Learning is an interesting process for students, instructors and curriculum designers in neuro-scientific education. Constructivism has turned into a very important and a robust thought process in the modern times. Emphasis is directed at constructivism approach recently in all universities and educational institutes. To enhance constructivism in the coaching and learning techniques, the need to train metacognition is similarly important because it plays a vital role in successful learning.
It is the school's objective to produce problem solvers with critical thinking skills. This skill is very needed in moulding the students in becoming dynamic participants inside our society that can make valid decisions. Students need the ability to interact and use others effectively. Therefore it is our part as educators to help our students gain the capability to have the ability to match the culture well. We have to help students to develop knowledge based after what they have already known.
As language instructors, it is believed that it's necessary to provide learners with chances to experience what the learner is learning. Learners need to essentially try the process of learning.
The give attention to teaching and learning are needed if professors are to apply constructivism and metacognitive approach to thinking. Therefore proper lessons planning is required to focus on the particular professor and students will do.
In this newspaper, a brief justification on the constructivist and metacognitive method of teaching and learning of writing portfolio to learners of English as another language. A collection is a compilation of works accumulated by the British Dialect learners over a given time frame. The stock portfolio is a good coaching and learning tool for students learning English as their second terminology because it provides them the opportunity to show their knowledge in a supportive framework that takes into consideration their specific needs. Like in this case, these were asked to discover details about 2-3 colleges and make a comparison on the right college or university to choose.
It will offer a good way of learning if proper scaffolding is performed. That is also a good way for the teacher to determine about their students' advantages and weaknesses and also their passions. This sort of information is difficult to get when a teacher-centered approach is used. It is shown in this newspaper, how the constructivist and metacognitive way in coaching and learning is a done to make important knowledge.
In this newspaper, it also shows that careful scaffolding is needed in assisting learners to build up effectively and independently.
Learners in the Chinese Independent College have been likely to agree to undisputedly the instructors' words and work that is produced because of their students. All these while, students role have been passive receivers. Recently, in this university with the change in pattern, new technology and training provided to educators, many teachers are beginning to realize the value of constructivism and metacognition approach in the coaching and learning process. Therefore, a study and interviews have been also conducted to see the number of instructors practicing these procedure in their class room and their viewpoints towards these methods.
WHAT IS CONSTRUCTIVISM ?
In this chapter, we can look at the meanings of constructivism. The historical background
of these techniques and individuals behind these studies. In using the constructivist strategies in the coaching and learning operations in classroom, it is important for an educator to review first the approaches and apply them.
We will also go through the efficiency of using these solutions in the coaching of English Words. Using this method, as an educator, we will not only look at the best methods to instruct the learners but also how we as educators can update our knowledge in teaching.
2. 1 CONSTRUCTIVISM
Constructivism has roots in philosophy, mindset, sociology and education. Its main or central idea offers importance to the development of individual learning where learners cater to new knowledge to their past learning.
Constructivism can be tracked again more than millennium years back. Renowned brands like Lev Vygotsky, Giambattista Vico, John Dewey, Jean Piaget, David Hume, as well as others had saved ideas of constructivism in their work. Jean Piaget is honored for his writings which have provided the beginning for cognitive psychology which is also seen as a constructivist.
There are two editions of constructivist strategy which is cognitive and interpersonal constructivism. These were developed and made popular by Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky (Cruickshank, Bainer & Metcalf, 1999).
According to Jean Piaget, he believes that the learner's knowledge is made by making use of the learner's activities that helps him to make discoveries in his mind's eye. Therefore, the mental activity of the learner is emphasized and the educator must create a situation whereby the learner affiliates his prior knowledge (Moore, 2004). His views is cognitively focused.
In contrast, Vygotsky is convinced in interpersonal constructivism and that structure of knowledge is socially oriented (Cole & Wertsch, 2002). He believes that learning happens with the interaction with the environment (Moore, 2004)
However, both the constructivist approach focuses on constructing the knowledge. Every learner constructs his ideas differently based on their preexisting knowledge (Taber, 2006).
