George Washington Carver said that "education is the key to unlock the fantastic door of independence" (n. d. in BrainyQuote, 2010) and nowhere is this more true than for many who experience learning troubles. Atlanta divorce attorneys educational environment it is important that the students feel appreciated; whatever their learning troubles they need to feel included as a part of the institution community where any obstacles to learning are removed in order to optimise "learning and involvement" (Booth, Ainscow, Black-Hawkins, Vaughan and Shaw, 2000, P. 13) and they are providing something valuable into the class room where their attempts and achievement will be accepted (Ofsted, 2000, P. 4). The key to having the ability to support all students in their learning is first class assessment which recognizes individual pupils' talents and weaknesses so that ideal provision can be produced for the coffee lover (Combination, 2004, P. 117) which is specially important in guarding "specialist provision for those who require it" (Croll and Moses, 2000, P. 1). "Sometimes professors instruct or inform, offering as transmitters of information that students have to acquire at other times instructors show and illustrate, acting as mentors and mentors alternatively than as instructors" (Hargreaves, 2005, P. 5) - the aim of this article is to analyse behaviourist and cognitive approaches to learning for those who have learning difficulties identifying the talents and weaknesses in each method when put on the teaching.
Historically children have been presented with a didactic model of learning: these were advised when to enter into school, what these were heading to learn and were instructed about how precisely they were heading to learn it irrespective or their personal skills; students were all designed to write with the right palm even if it didn't come by natural means to them much to their stress - my great grandmother for example. The education system became a " process of learning to education by which children are anticipated to learn by intention participation in important, useful occupations, with a manufacturing plant style of education by set up line teaching" (Bruce, 2004, P. Xi). This implemented very much the Behaviourist Model which argues that learning is set up through our connections with external stimuli which alters how we tackle things (Glassman, 1995): the behaviourist school of thought grew from the pioneering work of Ivan Pavlov and his use pet dogs; at the sound of the bell he could start salivation in the animals in anticipation of receiving food which prolonged long following the food was not delivered as expected - this became known as 'Classical Conditioning'. Wayne Watson (who first used the word 'behaviourism') prolonged this work and attested that all human behaviour was the consequence of responding to stimuli in a conditioned manner - he even gone so far as to claim that anyone, regardless of what their social status or ability, could be schooled to fulfil any job or profession so long as these were healthy and applied themselves in their learning (Watson, 1924, P. 82) and that an adult carefully controlled the conditions for the stimuli and the replies (Keenan, 2002, P. 24). Experiments that were carried out with children to test this theory, notably by Watson and Rayner, illustrated that both fear and pleasure could be associated with particular objects or sounds; this led those to theorise that " rewards or reinforcements could happen from the satisfaction of inner needs and could provide a inspiration for learning" (Tilstone, Layton, Anderson, Gerrish, Morgan and Williams, 2004, P. 45).
Skinner further developed these ideas into what he called 'Operant Fitness'; he submit the idea that actions that were reinforced, either favorably through reward or adversely through abuse, would be duplicated - he actively encouraged instructors and educators on the whole to concrete a child's success through the use of positive reward and reinforcement. Positive reinforcement entails rewarding correct behavior or replies such as reading a sentence without error leading to a celebrity being given, progressing to two lines followed by a paragraph etc to gain the incentive and encourage learning. He felt that children were led and could be 'formed' in their learning and parents and instructors needed to reinforce their learning whenever and wherever it happened - "quite simply, when a parent or guardian or carer shows eagerness for something a kid tries to say, this will encourage the kid to do it again the utterance" (David, Goouch, Powell and Abbott 2003, P. 49). Skinner also thought that the acquisition of knowledge would have to be tackled in phases which built on the prevailing learning of the individual engaged proposing "a 'technology of instructing' whereby instruction is individualised, complex verbal behaviours steadily shaped, support for appropriate responses is steady and immediate, and discovered behaviours are looked after by intermittent support schedules. " (Ormrod, 2004, Ps. 79-80). Having said that it is individualised it is mechanistic in characteristics following a establish style of repetition, correction and praise following successful modification to embed the abilities in to the learner (Capel, 1997, P. 136); this type of learning treats the child like a kind of human being sponge (Kirk, Macdonald and O'Sullivan, 2006, P. 295) - they are generally known as 'order' or 'practice' styles and are often seen in content such as Physical Education (Byra, 2006, in Kirk et al, 2006, P. 450). These theorists located great emphasis on the linear dynamics of development - "what we call development in this view, is very only a long group of individual learning encounters" (Bee, 1989, P. 14) - considering learning to be the same for those whatever their age or level in life (Tilstone, Layton, Anderson, Gerrish, Morgan and Williams, 2004, P. 50) reinforcing the necessity for educators to look at how students are acquiring their learning necessitating correct and detailed record keeping in order to be able to properly assess and assess their work. That is crucial in order to fully appeal to individuals who are experiencing difficulties in their learning.
