Curriculum Development

Unit 6 Curriculum Development for inclusive practice

Curriculum is defined as the following; a specific blueprint for learning that is derived from content and performance standards. Curriculum takes content and shapes it into an idea for effective teaching and learning. Thus, curriculum is more than a general framework, it is a particular plan with identified lessons within an appropriate form and sequence for directing teaching (Wiggins and McTighe, 1998).

The word 'curriculum' is actually a Latin word for 'racecourse'. Curriculum is the activities that learners will undertake to accomplish their learning goals.

The planning, learners experience and order where it occurs are area of the curriculum. There are a huge and vast amount of elements that help shape a curriculum. There are many different methods and methods to the design and implementation of curriculum and a lot is dependant on the teachers' approach of computer. In the world of training, the curriculum can designed across the objectives of the clients specifications.

Most of that time period curriculum is based on the organisational needs of learning and objectives, for example, their curriculum. Approval from external agencies, for example, awarding bodies give approval for the qualification to be delivered. The awarding bodies provide you with the syllabus or guidance gives the teacher the info and framework for delivery and assessment of the subject matter. External agencies may provide funding in some instances and in this situation the course is only going to be provided after the funding has been attained.

Within working out in-house sector of teaching, it is normally the business and individual needs' that sets the benchmark for the requirement of bespoke classes. In house training/teaching appeal to the needs of the staff and in almost all a lot of the courses achieved by the learners do not lead to formal qualifications.

In every one of the above instances the organisation will supply the syllabus or course content to shape the curriculum. When the syllabus or course content is unavailable the teacher will have to develop their own based around the subject that has to be delivered. The aim of the teachers is to recognize the learning needs, styles and the potential of the learners, this needs' to be performed at the last to the beginning of the students learning.

As an example of this a school's curriculum comprises both statutory elements (like the National Curriculum, religious education and careers educations) and non statutory elements (priorities defined by the institution). An area where you will see a need for equality and diversity in the look of the curriculum would be children with multi-sensory impairments. One of the fundamental principles of the code of practice is that all children, including people that have special educational needs should be offered full access to a broad, balanced and relevant education. This is exactly what the national curriculum was designed to provide. Some children who are multi-sensory-impaired will observe the National Curriculum, usually with additional support. Others will follow a modified form of computer. Still others will observe more specialised developmental curricula that will include teaching a kid things that non-disabled children already know by enough time they start school.

Even children who follow the same curriculum as non-disabled peers, however, will usually need additional elements because of their sensory impairment. These may relate to

* mobility skills, communication, sensory development or other aspects specifically damaged by deaf blindness

* remedy needs - for example, physiotherapy

* concepts usually learned incidentally - for example, the interpersonal and independence skills used at break or meal times

All teachers modify the curriculum in order to meet up with the range of learning needs in their class. Children who are multi-sensory-impaired are likely to need the curriculum modified on an individual basis, because each child's mixture of hearing impairment, visual impairment, other disabilities and learning characteristics changes.

There a wide range of models which affect the delivery of curriculum, way in which a teacher must attain the end result, should and may deliver to the learners.

For example, the merchandise model focuses hugely on the final results of an course. The merchandise model is also referred to as the behavioural objectives model. A good example could be of an initial aid course, the teacher has to teach what must be taught in order to facilitate the learners to pass. Trained in the workplace is very much indeed honed to the product/behavioural style of curriculum development. The teacher focus predominantly on what must be taught rather than concentrating on what should or could be taught

The behavioural model of learning concentrates on the measurable outcome of curriculum. The features of the behavioural model are that there surely is normally an over-all statement of intent and this is hopefully ensuring avoidance of vagueness. The assessment process is in fact more precise. The training should be step-by-step and it will focus on the previously learned material. Ralph Tyler (1971) stated that there is a guideline for curriculum development that the interacting influences of organized scholarship, the learner, and society should supply the dominant source and influence for curriculum development. Tyler organized his model into four fundamental questions, which he mentioned should be answered when making curriculum

1. What exactly are your curriculum aims and objectives?

2. Which learning activities meet these aims and objectives

3. How do these learning experience be organised into a curriculum programme?

4. How do this programme be evaluated?

The Tyler theory up to now is the most influential style of all in preparation of curriculum, the needs of society at the time of development and the needs of the learner at the time of development should be imperative. The ever evolving social psychology of the society must be accounted for, precisely what are the educational purposes having to be attained. The focus should be related to previous learning and experience and after analyse the factors how is the curriculum design going to encompass and attain the objectives that might not have been reached previously.