According to Bruner (1960), constructivism is an productive learning process which learners create new ideas based upon their present and previous knowledge. Vygotsky (1962) described constructivism as knowledge that is made through the cultural discussion (A. P. John, 2010)
Piaget's theory of constructivism argues knowledge is constructed based on learners experiences. The two important components in the engineering of knowledge regarding to Piaget are accommodation and assimilation. Assimilating is approximately incorporating new encounters in to the old activities. Accommodation is reframing the new activities in to the existing mental capacity (W. A. Hoover, 1996)
Constructivism is a theory about how exactly people learn. In constructivism, individuals create their own understanding and knowledge, thorough experiencing on their own and having reflections on those encounters. When we stumbled upon a new knowledge, we will assimilate it with our earlier knowledge or ideas or experience and cater to it with the old or previous knowledge to reach an equilibrium status where the new knowledge and old knowledge creates another new experience for the individual.
Thus, in constructivism, we create our very own knowledge by asking questions, checking out and evaluating what we realize.
Constructivism provides importance to experience since it is the basis for gaining new knowledge. Learners learn new knowledge by thinking that it is true and real. In the event the new knowledge does not collaborate with the prevailing knowledge or experience and the values of learners, than there is a opportunity that learners might refuse or transform it down, or we might even explore it further so that they we understand it better, or there is a possibility that we change it to support to our views (R. J. Stahl, 1990). Experience is the system so you can get new knowledge in constructivism strategy.
Schema is evenly important for the new knowledge (R. J. Stahl, 1992). Not necessarily the learner constructs correct knowledge or a learner may sometimes build something that is unintended. Therefore, the existing knowledge is adapted or modified accordingly or reconstructed to something supposed. This is a dynamic problem-solving process. Regarding to Flavell (1985), in constructivism methodology, it is presumed that impulsive bottom line and justification are regularly happening in the control, storing and retrieval of information.
In the teaching and learning of writing using the constructivism way for instance, built so this means is from the influence of a number of areas like terminology, prior knowledge, framework while others (Spiro, 1980). Meaning is inferred from the whole body of dialect which is made of words, phrases or passages. These meanings can be known differently for different learners. Meanings are made of the learners' experiences and preceding knowledge. The learners become lively learners even though they can be reading a passage in order to learn new information (Spiro, 1980). Thatis why, in the lesson plan prepared, tutor prepares students for writing by firmly taking them through the procedure of reading a passing associated with their stock portfolio writing.
There are two vital beliefs that bypass the thought of constructed knowledge. First, learners create new understanding using what they already know. They are forget about tabula rasa or bare slates where knowledge is designed. In constructivism, learners begin a learning situation with already existing knowledge by assimilating it using what they have gained using their prior experience and accommodating that previous knowledge to their new knowledge.
Secondly, all learners are lively rather than passive like in the original way of coaching and learning. Learners can transform to support their new knowledge if indeed they find what they have learnt is not regular using their current understanding. Therefore, learners continue to be lively in constructivism.
Thus, in summary, we can say that learners in constructivism;
apply their present understandings
note relevant knowledge in their new learning experiences
studies their prior and current knowledge
modify knowledge predicated on their research (A. H. Wesley, 1996)
2. 2 CONSTRUCTIVISM WITHIN THE TEACHING PROCESS
The constructivist theory has very important effect on the teaching process in the
classroom. While using constructivist theory of learning encourages learners to reflect their own knowledge (Bodner, 1986). A multitude of different teaching methods are carried out in the classroom. Professors encourage students to work with dynamic techniques by carrying out experiments and real-world problem handling. This is done in order to generate more knowledge which is done exclusively by the learners themselves. Learners then represent what they have got learnt, or are learning and how their understanding is changing through this representation period.
