Keywords: pakistan education background, pakistani girl education
All through history, the source of success had been the control of natural resources - land, gold and oil. All of a sudden, the emphasis has shifted to knowledge and education in the present day modern-day world. The world's wealthiest man, Monthly bill Gates, owns little or nothing tangible - no land, no yellow metal or engine oil, no factories, no armies. For the first time in history the world's wealthiest man is the owner of only knowledge, which has become the new basis for riches. Progress and success of your country, both spiritual and material, thus largely rely, more than ever before on the sort of education it offers to its people. Indeed, education is one of the most powerful devices of change in attaining nationwide goals by producing young minds imbued with the knowledge, frame of mind, skills and competencies to form the future future of a country.
Contrary to the challenge of this rising education trend, out of Pakistan's total inhabitants of 140 million, around 80 million are illiterate. The countrywide literacy rate is 45 percent with male literacy at 57 percent and feminine at 33, a gross enrolment at principal level of 87 percent (of whom 50 percent drop out before level 5), 17. 5 percent gross enrolment at secondary level and 4. 5 percent at tertiary level?
Despite 53 many years of our independence we have not had the opportunity to tailor the training system in conformity with this spiritual, ideological, socio- financial needs and the imperatives of today's world. The inability could be related to a variety of causes however the simple fact remains that quantitatively, our literacy rate is poorest even among expanding countries of the world, qualitatively our certificates and certifications carry little weight in the international institutes and there still exists an imbalance in our requirements to tailor a perfect education system.
We have stepped into the 21st century, which surely requires a definite reappraisal of our education system. We must study from our very poor progress rate before and must take steps to meet up with the challenges of the future lest our company is left behind.
HISTORICAL Point of view OF EDUCATION IN THE SUB-CONTINENT
Teaching the offspring's has always been the natural instinct of most animals. It differed from modern culture to contemporary society and man to man. The Sub-continent remained in darkness so far as community education was worried till the establishment of Vedic colleges but than it found turbulence in this field which very few regions have observed. This part will quickly cover the different stages of the turbulence in the sub-continent.
Before British Rule
Vedic Institutions of Brahmins. The initial schools in the united states now known as Pakistan were the Vedic schools for working out of Brahim priests. Sometimes before 500 B. C these colleges commenced to enrol nonpriestly class pupils also to develop as true community universities in every community. These were generally made up of 12 to 20 students, and their single tutor was the village priest who was simply seen as a public official backed through rent-free land or a talk about in the harvest. The classes were normally placed on view under shady trees.
Buddhist Monks. A parallel educational system was sponsored by the Buddhists to prepare their adherents for a life of meditation as a monk. The Buddhist universities, although situated in monasteries, were open to all. Youth going to go after a monastic life were trained until the years of 20, while those who sought a secular job left at age 12.
Muslim Madrassahs. The Muslim invaders introduced the third educational system, and it flourished especially in the northern regions of the subcontinent. Colleges were generally attached to the Mosques, and the curriculum contains the Quran and little else. As the Muslim rulers backed only Islamic universities, Hindus and Buddhists retained their traditional education. Muslim male children (females were excluded from all forms of public education) started their review in maktab, where they received instructions from the imam (worship innovator of your mosque) in the rudiments of the Arabic terms. The older students prolonged their studies in the madrasahs, where these were educated Arabic and Persian, rhetoric, sentence structure, logic, geometry, algebra, astronomy, natural idea, remedies, theology and poetry. Children of the rich, especially the girls, were often tutored privately in their homes. The madrassahs dropped in number and standards with the decrease of the Mughal Empire and go up of British power in the 18th and 19th centuries
During the British Rule
The English System. The machine of education adopted in colonial India was unveiled by the British mostly for turning out clerks and subordinates necessary for holding on the administrative affairs of the country in English under the United kingdom masters in the colonial set-up. The system of education designed by Lord Macaulay in his own words was aimed at " developing a course of persons, Indian in blood vessels and color, but British in taste, thoughts, morals and intellect. " By the end of the 19th century, Muslims were encouraged to opt for the English system of education, which opened up the door to monetary and social growth. However the consensus of the judgment was that because the existing system was created by the alien rulers to serve their own imperialistic ends it can barely be expected to offer the goods.
Muslim Institutes. In a reaction to the British isles system, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan introduced a new English education system which, in figure was Indian- Muslim. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan founded Anglo-Muhammadan College, now known as Aligarh Muslim University or college in 1875, and he always assumed that American education was compatible with Islam. All together, the orthodox Muslims presented establishments like Deoband, Nadwat-ul-ulema Lucknow etc, thus giving go up to a pointed distinction between the traditionalists and the modernists, a difference that continues to this day.
