Culture In SPANISH Teaching And Learning Education Essay

Introduction

It may all that words and culture are inseparable. Dialect itself makes no sense and does not have any meaning beyond your cultural setting where it is spoken. They can be intricately interwoven with each other. Some people believe that the data of other civilizations is really as important as effectiveness in using their language. In the EFL (British as a spanish) teaching, great attention should be paid to educating culture of the prospective words as well concerning coaching linguistic knowledge. Culture intro should be integrated with language teaching in many aspects and at multiple levels so that learners' intercultural communicative skills can be increased.

Byram (1989) expresses: "as learners find out about language, they find out about culture and

as they learn to use a new language, they figure out how to talk to other individuals from a new culture. " 60 that the mastery of vocabulary and buildings does not always ensure a person's communicative competence. The particular students actually need is usually to be taught directly what people say in particular situations in the British culture. The data of culture has a great effect on learners' terminology use and sometimes immediately influences the outcome of communication with local speakers. Most language teachers would concur that in order to apply words skills fruitfully and effectively, the knowledge of social environment is essential. So it is not difficult to comprehend why the culture element is so crucial in spanish teaching.

First, successful intercultural communication includes a great deal that is more than terms skills, understanding a second language will not ensure understanding the speaker's intentions. That is to say, the capability to communicate successfully with native speaker systems will depend not only on dialect skills but also on comprehension of cultural behaviors and anticipations.

Second, another primary reason for the addition of culture in the second terms curriculum is cross-cultural understanding. International understanding is seen as one of the basic goals of words education. It really is equally important to comprehend the variations among the various subcultures within which folks of different races, religions, and political beliefs live together peacefully. Serenity and improvement in an environment of diverse elements without doubt depend upon understanding, tolerance, exchange and cooperation. Foreign language study is one of the center educational components for obtaining this widely recognized aim. Whether or not the foreign language learning and teaching are successful matters on how much ethnical and linguistic information the students can get. The 3rd reason handles the students themselves. Similarly, curious students may be extremely thinking about the individuals who speak English, they want to find out about these people-what they may be like, that they live and how they are different from themselves. Alternatively, students' understanding of the basic areas of target culture is commonly inexplicit and incomprehensive if they never have been provided with systematic knowledge in academic institutions. And language teachers have to confess that lots of students are not gaining a basic familiarity with the British culture, because even though language and culture go hand in hand in a class room, some instructors choose to disregard culture and students scarcely pay due attention to it given that they do not have to take a test of culture.

Overall, foreign language coaching should help students place a solid groundwork of language, understanding good learning techniques, cultivate their ethnical awareness in order to meet the needs of public development and economic construction. British as the main medium of international communication at present, is called after to mediate a whole range of cultural, cross-cultural concepts thus make British language instructing a potentially more and more significant role than previously and English culture coaching is approaching or should come to the foreground.

Definition of Culture

Then what is culture? Duranti thought as "something learned, sent, passed down from one generation to another, through human actions, often by means of face-to-face discussion and, of course, through linguistic communication". Corresponding to Sapir's view, "culture may be defined as what a society does and believes. . . ". On a general level, anthropologists define culture as the complete life-style of your people or group. In this particular framework, culture includes all the public practices that bond a group of individuals together and separate them from others. It is that simple fact of individuals life discovered by, people consequently of belonging to some particular group; it is the fact part of learned behavior distributed to others. Not only does this idea add a group's way of thinking, feeling, and behaving, but internalized habits for doing certain things using ways. . . . not merely the doing of these. Goodenough (1981) summarizes the contents of culture briefly quoted below

The ways that people have organized their experience of real life to be able to give it structure as a extraordinary world of forms, their percepts and ideas.

. The ways that people have planned their experience of their phenomenal world so as to give it structure as a system of cause and impact associations, that is, the propositions and values by which they explain events and accomplish their purposes.

The ways that people have arranged their connection with their past initiatives to accomplish recurring purposes into operational procedures for achieving these purposes in the future, that is, a set of grammatical key points of action and some recipes for completing particular ends.