Teachers give more independence to students to comprehend knowledge on their own and to explore knowledge independently. Professors facilitate and quick learners while repeating this, teacher guides the actions so that learners can build their knowledge based on the platform that the educator has laid. Inside the lesson plan ready, teacher will a great deal of scaffolding to be able to develop the framework towards building the students' knowledge.
In constructivism, educators regularly checks on students' work and stimulates them. Educators check frequently how and in what ways the activity is helping students to get knowledge and understanding.
Thus, the teacher's main role in constructivism is to encourage and assist in students' learning and representation process. Therefore a teacher is actually a facilitator or guide. The constructivism procedure uses the learner-centered strategy rather than a teacher-centered procedure.
In the teaching process, a professor takes on the role of an expert of knowledge. The educator still plays a dynamic role in constructivism as a specialist who guides and leads students in the correct path by laying the platform to allow them to build their knowledge upon. Instructor set up the learning environment which derives different learning purposes but learners are the ones who will carry out the experience differently.
A teacher's role here is basically assisting learners to construct knowledge rather than reproducing knowledge. The professor provides necessary tools for the learners to make their ideas upon. They are like the problem-solving activities, carrying out tests and inquiry-based activities. In another word, teacher holds out scaffolding to create upon. In this case, even, parents, peers, research books, websites are resources of help in assisting the learner in their dialect learning.
Do my students use critical thinking in my own classroom ?
Am I asking for my student's understanding before proceeding with my answers ?
Is there any collaborative learning in my own classroom ?
Am I asking open-ended questions to my students ?
Am I providing chance of my students expressing their views ?
Am I presenting my students sufficient time to utilize their concepts ?
The most crucial bases of the communal constructivist theory is linked to Vygotsky, in his theory of the "Zone of Proximal Development" (ZPD). "Proximal" means "next". He seen that whenever children were analyzed on tasks on their own, they hardly have well in comparison to when these were working in cooperation with an adult. The adult was instructing them how to perform the duty. Thus, the process of collaborating with the adult allowed them to refine their thinking or their performance to make it more effective. The ZPD is approximately "can do with help", not as a permanent talk about but as a stage towards being able to do something individually.
Figure 2. 2 Zone of Proximal Development
Therefore the scaffolding development is very critical in this part of teaching. The teacher works as a scaffold and provides the necessary tools on her behalf learners. Scaffolding identifies providing aids for meaning through the use of simplified language, instructor modeling, visuals and design, cooperative learning and hands-on learning (Ovando, Collier, & Combs, 2003).
Here learners will contain the opportunities to formulate their own ideas and test these ideas, Learners not only make conclusions based on the research they have completed but also they will be in a position to infer the data they have learnt and communicate it in a collaborative learning environment by working and discussing or posting thoughts using their own peers.
This will allow learners to carefully turn into an active participant in the training process rather than to be a passive recipient like in a teacher-centered procedure.
First learners must be taught orientation. Second, the induction or elicitation of ideas. Then, comes the reconstruction of ideas. Fourth is the application of ideas. Last but not least is the review.
Based on the stages suggested above to teach, teacher has turn out with a proper lesson plan to instruct using the constructivist methodology. This lessons plan was used in teaching writing in category.
The reading done beforehand is the scaffolding procedure used to guide learners for better writing.
The lessons plan combines reading which was done three lessons prior to the writing activity and leads students from the pre-reading stage through the post-writing reflection stage.
A more descriptive explanation is given on web page 8 which is put in the lessons plan (appendices).
Explore learners' prior knowledge
Associate lessons to learner's interests and preceding knowledge
ELICITATION OF IDEAS
Establish the context
Elicit learner's ideas and ideas - brainstorm with peers in communities (collaborative strategy)
Excite learner's interests and curiosity
Planning - by doing brain map
Carry out research
Learners investigate (look for factors)
Reflect on learner's ideas - give feedback
Learners exchange information
Learners examine information
Learners think about their prediction
Learners hook up their existing knowledge to another lesson
Table 2. 4 Constructivist strategy in teaching
Scaffolding writing through reading a text message, undertaking activities and active contribution of students can determine the success in this field.