The philosophy of education will profoundly affect a student's life. It is providing the foundations, the areas of knowledge and social experiences are needed to improve learner's futures. A good example could be of training, the various settings and mutli-cultural workforce will have a variation on the curriculum. The curriculum should be designed together with the employers, so a competency framework will be met. Aims and objectives will have to set within in the competency framework which over time changes with legislation and regulations. The training experience should organised into the curriculum and depth, complexity of the subject, ensuring that it covers all levels of learner's attainment. Then course needs to be evaluated, how will the course be evaluated and the key objectives attained?

Simplistically the Tyler theory in practice is the most fool proof design of curriculum. The curriculum can be subjective and available to interpretation. Needs analysis before design of curriculum is imperative, the findings should be summarised and should formulate area of the curriculum development documentation, which is practice is fantastic if you hold the relevant information prior to course delivery. The world of training can be ad-hoc and trainers are not always aware of these details.

However, the behavioural model approach has received criticism. One of the arguments from the behavioural model is that the 'affective domain' cannot be considered adequately in terms of specific behaviours. The affective domain describes learning objectives that emphasize a sense tone, an emotion, or a amount of acceptance or rejection, thus it can't be assessed adequately and the behaviour model will discourage 'creativity' on the part of both learner and teacher. Within the 1980's behaviourism was superseded by the humanistic method of curriculum design and implementation.

The process model concentrates on course content, relevant knowledge and skills that may be learnt and applied. This model targets teacher's activities, the conditions in which the learning takes place and the learner activities. A good example could include when a person pays for their course of study. The learner would be getting the advantage of what 'must' and 'should' be covered as well as 'what' could be delivered.

Stenhouse (1975) quoted the English dictionary when defining curriculum as 'a course; especially a normal course of study as at school or university'. Most of the time the course design/curriculum is exactly what the governing bodies have decided should be taught. The sets just what as teachers beforehand what learning is likely to be planned, achieved and what goals should be produced to the subjected being taught.

Stenhouse challenged the view that teachers need to be objective in their view of curriculum, realistic even, to ensure that there surely is a balance between your 'intentions and realities' that the curriculum design will get the best outcomes because of their students. He draws comparisons the process of curriculum concerning a recipe in cookery, the recipe is followed and the effect will be a dish.

In theory this is often a proven, for example, how for you know if the curriculum design has achieved all the education goals before there's a evaluation at the end of the course? How many pass grades and how many failures. Like making a cake it doesn't always rise just how you'd wished it to. Often when baking the ingredients need to be adjusted or the timings.

In 2001, DDA (Disability Discrimination Act). was introduced, fortunately this means that teaching should always be inclusive, counting for the needs all of learners The curriculum must encompass best practice principles of equality and diversity in every areas. Equality of opportunity and provision means giving every student the same learning environment, and is an important element of schooling. Equality and diversity means giving students what's essential to extend them with their full potential. Some might need additional tuition to bring them to the standard of all of those other group, while some may need additional tuition to consider them beyond the group because they are with the capacity of further development and learning.

It is vital to ensure that all students are able to access the curriculum it is important to consider the curriculum content, as well as the teaching and learning practices used within the design.

With regards to design of curriculum we must attain why and what. The educational ideology such as the fundamental values, beliefs and assumptions this is incredibly prevalent in the world of care, the format is normally lay out by the governing bodies including the Commission of Social Care Inspection. Normally the needs that the course must met are the needs set out by the governing body to achieve the best degree of care for Service Users. For the key part with training, cost analysis plays heavy, is the course a requirement under the tips that contain been implemented by the governing body?

Learners in this social care field are normally trying to attain and meet performance criteria, the training outcomes are usually behavioural as the training is skill based. Nevertheless the curriculum is not considered a full entity and will not provide every opportunity highly relevant to qualifying as a healthcare worker. Ongoing learning provides opportunities to evidence knowledge, skills, experience, values and ethics. Some of the methods used to deliver the curriculum are crucial; others that aren't are open to negotiation. A diversity of methods of learning pays to to meet the several learning varieties of students. The primary objective must be continuity for the learners' and teachers alike. Coordinated Curriculum is very much relevant in the Social Care Sector. Coordinated curriculum is the technique of linking different subjects/contents together. It establishes the links between the subjects for example in Social Care it would link the psychology, sociology, biology and practice together. Coordinated curriculum means that there is a greater focus on the total context in which teaching and learning happen.