The word 'cognitive' comes from the Latin cognoscere this means 'to know'; all the processes that are undertaken in thinking and knowing about anything are what is known as cognitive actions. "Cognitive development is the study of how these procedures develop in children and young people, and how they become more useful and effective in their knowledge of the planet and in their mental operations" (Oakley, 2004, P. 2). Every specific thinks and reasons in different ways, with a child's techniques being different from that of an adult which explains why cognitive approaches to education are both exciting and complex in their constitute.
Jean Piaget was one of the first to check out how children learn as individuals in their own right and that their thought process and for that reason learning was dissimilar to that of an adult. He argued that children proceed through some levels in their development which can be linear in nature which means that they happen at approximately the same time (Long, 2000, P. 32): they can be 'sensori - motor' (delivery to about eighteen weeks), the 'pre - operational' (eighteen a few months to about six years), the 'concrete functional' (six to approximately eleven years) and the 'formal functional' (eleven years onwards). Piaget contests that the way that individuals learn in their lives differs at each of these stages and that because of this " the way children perceive the entire world, the way they process and respond to information, and the way they develop ideas and principles" (Moore, 2000, P. 9) will be different too. He presumed that maturity affected the way that children thought and learned declaring that ". . . humans are, from early childhood, active, unbiased meaning manufacturers who construct knowledge rather than obtain it" (Moore, 2000, P. 7). He identified children to be capable of making their own knowledge of their experiences and the entire world around them consequently of the inbuilt attention and need for knowledge and understanding. Piaget put forward the idea that we now have two distinct stages to the learning process; the first entails the kid demonstrating their knowledge of a particular experience or idea that they come across on earth incidentally in which they assimilate or 'assimilate' this new data involved with it, for example a child using a large box as a house when they are participating in; the other is recognized as 'accommodation' which identifies the learners ability to " make sense of the new event taking place in the environment" (Leonard, 2002, P. 1). Piaget believed these two phases needed to be perfectly balanced if effective learning would have the ability to take place as it is merely "by the simultaneous action of assimilation and accommodation. . . [that] occasions are perceived as meaningful and at exactly the same time generate changes in the interpretive techniques" (Barnes, 1976, P. 22). Due to every single experience that people have in life their perceptions of and interaction with the planet around them changes and Piaget regards this as part of the process of learning and cognitive development - "to comprehend is to find, or reconstruct by rediscovery, and such conditions must be complied with if in the foreseeable future folks are to be developed who are capable of production and creativeness and not repetition" (1973). The cognitive set ups " change in response to problems when incoming information cannot be accommodated within existing plans, and modes of pondering develop with natural growth" (Tilstone et al, 2004, P. 20).