Theme : Education
Book : English for Advanced, Student's Book
Lesson : Gathering Information on Various Colleges
Overview : After reading about steps in deciding on the best university. Students were
asked to check for information on the handout given and appear with
constructive views. Finally they make a stock portfolio by gathering
information about 2-3 universities and compare them (review).
Time : 3 lessons (each lesson is 40 minutes)
Time to complete Portfolio : One month
Objectives : 1. Connect university student background by causing predictions about content material.
Predict word content through pictures.
Take records while reading.
Self-question as sections of the text are read.
Work collaboratively in a group.
Create a collection to present the most important information about 2-3 colleges.
2. 2. 1 ORIENTATION
The aims here are to explore learners' prior knowledge by making predictions about the written text they read. Learners make associations to the text based on their preceding knowledge.
The steps completed in executing the writing is as brought up below.
2. 2. 2 ELICITATION OF IDEAS
In lessons 1, professor elicits students' understanding by showing pictures of some schools and have them if they know the backdrop of these universities. Students were asked to give their opinions based on their prior knowledge that they bring into this framework. Teacher highlights words used to compare these universities, and the aspects students compare like charge, distance from your home, courses available, reputation and so on.
2. 2. 3. RECONSTRUCTION
Then, students read a word in their Students' Book regarding the importance of deciding on the best college and on how to choose a span of study based on learner's interest. The text also means the steps learners may take in order to choose the right college for the coffee lover, it indicates what sorts of questions the learners need to ask themselves before deciding on the best course and university. Two pre-reading strategies that effectively assist students in monitoring their own comprehension are using subheadings and headings and inspecting captions. They reconstruct their knowledge.
2. 2. 4 APPLICATION
In lessons 2, professor grouped the students and provided some hands-on-activities (make reference to appendices) on choosing the right college for every single student based on their interest, budget, and other factors. Students make constructive thoughts and opinions based on the info they have gathered. They were given one lesson to get ready their views.
2. 2. 5 REVIEW
During another lesson, they then presented their ideas in school. Their peers commented and gave their feedbacks. There was a mini conversation as some students got different views. Here collaborative strategy was used as well as pupil completed their own so this means -making based on their past knowledge.
Teacher had built the scaffolding by giving the necessary information that the students needed to have in their profile and how they may present their views in a constructive manner. The finish goal of this activity is to acquire students do this activity singularly, with the instructor being the facilitator. The amount of teacher-directed instruction is going to vary with regards to the students included.
Students were further given more scaffolding which involves instructions to do the profile, resources they can find their information from and professor submitted questions to students to help them commence their research and build a much better understanding. Though students acquired to do individual work, they still were allocated in groups in order that they could help one another. Allowing students to work separately is an important aspect of cultural constructivist theory. Additionally it is equally important to scaffold before and during specific or group task.
Figure 2. 3 Steps on paper Portfolio
2. 3 CONSTRUCTIVISM IN THE LEARNING PROCESS
The class room activities should interest the learners to investigate their information and ideas. Learners control their own learning process. Learners are not blank slates. Their past knowledge is the natural materials for the new knowledge they will create.
Based on the reason given in 2. 4 how instructor conducts a reading and writing lessons, the teacher reveals the class with an issue. In cases like this comparing 2-3 colleges and review the choice of college made. The training process occurs when the learners mirror and create their own understanding conducting a research. The learner creates a fresh understanding. In addition they talk about their activities and set their own goals. Learners make their own judgments about the knowledge they have produced.
Therefore, learners control their own learning process and they think about their experiences. They become experts of their own learning through the presentations and group discussions that they try. The learners also study from their peers using their company feedbacks and so on.