At / After Partition
The inherited System. The present system of education in Pakistan is the history of the Pre - Partitioned British India. However, since independence many policies, plans and information have been formulated for enhancing the literacy rate in the country. The key documents in this respect are listed as annex A.
Education Plan 1998 to 2010. The insurance plan incorporates a big range of new steps to resuscitate the training system. According to this coverage 45, 000 new principal classes and 20, 000 mosque institutions should be set up before 2003. 75, 000 more basic education corporations were to be set up under Leading Minister Literacy Fee. 45, 000 main schools should be upgraded to middle level and 30, 000 to secondary level. The insurance plan laid special focus on vocational and technological education. Private sector has also been encouraged to set up schools, universites and colleges. That is an ambitious policy aimed at reaching 70% literacy by season 2010. Its other main features are attached as annex B :
All the procedures and plans as mentioned above envisaged various targets at different levels however the soul of the goals, remained the same as it continues to stress:
- The ideological basis of education.
- National Unity.
- Growth of the Population.
- Economic Progress.
- Equalisation of educational opportunity.
- Social equality.
- Quality of education.
- j. Education to be focused to the world of work.
- Quality of education to be preserved whatsoever levels with global standard.
- Propagation of methodical, technical and research aptitude.
- To promote efficient literacy among out of institution children.
- To result in cultural harmony and communal cohesion through education.
- To lead to the country's religious and culture in harmony with the contemporary world.
The overall sketch of the objectives of all-educational procedures and plans clearly indicates the storyplot of Education in Pakistan as the story of high claims, rhetorical focus on progress but regrettably, little real achievements.
ANALYSIS OF THE PRESENT EDUCATION SYSTEM
Though the education system has seduced a considerable attention, it is difficult to ascertain any deterioration in its quality as well as amount. There has been manifold upsurge in the number of educational institutions. The federal government is spending much more than it was in the past but the results are still not satisfactory. The parents blame the teachers, instructors the students and students, subsequently, shift the complete responsibility to the machine and society. To ascertain the erosion of education criteria, it's important to analyse the education system the following:
- Basic Materials.
- Major Weaknesses.
- Effects of Existing Education System.
The educational pyramid contains three distinct stages - Elementary, Secondary/Higher Extra and Higher Education.
a. Elementary Education. Designed from 5 to 12 years to impart universal literacy and explore hidden talent one of the students from school I to 8. Primary education employs regional languages as medium of instructions. Rural areas confront low enrolment, vulnerable turnout, fragile infrastructure and insufficient facilities, whereas urban companies are overcrowded and situated in harmful environment. This important level of a child's learning is overloaded with stereotypical academics curriculum in essence aiming at providing primary inputs for advanced schooling. The syllabus provides no chance of arts, crafts and pre-vocational exposures.
Secondary and Higher Extra Education. Extra and Higher Supplementary stage can be an integral area of the growth package deal for a person towards his intellectual, research and professional quality, coincides with adolescence level (a delicate and sensitive phase of human being development) which requires determined guidance with reasonable reasoning. The existing curriculum at this stage is again information oriented, mostly bookish and theoretical in character, which does not develop a child as to the demands of either the contemporary society or work place. The students thus lack exposure to functional and creative work. Immediately after their extra schooling, most of them begin to search for a clerical type of job. At present, 60-80% of students in extra classes are signed up for arts subjects, that leads via an aimless standard education that has very little acceptance inside our agro-based controlled market. Thus, a pattern of supply somewhat than demand-orientation in terms of instructions at extra and higher secondary levels is further accentuating the dropouts either before or in this critical learning period.
Higher Education. This commences at this where the component of coercion fades away and students are encouraged enough to follow serious studies and possess abilities for educational/intellectual growth. You can find basically stages of scholarly activities at higher education. These are B. A, M. A and the M. Phil. /Ph. D. The first one introduces the field of specialisation, the next the mastery of same field and the third bears students into new advanced areas through independent review and original research work. Under the present educational environment, higher education is producing academics instead of practitioners as there may be virtually no notion or avenue for the utilization of higher learning of certain topics in our contemporary society. Since considering process and creation of knowledge remains quite constrained without proper experience and experiments and therefore, advanced schooling without practice can't be truly useful.
Some relevant educational reports/targets as envisaged in the educational policy of 1998-2010 are fastened as annexes C, D, E and F
Lack of Quality Education. The main problem being encountered by our educational system is that of quality education. The major factor being over-crowding in the classes i. e. 80 students or more are handled alongside one another in a small room. The coaching personnel is also unable to pay individual focus on their students; this effortlessly leads to indiscipline and deterioration of requirements in the school.