Language and Culture

A dialect is something of verbal and perhaps, written icons, with standardized meanings. Vocabulary is the outward manifestation of the spirit of people: their vocabulary is their spirit, and their spirit is their terminology; it is difficult to assume any a couple of things more indistinguishable. It enables people to store meanings and encounters and to cross this heritage on to new generations. Through words, we are able to find out about and from the encounters of others. In addition, language permits us to transcend the here and now, preserving days gone by and imaging the near future; to talk to others and formulate sophisticated plans; to assimilate different varieties of experiences; also to develop abstract ideas. However, it is impossible to overestimate the value of terminology in the development, elaboration, and transmission of culture.

The Romance between Culture and Language

It is normally accepted that terms and culture are related to one another. Language isn't only for communication between people who have their own cultural norms, but as a mirror to reflect the entire world and people's view of the world. Because of the need of international communication for monetary technical development among various countries, English is increasingly more used in various countries and cultures for exchanging information.

Culture and terminology are related to each other, which is strongly advocated by Byram, who has contended that cultural learning and language learning cannot take place independent of each other (Byram, 1994). Culture is a complex concept that includes terminology. Many theorists have portrayed this point of view from various perspectives. For instance, Kramsch has made the idea that the reason for learning a foreign language is "a means of making ethnical affirmation" as well as learning "a fresh way of making communication" (Kramsch, 1993) while other theorists have fastened great importance to culture for terminology understanding. For example, Byram has argued that only when the cultural framework is grasped can the terms rooted in the framework be completely comprehensible (Byram 1994). This point has found an echo with Dark brown

Misunderstandings are likely to occur between members of different cultures; variations are real and we must learn to deal with them in virtually any situation where two cultures come into contact.

Language is an important part of culture as well. Byram has elaborated this idea in one of his books: "Cultural studies in spanish education as dialect preeminently embodies the principles and meanings of your culture, refers to social artifacts and sign people's cultural identity. " (Byram, 1989) Other theorists have defined culture so that words is put at the guts of a merchant account of a specific culture. Brown has provided another such meaning where he describes language as the most obvious and available manifestation of a specific culture. (Brown, 1987)

In sum, culture is related to words and vice versa. Culture would be difficult to be sent from location to place and from generation to generation if there were no languages, the main carrier of worth and meanings of the culture. Language would be impossible to be recognized without constant reference to the cultural context, which has produced it. It may, therefore, be argued that culture and vocabulary cannot be treated exclusive of the other person in language teaching program. In other words, it is necessary and even more proper to instruct both terminology and culture in an integrated way. It really is worthy of noting here any particular one of the routines of integrating both is by using the target terms as the medium of education in culture teaching. Goodenough states the relationship between vocabulary and culture in his publication Culture and Linguistic. He argued vocabulary in a world is one aspect of the society's culture. The partnership between them is the part and the complete. As an element part of culture, the particularities of vocabulary show that it is a primary tool of learning culture through the process of learning and using (Goodenough, 1981).

The Romantic relationship between Dialect Learning and Culture

Just as there isn't a single thing in the world with out a dual characteristics, so is dialect teaching. Language coaching and culture teaching have a dual character. To be able to conduct language coaching well, one must take the teaching of culture and the teaching of language at exactly the same time.

When we learn a foreign language, we do more than learn a linguistic system. We acquire some degree of knowledge of the foreign social system.

It is now broadly accepted in most parts of the planet that learning a spanish is not only mastering the grammar, the vocabulary, etc, but more correctly focuses on learning a means of communication. Communication in real situations is never out of context, and because culture is part of most contexts, communication is hardly ever culture-free. Precisely the same phrase, if used in several culture, would get different emotional response. When reading the phrase "It's morally hard to carefully turn her away as it is a lost dog", most students put "a lost dog" into literal so this means which totally shows our feeling of disgust and dislike for your dog. Nonetheless it is not the case in traditional western countries. In the western culture, canines are regarded as faithful friends and companions. So the actual so this means of "the lost dog" here means something cherished, valuable and favorite is lost. If you know the real implication of computer, your sympathy can be aroused. It's apparent that neglecting the cultural difference ends up with the misunderstanding. Therefore, it's important to understand how to comprehend and create language that is in accordance with the sociocultural parameters of the specific situation, because inability to take action could cause users to miss tips that are being communicated in either the written or the dental language and also have their messages misinterpreted.