The main activity in a constructivist methodology in classroom coaching is problem-solving. Learners use the inquiry-methods to ask questions, research a subject and use a number of resources to find answers to their problems and answers. Learners draw conclusions and the exploration goes on to take place.
They keep checking out new knowledge so when these new knowledge is gained, they make an effort to accommodate it with the prior knowledge. They could come across ideas that they feel should be modified or incorrect to match the info that they curently have. Sometimes, learners reject the ideas when they cannot fit them into their prior knowledge.
Learning contains individual's constructed meanings. Therefore, these are the principles an educator should retain in mind.
Learning is contextual
Learning is lively and sociable. We do not learn isolated facts since it relates to our lives.
Learning is a public activity
Our learning is often linked to the people and things around us. Thus, connection with others through collaborative learning can be an integral aspect of learning.
Learning entails language
Language influences learning as people discuss when they learn.
Learning can be an active process
Learners develop their own knowledge by getting together with the world. It is a dynamic process.
Learning involves construction of meaning
Each and therefore a learner build gives him an improved understanding to other knowledge which they can accommodate to fit his prior knowledge.
One needs knowledge to learn
Learners cannot assimilate new knowledge without a prior knowledge to generate upon.
Learning needs time
We need the perfect time to learn and reflect on what we've learnt.
2. 4 CONSTRUCTIVISM INSIDE THE CLASSROOM
The following section summarizes the characteristics of constructivist strategy in the
teaching and learning process in class predicated on the instances given above.
Goals and targets are gained by the students
Teachers are guide, facilitators and coach
Encourages learner inquiry
Encourages dialogues with professor and peers
Provide activities, tools and arranged environment to encourage metacognition and others.
The learner intercedes and regulates learning
Content chosen is authentic and symbolizes the complexity of real-world problems
Knowledge construction is given importance.
Construction happens through communal negotiation, cooperation and experience.
Learners explore to get knowledge
Learners get to learn apprenticeship learning
Collaborative and cooperative learning are extremely much emphasized.
Scaffolding to help learners reach a higher limit.
WHAT IS METACOGNITION ?
In constructivism, it is all about giving opportunity for learners to create their own ideas and explore ideas independently. They also represent and analyze ideas to suit with their needs. Metacognitive strategies are used to help learners to comprehend the data better.
Metacognition approach gives meaningful learning to learners because learners take own responsibility to create ideas in the learning process. In the classroom, learners ask question (inquiry-method) to comprehend better (Parkinson, 2004).
3. 1 METACOGNITION
According to the constructivism view, metacognition is an important feature that confers
to significant and successful learning. Metacognition models the building blocks where learners build their new information after (Narode, 1989).
One way of encouraging the students learning process and encouraging problem- solving skills is through the approach of metacognitive in teaching and learning. Metacognitive support can be employed by learners in problem-solving methods. Metacognitive is distinctive and are a good idea in learners' thinking skills, information control skills and therefore can help them to check the learner's own learning process.
Metacognition plays an important role for the success in learning and it is closely linked to the development of independent learning which is through constructivism.
John Flavell defines metacognition as "the effective monitoring and consequent rules and arrangement of the thinking and learning activities" (Krueger, 1986).
Metacognition is also viewed as the ability to realize and understand one's pondering patterns and operations or cognition and the ability to evaluate one's own learning and development. Therefore, learners have got the necessary consciousness to believe, develop and engage methods so that they will be able to think more successfully in order to produce the intended results (Wesley, 1996).
Learners will reflect on their learning process like problem-solving and then will be able to recognize the habits which will enable them to have a meaningful transition for even more development of knowledge. Whenever a learner has the capacity to think about his own thinking and review his own strategies, it means he's using his metacognitive skills to do these.
In this case, students carry out research, compare critically and write a profile is an example of using metacognition methodology.
