aspect

Ausubel says that two critical indicators affect readiness. First one is time of the learners and the second you are culture that child lives in. Students have previous knowledge in their culture as activities. For Ausubel as prior knowledge important for learning, culture also becomes important. He says that some students should be less successful than others as a result of culture they result from (Driscoll, 2005). Also for Ausubel, tutor and student connections is important as a cultural factor. Bruner emphasizes the value of cultural variations are essential in learning. Regarding to Bruner public factors, particularly terminology, were very important to cognitive expansion.

Prior knowledge

For both of the two theories, previous knowledge is important to make connections with new inbound knowledge and existing knowledge.

For Ausubel's theory that existing cognitive is the main factor influencing the training and retention of important material. Ausubel suggests that learning occurs when new information is linked to what have previously known. Therefore, preceding knowledge is the most important factor to determine what new learning will appear.

For Bruner students require background preparation for discovery learning. Finding process can also inhibit learning when students haven't any preceding knowledge (Schunk. 2008). Matching to Bruner, to decide which representation is appropriate for learner when arranging training, knowing something about learner's prior knowledge is essential. (Driscoll, 2005).

Role of the learner

For Ausubel and Bruner learner are cognitively energetic in learning operations. Relating to Bruner, learner rearranges given information, links with existing knowledge and discovers end product. The knowledge is grasped by the learner itself.

For Ausubel learner have a role as making connections between previous knowledge and existing knowledge. In reception learning learner will get information but it generally does not indicate learner is unaggressive; on the other hand learner is cognitively effective. The learner constructs knowledge making relationships with existing knowledge to internalize the information with a proper form for later use.

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