Language Teaching and Intercultural Communication

Samovar, Porter & Jain(1981) observe: Culture and communication are inseparable because culture not only dictates who foretells whom, about what and how the communication proceeds, it also helps to determine how people encode emails, the meanings they have for text messages, and the conditions and circumstances under which various communications may or may well not be sent, found, or interpreted. . . Culture is the foundation of communication. The term intercultural is generally used to spell it out comparative data and studies of a large number of ethnicities, or studies that try to identify dimensions that are not culture specific. Intercultural is also used to describe interactional data from members of different social backgrounds (normally more than two). Then what's the meaning of intercultural communication?

Maureen Guirdham points out that intercultural communication is communication

across civilizations, it describes ethnical dimensions applicable for everyone cultures. She feels that "Intercultural Communication skills may well contain the key to dealing with lots of the current global conflicts". Within a speech at the Luton Intercultural Forum, she defined her views concerning how people been trained in Intercultural Communication may help to solve current conflicts like the Balkan conflict, the center East crisis and many more. In her conversation, she outlined that most modem conflicts--such as Israel--Palestine issue, the discord between Pakistan and India and others--are essentially intercultural issues and that turmoil image resolution mainly is a communication activity. Let's come to some tips of intercultural communication

When communications cause conflict, remember that problems may have more to do with style or process than with content or motives.

Learn to comprehend different communication styles---you could even benefit through growing your repertoire.

Communicating across ethnicities requires extra work. Good communication requires determination and focus.

Although culture influences dissimilarities in communication patterns, there are numerous exceptions within each group depending on class, age group, education, experience, and personality. .

Remember that communication is an activity and the process varies among cultures. Take a look at what might be getting in the way of understanding. Constantly ask, "What's going on here?" and check your assumptions.

Avoid jokes, words or expressions that are hot button, such as those that are based on ethnicity, competition or gender.

Use dialect that fosters trust and alliance.

Respect differences; don't assess people due to way they speak.

7. Intercultural Communication

A simple way to determine the word intercultural communication is by using the definition of communication that was provided in the previous section and put in the word "from different cultures". This addition would yield the following meaning: Intercultural communication is a symbolic process where people from different civilizations create shared meanings. This definition, although appropriate, is difficult to use.

To foreground the value of social communication in intercultural exchanges, we choose the following classification: Intercultural communication is concerned with unmediated communication between people from different social backgrounds.

Differences in social perception and behaviour to social participation are also critical indicators in intercultural communication. Intercultural communication: Face-to-face communication between folks from different ethnical backgrounds.

As inhabitants of the 21st century, we no longer have a choice about whether to live on and speak in an environment of many civilizations. The makes that bring other civilizations into our life are strong, potent, and ever before present. Exactly what does this great social mixing mean to EFL teaching? What competence should foreign language learners have to meet up with the need of communicating appropriately and effectively in that world? The answer is that EFL teaching should cultivate learners' intercultural communicative competence.

8. Intercultural Communicative Competence

Intercultural communicative competence (ICC) is identified in a great number of studies as the competence to acquire effective benefits in intercultural communication situations. Before few generations, ICC has become an important research area in intercultural communication studies, and produced a considerable amount of literature.

ICC relates to such competence as distinguishing the cultural factors, because these exact things will surely have their reflections in a functional communicative situation and thus exert much impact upon the understandings.

With the progressive awareness of the value of the communicative competence, we have been sure in EFL, more and more educators will place their emphasis upon the improvement of ICC, and develop their students' intercultural communicative competence as well as the linguistic competence at the same time,

In the paragraphs above, we've introduced the definition of Intercultural Communicative Competence. Quite often, we realize that studies on ICC are motivated by practical needs such as mailing personnel abroad to execute political and commercial duties. Thus ICC is described by the outcomes, or the effectiveness of obtaining these goals, the main purpose of ICC studies, therefore, is to recognize the different parts of "effectiveness" on the one hand, and its own "predictors" on the other, Two major success components are "task performance" and appropriateness" of habit in the target culture. The predictors of effectiveness recognized include ambiguity tolerance, cognitive complexity, good dialogue skills, intercultural training, etc.