Metacognition's components are metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experiences (Flavell, 1981). Metacognitive knowledge is understanding of one's own cognitive and affective activities and status and the control of the knowledge to achieve a particular goal. The cognitive knowledge is understanding of the entire world and the affective knowledge are the abilities and drive. These are also labeled as declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge and conditional knowledge. Declarative knowledge is an exemplory case of what knowledge and why the knowledge is learnt. In this case, students need this knowledge to find the right college once they have left institution. Procedural knowledge is the way the knowledge is utilized and conditional knowledge is how to judge the performance (Carrell, Gajdusek & Good, 2001). The learner positively displays his own mental procedures by going through the cognitive and affective procedures (Brown, 1987).
Various studies have also proved the benefits and benefits of metacognition in teaching and learning. In terms learning for instance, Oxford, Park-Oh, Ito and Sumrall (1993), Miserandino (1996), Victori Lockhart (1995), White (1995), Fleming and Surfaces (1998) have provided information in the use of metacognition in teaching and learning process. In addition, they also have indicated that the utilization of metacognition is the key factor for being a successful learner whereby learners own all the positive attitudes in building their self-esteem (McInerney et al. , 1997).
It clearly reveals that a good learner will take responsibility for his own learning by planning, monitoring, controlling, reflecting on the procedure of learning. So that it can be said that metacognitive strategies are incredibly directly related to self-directed learning which is an important methods to achieve goals through metacognition.
Figure 3. 1 shows the conversation of metacognitive knowledge in promoting learning. A couple of four steps in which a good learner will need in order to construct knowledge in significant way.
(check existing metacognitive knowledge in permanent memory and the task)
(strategies used to complete activity, involves setting of your time, intensity, etc)
Figure 3. 2 The conversation of metacognitive knowledge to advertise learning
(regulate one's own thinking)
3. 2 METACOGNITION IN THE TEACHING PROCESS
According to constructivism, a educator cannot produce their own interpretations of the world onto her learners because everyone folks do not reveal a common notion or experience. Every individual has the right to build their own understanding and interpretations through his or her own encounters. An educator can model, coach, inquire on the knowledge produced by the learners. This can help learners to encode and manipulate the info they construct. Educators guide learners through this process and the learners own knowledge is designed.
(judge the data and capability gained)PRINCIPLES
EXPLORE LEARNER'S PRIOR KNOWLEDGE
Explore learner's preceding knowledge
Guide them in the topic(control of learning)
STIMULATE LEARNER'S CURIOSITY
Encourage learners to forecast the outcome
Select ways of carry out research
REFLECT ON LEARNER'S IDEAS
Monitor the training process
Give reviews by correcting them
Analyze effective strategies
Table 3. 1 Metacognitive way in teaching
Based on stand 3. 1, an educator can help learners explore their prior knowledge by interviewing, asking questions on this issue taught.
1. What do we look into when choosing a university? (Predicated on the topic taught on reading and writing as mentioned on page 7)
2. What are the minimum amount requirements for the majority of the colleges in Malaysia ?
3. Is it possible to name a few famous colleges in Kuala Lumpur?
Teacher needs to encourage the learner to predict the outcome predicated on their knowledge of this issue.
1. What will happen if there are no pamphlets or brochures regarding these colleges ?
2. What exactly are the problems that students might face with and without these ?
Teacher then guides her learners to find the best strategy to perform their research.
1. Imagine you do not make a good choice of course or college or university, what will eventually you?
2. Do you think going for profession talk help in choosing your college or are there any different ways ?
3. What are the advantages or negatives of carrying out this type of research ?
4. Will it benefit you at all ?
Learners start their inspection by reflecting on the preceding knowledge and their prediction of the research. Teacher should encourage the learners and guide these to clarify their understanding. A whole lot of scaffolding was done before the actual writing.
By carrying out metacognitive strategy in coaching, learning becomes more important for learners. Besides, this also encourage learners to build up important understanding and apply various ways of construct significant knowledge.