A similar path was accompanied by the work of Bruner who studied the operations behind learning and problem handling. Both stress the importance of engagement in problem handling activities which promote links with finding alternatives (Timber, 1998) as well as there being levels by which learners acquire and develop their knowledge: Bruner describes them as enactive - understanding is promoted in the learner through connections with the globe, iconic - when images are more frequently found in order to remember knowledge and information and symbolic - the utilization of complex systems of symbols, for example vocabulary, to convey understanding and abstract thought; these correspond to Piaget's sensori-motor [enactive], pre-operational [iconic] and concrete and formal operational [symbolic] (Smith, 1999, P. 20). Bruner talks about that the first level is characterised by action for the learner in that the identification of objects " appears to depend not so much on the things themselves but on the actions evoked by them" (Bruner, 1966, P. 12). As the learner matures there may be less need to work together physically with things to understand them as they develop the capability to see something in their head (the iconic level). The learner moves to the symbolic stage through discussion with the world and the ones around them to be able to develop vocabulary and communication within the context of the culture to that they are open as " learning, remembering, talking, imagining; all of them are permitted by taking part in a culture" (Bruner, 1996, P. xi). As a result he appears to equate learning issues or problems with an lack of culturally stimulating conditions instead of deficiencies in any child (Tilstone, 2000 in Tilstone et al, 2004, P. 25) offering particular attention to three distinct areas or 'amplifiers' - motoric, sensory and reflective. Motoric protects physical extensions of human capabilities like cutlery and forks for eating, spears for hunting, tools for farming and cars to transport ourselves around quicker and efficiently. Sensory requires the enhancement of the way that the earth and folks in it are perceived for example simple things such as spectacles or magnifying eyeglasses. Reflective includes the means by which communication skills are learnt, developed and shared with those around us; parents and carers start this technique with both verbal and non verbal cues enabling them to 'scaffold' communication through holding their attention while building on their reactions (Tilstone, 2004, P. 26). Often this will mean that adults will task children to increase their capabilities and skills through this which Bruner is convinced is the right move to make - "as a instructor, you do not wait for readiness to occur; you foster or 'scaffold' it by deepening the child's power at the stage where you find her or him now" (1996, P. 120). He believed that detailed development can be done through this type of social/cultural interaction.
Vygotsky furthered the idea that social relationship was the catalyst for the introduction of a kid - "the entire background of a child's subconscious development shows us that, from the 1st days of development, its adaptation to the environment is achieved through communal means, through the individuals adjoining it" (Vygotsky and Luria, 1993, P. 116). Kozulin, Gindis, Ageyev and Millar (2003) inform us that "at the heart of Vygotsky's theory lies the understanding of individual cognition and learning as communal and cultural rather than specific phenomena" (P. 1). He laid great pressure on the socio cultural conditions which shape the development of children (Kozulin et al, 2003, P. 2), thinking that "absolutely everything in the behaviour of the kid is merged and rooted in social relationships" (Vygotski, 1932 in Ivic, 1989, P. 429) and their interactions using their peers, teachers, individuals and the city all together. He in reality stressed that relationship, teaching and learning were important to the other person and that they could have no rigidly identified techniques ascribed to them (Popkevitz, 1998, P. 538).
These ideas about cognitive development are known as social cognitive due to their being a combination of sociable and cognitive theory; they centre circular children's dealings with the environment and those in it utilising the several communication skills that they have learnt. Vygotsky is convinced that children learn from watching and copying or modelling the different behaviours of these around them using a amount of different ethnical tools, for example a small child pointing a finger sometimes appears at first as an inconsequential grasping action which changes into a substantial one as people react to it (Vygotsky, 1978, P. 56). He emphasised two points in terms of learning, mediation and the development of internal tools. Mediation can be seen as a learner using assists which are both individuals and 'symbolic' to be able to understand the info that should be learnt; in the beginning of the process something needs to be learnt is modelled and discovered by the learner who internalises it, so that it is part of these psyche having had time to think about it; this type of mediation can take countless different forms from simple information and encouragement to complex advice and scaffolding in order to attain the understanding of an idea but instead than try to explain mediation it is more important to understand it "provides a point of view on how to look at interpersonal engagements and arrangements" (Rogoff, 1995, P. 146-147). Mental health tools are " those symbolic systems specific for confirmed culture that when internalised by individual learners become their internal cognitive tools" (Kozulin et al, 2003, P. 3) which aid them in "mastering mental procedures" (Daniels, 2001, P. 15) and provides them the capability to "control the conditions with their future keeping in mind" (Bakhurst, 1996, P. 202). Vygotsky experienced that the higher cognitive operations could only be accessed and developed by learners through copying or imitating men and women or older more experienced people due to what he known as the 'Area of Proximal Development' (ZPD); he identified this as a " latent learning 'gap' between what a child can do on his or her own and what can be done by using a more skilful other" (Richardson, 1998, P. 163). It is through following the lead of someone else that individuals have the ability to develop the abilities and the cognitive capability to be able to accomplish tasks alone.