In sum, the existing ICC studies are seen as a the centrality of efficiency.

goal-attainment, and individual control. Root this deal of practice is the assumption that communication is under the control of the individual; if he or she has the necessary personal dispositions and skills, then your pre-determined goals of communication will be performed. These view holds the idea that ICC is within the individual. Competence will develop or arise in relational contexts, yet without the internal potential of the average person, there is absolutely no "relationship". But this view has perhaps somewhat overlooked the inner characteristics of the communicators. Maybe "task-performance" requires the fundamental position generally in most models. Other factors such as appropriateness or individual cultural modification all pave the way for task performance. As a matter of fact, the primacy of task performance is noticeable in the explanation of ICC.

Intercultural communicative competence handles questions related to a concern often

characterized by the conditions culture-specific, context-specific, and culture-general, which will be the various approaches to the study of intercultural communicative competence. 1) The culture-specific, method assumes that the most effective way to boost intercultural communication is to review that culture. For instance, if you were going to Japan, you might reap the benefits of advice about present giving, the utilization of first labels, greeting behavior, indirect talk, politeness, the use of business cards, the value of group tranquility, social stability, and the like. 2) Inside a functional intercultural communication, the only path of culture-specific is insufficient, people should know what to do and how to do in a real situation, then context-specific is also needed. Lately scholars have begun to speak about not only the specific civilizations, but also the context or setting up of the intercultural encounters. Studies have been made to explore the business, educational, and healthcare settings as a way of examining the impact of the surroundings on communication in a wide way. 3) The third way is culture-general. What has been suggested here is that regardless of the culture you are encountering, it is important to know about the individuals culture and make an effort to adapt whenever you can. What we have discussed can be found in most intercultural experience. This is exactly what we mean by culture-general. In other words, look at common skills you can use in all ethnicities.

How to boost intercultural communicative competence? Relating to Samovar & Porter (1988), that is to learn yourself. Although the idea of knowing yourself is common. while knowing yourself is crucial to improve intercultural communication. We realize we can write what "know yourself" with ease, but it will require a great deal of effort to convert this task into practice. The use of knowing yourself protects three guidelines: first, know your culture_ because many people are the product of these culture, people are "cultural beings" and must be ever vigilant to the impact of your respective own ethnic. Second, know your perceptions. Knowing your needs and wants, the levels of personal ethnocentrism enables you to detect the ways in which these attitudes influence communication. And third, know how you react on those perceptions. The 3rd part of knowing yourself is to know your communication style, which is somewhat more difficult, since it involves discovering the sort of image you portray to the rest of the world. If you are to boost your communication, you must, therefore, involve some idea of how you present yourself, since it will take trouble understanding why people reply as they are doing, and people's most take-for-granted manners are often hidden behind their consciousness. (Samovar & Porter, 1988)

8. Cultural Knowledge and Cultural Competence

Knowing the articles of cultivating ICC, we have to discuss the concept of cultural knowledge. It offers two parts: cultural competence (belonging to the group of proficiency goals) and conceptual knowledge (owned by the group of cognitive goals) about the mark culture. The conceptual knowledge about the target culture refers to the organized conceptual knowledge about the mark culture and modern culture and it should include the focus on society's geography, background, institutions, religions, overall economy, education and arts and so on. This conceptual understanding of the target culture is also known as the general knowledge of the prospective culture.

Cultural competence identifies implicit mastery of the norms of the culture, the unspoken rules of conduct, values, and orientation that make up the cultural fabric of a contemporary society. In addition, it includes the ability to understand culturally significant facts, and understanding of the guidelines within which behavior is satisfactory or undesirable. Cultural competence will not indicate conformity to these norms and rules.

Cultural competence is equivalent to communicative competence in many aspects. Communicative competence (the term discussed before) also signifies knowledge of many areas of culture and culture: varieties of address, alternatives of register and style, dissimilarities between sociable and regional dialects, and the interpersonal values attached to these differences. These items refer to quality top features of the culture. In terminology teaching, for case, communicative competence includes certain areas of sociocultural information. To a certain extent, however, ethnical competence differs from communicative competence for the reason that it refers mainly to social and cultural tendencies and facts, and less with their linguistic manifestations.

