Disability could be obvious or invisible, non permanent or everlasting. The first major and organized record of handicapped individuals in Pakistan can be obtained from 1961 census. Relating to the record nearly 2 percent of the populace suffered from a myriad of disabilities, particularly the children of age group 0-14 years following the initial turmoil, many parents develop healthy and constructive frame of mind towards their handicapped children maximum population of Pakistan lives in rural areas so most the kids are created and raised there. The overall condition of our villages provides their life as start with multiple disadvantages. They have problems with illness induced by malnutrition and non-hygienic condition. The problem of handicapped children is definately not satisfactory. The causes of this tragedy are poverty, ignorance, malnutrition, poor casing facilities, inadequate medical care and environment act as a catalyst for illness. Good physical and mental growth can't be achieved within an environment where there is poverty and misery, food and shelter is limited and health services are either lacking or extremely inadequate. The adverse public, monetary and environmental conditions can be considered responsible for the poor intellectual performance of many children, who in more favorable environment could develop abilities within a variety. (David, 1978)
Education of the handicapped children was considered as useless exercise. The assumption was at past that a disable person could never become an intrinsic person in the society. Individuals with professional expertise to teach impaired children weren't available and there was no infrastructure to aid the training, training and rehabilitation of special children. The time has modified and the training of disable has began with a emphasis. A progressive realization has emerged that the training of any disable child is as important as the education of any able bodied main stream child. (Ali, 2003).
One-quarter of the educators believed that that they had sufficient class room time for inclusion efforts, that these were currently prepared to show students with disabilities, or that they would obtain sufficient training for inclusion efforts. These studies were interpreted as support for the assumption that professors looked at students with disabilities in the framework of the reality of the overall education classroom rather than as support for the prevailing attitudes about integration. General education teachers thus exhibited certain reluctance about addition that must be attended to if such a policy change was to reach your goals (Welch, 1989).
The focus on special education as a place deflected attention from the fact that special education was a more thorough process whose real dynamics were major contributors to its success or failing A significant part of the special education process was displayed in the beliefs and activities of basic education. A built-in system means that special education cannot take action independently as a separate system, but must formulate plan in response to the attitudes, perceptions, and conducts of basic education (Gallagher, 1994).
Consideration for the needs of students of special college is the most central aspect of special education. It not only help educators to plan, devise and apply changed curriculum but also guide these to create congenial school room environment, set individual educational plans, organize ideal educational resources, choose effective coaching strategies, and select appropriate evaluation solutions to increase the learning out comes of special children. Parents themselves take their disable child to special college where the institution staff gain access to their needs without following any standardized method for assessing the amount of child's disability. Therefore, an extremely little details about the special educational needs of the assessed child can be acquired which is not sufficient for educators to devise effective educational plans and organise appropriate resources for such children (Coenen et al 2006).
The issues concerning education of handicapped children and sociological view are globally highlighted by social scientist. The complexness in the type of problems has further demanded prudent initiatives especially in traditional societies of producing countries. Dera Ghazi Khan remained distant and deprived district of Punjab in conditions of learning resource allocation yet the lifestyle and sustainability of special education centers will determine the socio monetary status of handicapped children. The analysis of centers can help in identifying the needs and problems of these helpless society strata. In this respect the present review will be contributing a considerable part in enhancing the efficiency of services provided to handicapped children.
Mext (2002) explored that education system for children with special needs was shifting to special support education at the beginning of the 21st hundred years. Ministry of education, culture, athletics, knowledge and technology stated that the special support education is a primary catalyst for the improvement toward the same opportunity society for any children including individuals with disabilities. The main concept of special support education is meeting individual needs of every child. A lifelong support system will be developed through co-operation among every sector in society to promote children's autonomy and contribution in every societies.
Ali (2003) analyzed the maturity of special education system in historical point of view and the type and put some methods because of its improvement. In her analysis she designed various tools and conducted interviews of the special teachers, support pros, parents of special children and special persons. She discovered that the parent participation in the training of special children reaches minimal. A part out of this she also concluded that majority of parents of special children of all categories and special persons are not completely contented with the education being directed at their children. She also concluded that the role of non-government organizations (NGOs) was large in the improvement of special education in Pakistan.
Alam et al (2005) studied the action of parents towards literally handicapped children in Islamabad city by interviewing method. They found that a major percentage of the respondents possessed intermediate to graduation degrees of education. About 30% of the respondent's children experienced deaf and dump and blind. Majority of the respondents said that their children were physical handicapped since delivery.
Kitcher et al (2005) studied that behavioral disorders weren't only very distressing to multiply handicapped patients and their families but also acquired a negative impact on their learning at university or other center, peer associations and sociable competence, so more attention should be paid to analyze (identify and classify) and aggressively treat behavioral disorders by pharmacological, educational and environmental interventions.
Kazimi (2007) reported that in Pakistan, three systems of Education at present operate 1. Normal academic institutions 2. Special Education Institutions and 3. Inclusive Academic institutions. In the last named special students of only the lower classes were accommodated. She argued that problems associated with working environment in Pakistan were far reaching and have very severe effect on the personality of the person, especially when dealing with children in special environment or in inclusive options with mental retardation or physical impairment. In addition, Teachers very often feel stress due to professional requirements and ambiguous job description, parental pressure, non-supportive action and insufficient student motivation. In the same way, Teachers employed in mainstream inclusive education arranging feel less stress.
Molnara et al (2008) reported the education of the forthcoming era was always a difficult task which was specifically true for those educational institutes where students demanding special treatment were informed. These students were often educationally challenged, mentally challenged or multi-challenged. They present an international co-operation lasting for three years whose excellent goal was to construct non-language-dependent software for handicapped children. They bring in the institutions getting involved in the development, the process of the program's creation, the steps to apply the program and the possibilities and ways of improvement.
Rao (2008) analyzed the persons with disabilities loved co-existence, though at special times, the patterns and behaviour were at variant. An intellectual impairment poses greater difficulties than the other styles. The families of persons with intellectual disabilities have also have needs different from others, which cannot be segregated from the needs of children with intellectual disability. The Country wide establishment for the Mentally Handicapped experienced developed many service models and contributed headed for human resource development and research. Country wide Policy has also measured as essential progress of recruiting for providing education to all or any children with disabilities in the common education stream. Many milestones have been left out in the path, major successes have been made and opportunities have been produced for the disabled.
Fletcher (2009) analyzed the students with a classmate with serious emotional problem event reductions in first-grade test results particularly students in low-income universities and within universities using school-level fixed effects condition was qualitatively parallel. The importance of the decline in mathematics achievement was around 30-60 percent of the size of the modified black-white achievement distance. Since nearly 10 percent of the pupil population has a classmate with a serious emotional problem, the total influence on test results of the task of including these students is probably quite large.
Nabeel (2009) stated that Team of special education Allama Iqbal Start University or college (AIOU) through distance education system offers analysis/training at graduate, masters and Ph. D. levels. Teachers were equipped in 6 special areas of visible mutilation, physical disabilities, reading impairment, intellectual impairment, learning disability and inclusive education. Each university student is given to a professor who is a subject specialist. The special professor training model through distance education method is highlighted.
Pasha (2009) assessed that no standardized method is being used for special education. In Pakistan International Classification of Functioning has emerged as a standardized method for measuring health insurance and impairment at both specific and population a level. He explored the opportunity of ICF in neuro-scientific special education and has established links between ICF categories and curriculum areas, classroom activities and learning goals for improving the quality of education. Further research has been suggested to find answers to overcome the original problems in adapting ICF platform in the field of Special Education in Pakistan.
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