Siegler presumed that the linear way of regarding cognitive development did not paint a complete enough picture of the facts you can watch about learning, like the anomaly of a variety of different skill levels within the same age group of children. He developed an 'overlapping waves' theory in striving to better understand how children develop where the focus was on " the amount of strategies that a child might use at any era alternatively than which specific strategy a child might use most during which level" (Calais, 2008, P. 3). Siegler made three assumptions on which he based his idea: children use a number of solutions to address a problem, not only one; methods of pondering and strategies that are used remain with people for indefinite periods of time; children use the experience that they have to enable them to build towards and get to more complex tactical thinking. He declares that variability is undeniable when one observes how an individual or group handle a problem and that inconsistencies in way is seen in individuals who use different strategies to addresses the same concern on different times. Siegler highlights five phases in learning; acquisition of pleasing strategies, mapping strategies onto new problems, building up strategies for constant usage, refining alternatives and executing interesting strategies (Calais, 2008, P. 4). These levels are all evident in the development of children's cognitive skills although they could actually be going right through many of them at the same time. Similar to Piaget and Vygotsky, Siegler discovered that the ability of the learner to choose an appropriate strategy to be able to address an issue got better the more mature and skilled they truly became thus possibly accounting for why individuals within an organization might tackle a difficulty differently in spite of being from the same culture.
The educating techniques which are associated with these schools of thought are almost diametrically opposed to one another. The behaviourist model is one which is teacher centered and revolves around the pupils following instructions that they are directed at achieve a specific end. It is a mechanised and unimaginative way of working but is one that is vital if children are to learn the fundamentals of any skill. Sadly there is absolutely no substitute in a great number of areas of the curriculum for training based teaching in order to ingrain the abilities into students prior to shifting to more complex skills. Types of this can be readily seen in the mathematics classrooms where I myself sat through what appeared like endless practice of times desks either through chanting as a course or via targeted questioning of individuals to ensure that that they had been learned properly; the basic rules of algebra have to be learnt before trying to work out equations or problems; Physical Education lessons are packed with the 'command' or 'practice' design of lessons where instructions and demonstration of skills are given followed by practice of skills in isolation, reviews from the practitioner and peers followed by time for improvement and a short game to contextualise the recently learnt skill. The good thing about this type of learning environment is that it's very centered on specific learning goals, the lessons focusing on those only in 'bite size' bits which is well suited for those with learning issues; the drawback is that it does not allow for liberty of expression or for the average person talents of students to be developed.
Cognitive institutions of thought would encourage educators to contextualise any skills that students are learning at all times or at least whenever it is possible to do so. This would involve starting focus on a topic by assessing the actual student already is aware and making a programme of work from that time. This would permit the students with learning complications to feel comfortable in their ability to make progress in that they are you start with familiar territory making the chance of what is to come less intimidating and possibly overwhelming. Classrooms third, sort of methodology are a lot more creative in that they allow, as far as possible, for the pupils to steer the learning towards place goals allowing for these to be as imaginative as is feasible in the process. This child centred approach requires a high amount of organisation in and management of the school room and necessitates a assessed lay out of the class because of its various functions. In the primary classroom there would have to be specific areas for each different activity to be able to maximise the training potential of the surroundings - for example a computer area, a development area, a job play area, a carpet area and a reading or calm area. The professors work area could be placed in the middle of the class room for ease of access for everyone with clear gangways to aid uninhibited movement around the room. The shows should be vibrant, colourful and current indicating to the category that their work is valuable and worth being exhibited - an especially important point for those with learning challenges who invariably have low self esteem. Topic established work allows mix curricular links to be forged which really is a strength of the approach to learning: for example a topic on the Great Fire of London could be tackled encompassing a number of different regions of the curriculum; history would obviously be covered as the building blocks of the analysis alongside a report of how the buildings of the time were created, why they might have burnt so quickly and exactly how they could have been constructed to make sure they are safer; British and Literacy could be covered through the structure of fire safety posters and poems and the city could be involved through the visit from the local fire service workers. The children would be prompted to work both on their own and as users of an organization for different parts of the study they are commencing using the people as a resource from which to glean information or even to aid them in their planning of how to overcome part or parts of their work. The drawback of this method of approaching teaching is the huge amount of preparation which must be completed prior to the session to support the creative talents within the band of children however the advantage is the fact pupils are motivated to complete work to a high standard which expresses their knowledge and understanding of this issue to its fullest extent irrespective of their relative talents or expertise.