To achieve success in the intercultural communication, both linguistic competence and social competence are needed. The looks of disharmony, misunderstandings and even issues in communication is basically due to a lack of cultural competence. Inside the century of the global intercultural communication, the purpose of foreign language coaching must be changed. A transfer should be produced to the cultivation of intercultural communication competence.

9. Arousing Students' Cultural Awareness

Cultural consciousness is the term used to describe level of sensitivity to the impact of culturally induced behavior on vocabulary use and communication. It refers to an understanding of one's own and other's cultures that affect how people think and respond. It deals with geographical knowledge, the data about the efforts of the mark culture to world civilization, the data about variations in the means of life as well as a knowledge of ideals and attitudes in the second dialect community. Cultural recognition includes understanding commonalities of individual behavior and dissimilarities in cultural patterns. It must be viewed both as permitting language proficiency and as being the outcome of reflection on language proficiency.

Intercultural communicative awareness means the sensibility to the impact of

culturally induced patterns in communications across cultures. It involves the capability to identify cultural variety and develop empathy (to see things from the point of view of others). Over a less translucent level, intercultural recognition might be as easy as becoming aware of cultural variations as they apply to the use of "yes" or "no". For instance, , realizing that in the American culture, people tend to be direct and avoid roundabout answers, we'd not make an answer like "Do not bother", to the host's question "Do you like even more potato soup?" instead, we would respond by declaring "Yes, please. " if we really want some, or "No, say thanks to. you. " if we think we have had enough of computer. Someone's socio-cultural knowledge restricts how he exploits his linguistic probable. It is generally believed that if a person lacks socio-cultural knowledge relevant to the target language, an individual can hardly use a words accurately and properly and be an efficient intercultural communicator.

Cultural awareness coaching should be involved with viewpoints, and with allowing

students to gain a perspective through evaluation which is neither completely one nor the other. Along the way of evaluation from two viewpoints there is placed the probability of attaining leverage on both cultures, and in doing so acquiring an intercultural communicative competence. With all the coming of more opportunity for Chinese to interact with English native-speakers, a fund of knowledge about aim for culture can to a sizable extent, guarantee a highly effective intercultural communication. Therefore, arousing social awareness becomes an indispensable part in spanish teaching and learning.

In teaching social recognition, Ned Seelye offers a construction for facilitating the development of cross-cultural communication skills. The next goals are a modification of his "seven goals of ethnical instruction".

To help students to develop an understanding of the fact that all people show culturally-conditioned manners.

To help students to develop a knowledge of social factors such as age, sex, social class, and place of residence, the ways that people speak and patterns.

To help students to be more alert to conventional behavior in keeping situations in the prospective language.

To help students to increase their awareness of the social connotations of content in the prospective language.

To help students to build up the ability to evaluate and refine generalizations about the mark culture, in terms of supporting evidence.

To help students to develop the necessary skills to find and coordinate information about the target culture.

To stimulate students' intellectual curiosity about the target culture, also to encourage empathy towards its people.

In integrating British culture awareness into coaching, there are two problems we have to consider, the first problem to be tackled is how to provide the cultural information needed. The point regarding this problem is the fact that second-language professors may attempt to educate culture when they are not equipped to take action through no fault of their own. The other point is the fact even if indeed they know how to train (through various techniques of presenting culture), without a definite understanding of what to educate (the culture content), they can hardly include various activities geared toward the culture aims into their classes. For one thing, teachers need assistance in conquering their insufficient knowledge about the next culture; for another, in the prep and selection of educating materials, the culture content picked may sometimes be concentrated on the abnormal, the bizarre and the exotic characteristics of the culture. In order to avoid distress and misunderstanding, the tutor is advised to spell it out all areas of the situation rather than treating the social phenomenon in isolation, and present culture content at a rate or in a manner to that your students can connect some relationship between your information and their own background experiences. Regardless of whether teachers know very well what to teach and exactly how to instruct, there continues to be a problem related to finding time in the school period to add culture. The class time is limited, so how much time should be spent instructing culture? Dwelling too much on culture isn't only a waste of time but also of no help to the students.