3. 3 METACOGNITION IN THE TRAINING PROCESS
The professor divides her students into smaller communities (collaborative learning) to go over and also have dialogues with the peers to brainstorm ideas on this issue given (site 7).
The educator prompted the organizations to think about this issue and their current knowledge. The educator allows her learners to carry out research about this issue in order that they will be able to use their things to elaborate on further.
Learners carry out collaborative learning, then move to individual learning. Using metacognitive strategy in learning helps learners in the problem-solving process by giving opportunities for learners to explore in a real-life situation. Learners become productive participants of the training process in a important learning. This means active, constructive, collaborative and reflective learning.
The planning and planning opportunity that is directed at learners are important metacognitive skills that can enhance their learning. This is because learners are actually thinking about what they need to accomplish and exactly how they intend to do it. Insurance firms a clearer goal, it will be easier to assess their progress.
By using a particular technique for a specific goal as stated in stand 3. 1, the learner can think and make mindful decisions about their learning process. Learners must be able to choose from the various strategies trained to them and make use of it when they encounter certain problems.
By using learning strategies, learners will be able to meet their learning goals. They must constantly ask questions to themselves in what they are doing, if they are providing the right information or if they're using the effective instances in aiding their purpose. These are strategies that they need to have the ability to use.
Learners also must be able to be capable of use more than one strategy when facing a predicament. For example, the capability to organize, make associations and organize ideas.
Learners are positively involved in metacognitive skills when they evaluate what they are doing is effective. Teacher can prompt further by asking questions like;
What am I attempting to accomplish?
What strategies am I using?
What else could I do?
These questions will help the learners to reflect on their learning. Metacognitive strategies
can help learners to keep an eye on their own understanding and choose suitable method to construct and reconstruct new information systematically.
In this case, students receive independence to focus on their collection and turn out with a comparison chart predicated on their own understanding. They reconstruct new information by managing the ideas based on what they know and what they have learnt.
A study using questionnaire on 10 educators to see the number of professors applying
constructivism and metacognition solutions in teaching and learning of British Terminology in the classroom was conducted. Teachers were also interviewed to obtain additional views on using constructivism and metacognition in school room.
According to the review conducted, 10 items were designed based on requirements linking to constructivism and metacognition techniques. The study was conducted to see how many teachers are employing these approaches in their everyday coaching and learning of British Vocabulary as a secong dialect for Chinese Individual School students.
It was also conducted to see if professors applying these solutions in their class room are using the right constructivist strategies in classrooms. To get more feedbacks from educators, interviews were conducted to know why certain techniques couldn't be conducted in school.
5. 1 SAMPLE
10 instructors were determined to do the review. These were all females. Their number of teaching experience is between 4-21 years. All of them are level holders, except one teacher who's a master level holder.
5. 2 MEASURES
5. 2. 1 SURVEY
A review with 10 items using the Likert-Scale method was produced to investigate just how many teachers are using these constructivism and metacognitive strategies in their class room teaching and learning process in educating English. There were 10 items and 4 replies to choose from ; 1- Strongly Agree, 2-Agree, 3-Disagree 4-Highly Disagree.
Interviews were also conducted further to ask regarding the techniques and check if it's successful in the class room.
5. 3 ANALYSIS
The data was analyzed on finding out the percentage for each item. The email address details are reported in the desk and numbers below.
1 2 3 4
RESPONSES [PER CENT (%)]
1 2 3 4
2 6 2
20% 60% 20%
2 6 2
20% 60% 20%
2 6 2
20% 60% 20
Table 5. 2 Ratio of Each Item
Table 5. 3 Club Graph (Evaluation)
The results show for item 1, all the 10 instructors who had responded to the survey decided that students are positively involved with their learning to reach new understandings.