Realistically in Social Sector teachers/trainers will be using both product and process models. The process objective happens when you can't tell in advance will the student will learn advance, health and social can unmanageable in the actual fact that you will be dealing with humans (patients/service users) plus they don't always follow the curriculum recipe. Therefore, analysis will be invaluable in ascertaining if effective learning has occurred. This will help identify any problems within the curriculum design, reflection on the needs of the organisation, the syllabus and learners.

Evaluation is should be the process by which teachers judge the quality of their work, their own work and their students. Formative evaluations, which involve a continual stream of reflection and feedback, and allow the educator or student to continually modify and enhance their work while it's ongoing. Traditionally, teachers have emphasized summative evaluations, where feedback is gathered only after instruction has been completed. Both strategies are necessary to provide for effective curriculum assessment and student education. A teacher's skill in the classroom assessment is essential to the purpose of student success. In evaluating the curriculum can only just lead to a teachers continuing professional development in the life span long learning sector.

If the analysis and assessment of curriculum is to be meaningful, teachers must have the ability to relate their learning to their personal experience and practice. Kolb's Learning Cycle, outlines the four stages involved with any successful learning experience. Learning is thought as a process where experience is became knowledge. Subsequently, knowledge creates a foundation and chance of learning. In Kolb's four-staged cycle, the average person reflects on experience and draws on conclusions, which may be used to influence future action. In this way, practice, reflection, theory and action become essential parts of professional development and for that reason assist with the future of increasing practice in inclusive curriculum design.

After reading and studying the several models of curriculum, one can draw comparisons from the Ralph Tyler's BASICS of Curriculum Instruction (1949). As the trainer clear definitive learning objectives are lay out by the client, the training will hopefully be considered a useful experience to the prospect and will have a cumulative effect. Tyler's model applies the importance of evaluating the curriculum and revising any aspects that not end up being effective. Thus the importance of continuing professional development, evaluation, assessment and reflection play heavy in the product model of curriculum.

The other model found in training would be the process model by Laurence Stenhouse An introduction to Curriculum research and development (1975). Teachers or trainer need to have a high degree of professionalism and competence in their specialist subject area. The content is defined in cognitive terms; the procedure is usually that the learner must go through to learn. As mentioned earlier in the assignment, Stenhouse draws comparison to making a cake and with the social care sector the same methodology can be used. When a candidate/learner has been taught to employ a hoist but drops the individual then this would question the realities and intentions of the curriculum.

In conclusion, it is important that the teacher is actually involved whatsoever stages of any curriculum development and review. This will likely ensure that quality assurance happens at all stages of development. The teacher therefore can maintain positivity that all parts of curriculum contains all the relevant information such as the course goal, aims and objectives, rationale, entry requirements, evaluation, assessment etc. Any curricula should ensure that schools/higher education programs must be delivered in the most effective and up to date manner as possible. In reviewing the main topic of curriculum it should permit a teacher to think about addressing the recognized needs of the students within the educational establishments or programmes. Curriculum should also provide a tool for examining the product quality and completeness of the curriculum's components for, example, instructional principles, functional knowledge, self-perceptions, attitudes, skills, and duration. Through frequent analysis it can help to look for the amount of fidelity between the curriculum and its own application in the classroom; and determine the impact of the curriculum on students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour.

As David Ausubel (1969) suggested the learning process should be approached like a mental journey!

Geoff Petty quotes ' We ought to seek a win-win curriculum that puts the needs of people on equal conditions with economical and other factors'. The quote really say it all as we are purely developing curriculum with the key objective of imparting knowledge and skills on the learners into the future that will hopefully have a good influence on the economy in the 21st century.

Bibliography

Gray D, Griffin C and Nasta T (2005) Training to instruct in Further and Adult Education. Cheltenham, UK. Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Armitage, A et al (2007) Teaching and Trained in Post-Compulsory Education, Maidenhead, Open University Press

Reece, I & Walker, S. , (2005) Teaching, Training & Learning: a practical guide. (5th Edition). Sunderland: Business Education Publishers

Walkin, L (1990) Teaching and Learning in Further Education, Cheltenham, Stanley Morris

Internet

National Curriculum http://curriculum. qca. org. uk/

Accessed on 21st February 2009

Qualifications and Curriculum Authority http://www. qca. org. uk/

Accessed on 25th February 2009

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