The second problem is that though most spanish teachers do not deny the importance of instructing culture, few teachers actively test whether students are attaining their social goals. Instructors may incidentally attend to culture by inserting ideas during the school period and subsequently neglect to check students understanding of the framework. Often students do not realize that the instructor is attempting to teach areas of the second words culture. One of the known reasons for this lack of awareness is that culture usually is not considered a fundamental element of the course content. If culture is to be an important goal in the second language school, it must be educated and examined systematically. Currently, the most practical approach to testing culture is to check the facts. Objective checks and essay checks may be used to test understanding of facts and understanding into cultural habit.

The problems mentioned above mean a lot to second language educators and learners.

Undertaking the coaching of culture is definately not being simple. In accomplishing this task, the teacher should be a nice knowledge imparter, a competent time finder, an amiable activity custom, a protean acting professional and an assiduous learner as well. For students, over time, they will advantage a lot from the culture learning experience that helps them achieve success cross-cultural communicators.

Undoubtedly, being truly a successful cross-cultural communicator is an exciting, interesting and enriching experience that will open up the doorways to both personal development and satisfaction. Therefore, the integration of English culture consciousness into coaching in China means a demanding and challenging process both for English educators and learners.

10. Producing Intercultural Understanding

Cultural understanding is the key part of ethnic studies. It needs a detailed evaluation of civilizations. The teaching of culture should lead students to see directly through connection with native audio system and through developing some sorts of personal relationship with the target language community. Quite simply, culture understanding involves, besides the cognitive, a social and affective aspect. The primary content of ethnical understanding protects

1) Understanding of lifestyle, including unfamiliar conventions, such as writing the or reading a timetable.

2) Knowledge of social connotations of content. The students should show awareness that culturally conditioned images are associated with even the most common target content.

3) Evaluating claims about culture, demanding the interpretation of the mark culture and the learners' own culture. The students should show the ability to make, assess and refine generalities regarding the target culture.

4) The introduction of curiosity about understanding is toward the second culture. The students should illustrate intellectual fascination with the target culture.

11. Culture Shock

While mentioning expanding intercultural understanding, we have to also say something about culture shock, which stands in the way of hindering our intercultural understanding. Culture surprise is a common experience for a person learning another language in a second culture. The word was first introduced by an anthropologist Oberg, he offers an in depth account of this phenomenon: "Culture great shock is precipitated by the anxiousness that results from burning off all our familiar indications and symbols of public intercourse. These signs or symptoms or cues are the thousand and one ways in which we orient ourselves to the problem of daily life---Now these cues which might be words, gestures, cosmetic expressions, customs, or norms are received by all of us throughout growing up and are the maximum amount of an integral part of our culture as the words we speak or the beliefs we accept. All of us be dependent for our peace of mind and efficiency on a huge selection of these cues, almost all of which we aren't consciously aware. "

Culture great shock is induced by the stress that results from getting rid of all our familiar signs or symptoms and icons or social connections. Those cues or signs include various ways: when to tremble hands and what things to say whenever we meet people, when and how to give tips, how to buy things, when to accept or refuse invitations, when to speak statements seriously so when not. In this way, culture shock is regarded as a kind of anxiety. The individual undergoing culture shock reflects his panic and nervousness with culture distinctions through a variety of body's defence mechanism: repression, regression, isolation and rejection. These defensive attitudes talk about a basic underlying insecurity which may encompass loneliness. anger, annoyance and self-questioning of competence. While using familiar signs of social understanding removed, the individual becomes disoriented and alienated from the things that he recognizes and recognizes.

We have known the actual fact that the primary cause of culture great shock is displacement from our "home" culture. This insufficient common experiences and familiar environment creates varying degrees of consequences, all of these consequences would definitely hamper intercultural communication, thus, coping with the problems and anxieties associated with culture shock is quite useful in cultivating intercultural communicative competence.