For item 2, professors significantly agreed that students have to be sensible and autonomous. All of the educators use learner-centered methodology in their coaching from the examination of item 3 this means all the professors do use constructivism strategy in their coaching of vocabulary as second terms for their Chinese language Independent institution students.
For items 4 and 5, about 20% and 60% educators strongly agreed and decided respectively in fostering critical thinking in their teaching and students being able to construct their own knowledge. However, about 20% of the teachers disagree to these items.
The reasons found out from conducting an interview with those professors included are as some of them have very fragile students who cannot think critically in particular when doing writing as they have got inadequate vocabulary and grammar skills. They are too weak to create their own knowledge and desire a lot of advice from their peers and instructors. These students are mostly retainers who weren't promoted to another level and some of these are international students from China who are unable to even utter a simple sentence in English.
Most of them agree that they are facilitators in their classroom, only 20% disagreed to the item as again these were the ones managing the weaker students who needed a great deal of guidance off their teachers.
About 40% instructors encourage collaborative learning and frequently have group discussions in their classrooms. These professors are the ones who cope with the best 'cream' classes with the best students and top scorers in their classrooms. Therefore, it's very convenient as these students are incredibly independent and could be guided very minimally because they are in a position to work independently. For the other 60% of the educators, they still need to do just a little extra scaffolding so that their students can better understand.
Majority of the tutor (60%) strongly agree that their students and they discuss responsibility and decision making in class (item 9). They highly concur that their students are dynamic learners who is able to make decision constructively.
Finally, 80% of the professors concur that their students treat English as a body of knowledge, skills and strategies that must definitely be designed by the learners themselves through their own encounters and interactions within the public context of the classroom.
Only 20% say that they disagree to this item as again their students are extremely weak and need a lot of advice in learning English.
In the interview with the particular instructors, it was discovered that teaching writing and reading comprehension skills to good and average students using these methods will actually help them to brainstorm further because they'll be in a position to make meaningful connection to their already existing knowledge. Group discussion will also allow these students to be helped by the more powerful students in conditions of ideas, vocabulary and their understanding.
Students are required to present their ideas in class using appropriate tools like electric power point, charts, role-playing and others. Educators play the role of facilitators who prompt students and guide them towards meaning-making and problem-solving.
Teachers welcome the ideas of constructivism and use metacognition to make their students get to know and enhance critical thinking skills in their students.
The coaching of constructivism and metacognition is very valuable especially in the coaching and learning of English Language. When learners reflect upon their learning and create significant knowledge, they become better learners. Strong metacognitive skills can enhance learners to be better language learners. A meaningful learning process makes students to understand the principles through the active learning process. As a result, learners screen their learning process, assimilate and provide their knowledge via a important learning process.
Constructivism and metacognition strategies help teachers to generate lesson programs on university student learning to be able to solve problems meaningfully. There are various methods in these solutions, therefore it is important for teachers to select appropriate strategies to instruct their students. It is also similarly important to be constantly learner-centered.
In this study, strategy like scaffolding is employed so that learners are able to reach the required tasks. The duty needs to be challenging enough for the learners in order that they are bored and become unmotivated. The usage of scaffolding is also ways to move from the teacher-centered classroom setting and move towards constructivism. Learners become more 3rd party and feel more difficult in carrying out the duty given.
There are still some challenges when undertaking these techniques in the teaching and learning of vocabulary in classrooms. Sometimes, it is hard to carry out these methods when interacting with extremely vulnerable students because they are unable to construct meaning independently and need a lot of advice from the instructors. This can be a problem specially when teachers are managing big classes (40-50 students) where attention can't be given separately to help these students develop their knowledge. Time factor may also be another reason where teachers cannot help much. However, in order for the constructivist method of foster learning reflectively, time is an essential factor.
Students can even be demotivated if indeed they failed to create knowledge on their own and this can lead to other problems where sometimes they may be unwilling to engage in group or class activities. We constantly need to get efficient ways in dealing with these types of problems and overcome them.
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