There is not any easy or definitive way to instruct the skill of reading to any child aside from those who experience learning problems. The current styles appear to be a blend of the behaviourist and the cognitive solutions which bring in 'the best of both worlds'. Before applying any programme it is important to understand the particular level at which children are operating when they enter in the class room. Some key children will curently have acquired the basics of letter reputation and even some reading skills. However it is important to determine where they can be and how to go about reinforcing the essential skills which will allow them to access books and reading materials in the foreseeable future. It is very important to understand that the teaching of reading was created to cover two areas - the mechanised areas of decoding words and the comprehension of these. Decoding is the means by which people have the ability to interpret written words on a full page and make sure they are into meaningful looks; this involves providing them with the abilities to have the ability to sound out characters and syllables to be able to construct the words that appear on the site. It gives people the capability to read almost anything even if it is slowly through the decoding process - initially this involves using words with that your learner is familiar accompanied by the intro of a lot more sophisticated ones.
The most popular method at present is that of phonics - the utilization of notice/sound associations to recognise words. You can find five basic skills that happen to be required for reading and writing that happen to be learning the looks of the characters, learning the formation of the letters, mixing, recognising looks in words and spelling words that are different or difficult (Jolly Phonics, n. d. ). The concept has been popularised by the development of lots of products for the utilization of both parents and academic institutions to assist students of most ages and abilities with their reading. Phonics provides the learner with that which is commonly accessible, easily produced and comprehensible to them - does sound, which may then be linked to words. There are a variety of different solutions in terms of composition but I am concentrating on one, that of Jolly Phonics. To begin with children are educated the 44 main sounds in English in seven distinctive groups:
(Jolly Phonics, n. d. )
These are known as digraphs and are along with a series of activities (encompassing a multi sensory approach, examples of which are below) which match the characters to help the children to keep in mind them which gradually become pointless as the learner increases in self-confidence.
Weave hand in an s shape, just like a snake, and say ssssss
Wiggle hands above elbow as if ants crawling on you and say a, a, a.
Turn head laterally as if seeing playing golf and say t, t, t.
Pretend to be a mouse by wriggling fingers at end of nasal area and squeak i, i, i.
Pretend to puff out candles and say p, p, p.
Make a sound, as if you are a plane - hold forearms out and say nnnnnn.
(Jolly Phonics, n. d)
They learn each letter by its sound, for example 'a' is good for 'a'nt which can only help with blending later in the process. The first group of letter above are launched first as they offer the best amount of three letter words when coupled with one another. The students are then trained how to carry a pencil effectively accompanied by how to form letters within an appropriate way. That is followed by mixing which is the procedure of articulating the average person sounds in a word before operating them together to create the whole. All children should try to learn this stage and get better with repetition and encouragement. This is the key with those people who have special needs - having the encouragement and the assurance to try and not dread making mistakes. It may need the adult to say the parts of the word first to ensure that the pupil can hear them before duplicating them which could be seen as the adult providing the support or scaffolding for the child to progress to another level (Vygotsky's Area of Proximal Development). Video games can be enjoyed like I-Spy to encourage children to listen for the tones in different elements of words and mixing cards can be helpful in this process. Spelling is another issue with lots of possibilities available to assist in this learning process for example 'Look, Cover, Write, Check' or Mnemonics (the first notice in each expression of a expressing spelling a term, e. g. fish - Frogs In Silly Hats).
As we can easily see from the above example of the coaching of reading and from teaching techniques in general there are advantages and disadvantages in each teaching method. If one would like to get a safety message across about crossing a road it could not be befitting the children to determine by participating in 'hen' with the automobiles! They would have to be given specific instructions concerning how to perform the objective safely and if necessary practice in the playground in a job play situation to ensure that the communication has been used. The basics in reading need to be given through instructions and practice before words can be utilized artistically in the framework of story writing, revealing to and reading. Lots of practice and exposure to words around the class through colourful exhibits with pictures coupled with words will lead to a comfort and knowledge of reading and the written word which is specially valuable for people that have learning difficulties. Reading is a basic and necessary skill which one needs not and then access a curriculum to be able to pass exams but to be able to function in the standard way in life. Those with learning difficulties hold the right to be taught also to learn this skill of communication; there may be nobody all encompassing way to do this and practitioners have to build up lots of skills and ways to accommodate the several needs of the personalities in their care and attention. Any difficulty. there has to be a mixture of both behaviourist and cognitive methods to receive the best from children as some aspects need to be specifically taught whereas others can be guided and learned through shared activity with both their peers and adults alike.
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