12. Conquering Intercultural Communicative Barriers

Why is it that getting in touch with with people from other ethnicities is frequently 'frustrating? Sometimes rejection occurs because the group to which a person belongs is "different". Within the international field, it's appropriate at this time of major changes to take a hard take a look at some of the reason why for the unsatisfactory results of tries at communication. They can be actually stumbling blocks in intercultural communication. Corresponding to L. M. Barna (1992), there are several factors that can certainly cause misunderstandings. 1) Misunderstandings happen as a result of assumption of similarities. Many people natively believe there are sufficient similarities among folks of the earth to make communication easy. They expect simply that being individual and having common requirements of food, shelter, security, etc makes everyone equally. Unfortunately, they overlook the idea that the forms of adaptation to the common biological and cultural needs and the values, beliefs, and behaviour encompassing them are greatly not the same as culture to culture, 2) Misunderstandings arise because of language variances. Vocabulary, syntax, idioms, slang, dialects, etc all cause difficulties. You will find other terminology problems, including different varieties of using terms such as direct, indirect; expansive, succinct; argumentative, conciliatory; instrumental, harmonizing; and so forth. These different styles can result in incorrect interpretations of intent and evaluations amongst others. 3) Learning the terminology, which is known as by most people to international countries as their only barrier to understanding, is in fact only the beginning. Because the nonverbal misinterpretations of observable nonverbal. signals and icons are a particular communication barrier. 4) Another reason behind misunderstandings is the existence of preconceptions and stereotypes_ Stereotypes that we have discussed in the last section are stumbling blocks for communicators because they interfere with objective viewing of other folks. They aren't easy to overcome because they are firmly proven as myths by one's own countrywide culture. 5) Tendency to evaluate is another factor to arouse misunderstandings. Instead of try to understand thoughts and emotions from the worldview of others, we assume our very own culture or life-style is the easiest. This bias helps prevent the open-mindedness needed to examine behaviour and conducts from the others' items of view. 6) High stress or tension, also called stress, is common in cross-cultural experiences because of the number of uncertainties present. Moderate tension and positive attitudes prepare someone to meet problems with energy. An excessive amount of anxiety or tension require some varieties of relief, which all too often comes in the form of defenses, like the skewing of perceptions, withdrawal, or hostility. That's why it is considered a serious stumbling block.

Being alert to the above mentioned misunderstandings is certainly the first rung on the ladder to avoid them, but it is not easy. For many people it takes information, training, and sometimes an alteration of long-standing habits or thinking habits before improvement can be produced.

13. Conclusion

With the development of knowledge and technology and the globalization of world current economic climate, the communication between various cultures has become closer and more repeated. The intercultural communication is becoming one of the topics of society, which demands the introduction of culture teaching. The teaching of culture should become a fundamental element of foreign language teaching. "Culture should be our subject matter to students and language our medium"(Peck, 1998). Frontiers have opened rather than before have nations come closer to one another-in theory, at least. Because of this, folks from different ethnicities weave their lives into an international cloth that is starting to fray at the edges by virtue of miscommunication and propaganda. To avoid this ignominious ethnical and politics disintegration, and foster empathy and understanding, instructors should "present students with a true picture or representation of another culture and language"(Singhal, 1998). Which will be performed only if ethnical awareness is viewed as something more than merely a compartmentalized subject matter within the foreign language curriculum; that is, when culture "inhabits" the school room and undergirds every vocabulary activity.

In addition, English teachers must be capable of mastering the data within the teaching material completely and deeply. Learning the knowledge within the teaching materials and the supplementary knowledge was the least dependence on a good instructor. Besides, he must be good at supplying the theory of education and teaching, give consideration to the student's emotional characteristic and receptivity, choose the most appropriate teaching method and make students get good at knowledge. Teachers should also train students' inside motive of research. When students' attention and interest are activated, the internal purpose produced and the students will take the initiative in study. If they're interested in the culture, mass media, customs and habits of international countries, their interior motive will be stimulated. Therefore, an English teacher should try to motivate them you should.

In order to get good intercultural communicative competence, students should

possess cultural history information in their dialect learning process. They are able to learn and practice the patterns of daily life in the mark culture by participating in the information-oriented activities to be able to know about the existing lifestyle in the mark culture and compare this lifestyle start of their own to find the similarities and differences. In this way, students can better put together themselves for the every day communication they are likely to encounter, improve the skills needed for effective communication, and improve the cultural consciousness and level of sensitivity.

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