Untrained Teachers. Alas non-availability of experienced and properly trained professors also retarded the expansion of literacy rate by adversary impacting the establishment of new educational institution as well as the grade of education in existing establishments. In a nation wide review in Pakistan in 1995, educators with less than Matric level education could not answer 30% of questions based on grade four books.
Large Number of Dropouts. Socio-economic factor is a major reason for a big number of dropouts of students even before doing their major/middle standards. Monetary pressures force a student to aid the family to increase family income at the expanse of his education. Other adding factors in this respect are :
- A dislike for school subjects.
- Unsatisfactory student-teacher marriage.
- A history of college failures.
- Non contribution in institution activities.
Female Education. Literacy rate of female in Pakistan is half of that of males. Primary reasons for this are:
- Male dominance, ethnic biases, and age range old tribal customs.
- Girls are often required to help with home work of the family.
- Lack of effortlessly located schools and separate universities for women.
- Non availability of female teacher's. In Pakistan feminine teachers at main level are 25% of total instructors.
- Inflexible time of schooling and irrelevant curricula.
Non Engagement of Community. Nationalisation of institutions in the 1970's, without adequate community involvement in the working of schools, experienced led to a significant deterioration in the grade of education.
Non Involvement of Private Sector. Inadequate government facilities do not appeal to requirements of the country. In rural areas, where literacy rate is at the lowest, no worthy of while involvement of the private sector is available.
Illdiversification of Training. It really is imperative that a wide choice of subjects be produced open to the students at the start of 9th school to match their specific needs, aptitude and temperaments. It is unfortunate that the majority of our education is of a general and academic characteristics. Therefore there can be an intellectual drought. The general academic nature, without doubt, assists with broadening the eye-sight and creating a general awareness of the happenings around us, but it is seldom of any use within undertaking the useful affairs of life effectively in the intricate population of today.
Allocation of Cash. UNESCO has suggested that 4% of the G. N. P, is a reasonable amount to be spent by the developing countries on education, whereas Pakistan presently is spending about 2. 2% of G. N. P on education. Infact Pakistan is really the only country in South Asia, where expenditure on education, as a percentage of G. N. P, has fallen since 1990.
Evaluation System. Widespread exam system is marred by lots of evils. Assessments are based on end of circuit certification alternatively than periodic tests. Dangerous pattern of cheating and manipulation has also crept in the system.
Language. Our education system suffers from a precarious struggle between education in British and Urdu. Presently, there are two requirements of education each basing on one language.
Out of meagre amount allocated to education, an enormous portion is misused through corrupt and inefficient system. According to a survey by Army Rs 1. 5 billion per time were embezzled in head of teacher's wages.
52% of instructors in Pakistan use physical abuse.
Curriculum of major education is not consistent with our goals and national dreams.
Textbooks are sub standard and generally aren't in conformity with the requirements/standards placed by the curriculum bureau.
Political unrest and bad political activities amidst students adversely impact education. It's however limited to beyond most important and supplementary levels.
School timings for the year do not consider agriculture cycles, which limits attendance in rural areas.
Narrow research bottom part in the universities.
h. Non-employability of informed youth.
j. Ineffective role of mass media.
k. Education not being used by any means for communal change.
l. Learning less in material plus more in quantity.
Effects of Existing Education System
Lack of Country wide Aspirations. The development of education is confronted with almost all problems that can be found anywhere in the world. A long precise description of targets and aspirations of all educational regulations since 1947-98 magnifies the misunderstandings as it is definitely set in the lack of definite Country wide Goals.
Waste of Effort. Today's education system does not prepare a student for the difficulties of the life span somewhat it only prepares him for assessment. At the same time huge amount is allocated to sending individuals abroad for higher studies and research but the country doesn't have essential means and infrastructure to reap the benefits of their higher requirements on their come back, thus the higher qualification turn into a mere status sign with no benefit to the country and no satisfaction to the individuals academics aspirations.
Loss of Inherited Trade. Most of our students come from the working course. The present system of education detaches them from other ancestral trade/business and imparts them a general education though at times it could be very superior education. These children are finally a loss to their trades, to their parents, to the contemporary society and themselves as well. Today's system of education is systematically producing a large volume of unemployed, frustrated and dejected youngsters.
Unemployment. Education procedures before made an effort to give an professional bias to education. Hence lots of polytechnics and commercial schools were opened up throughout the united states. The result is that now we have a daring situation of unemployment among officially qualified. Furthermore trade and industry field in the united states is still not sufficiently developed to soak up these trained people.
Bad Governess. Supplying higher education to prospects not having the intellect and aptitude is a countrywide waste. Today's system of education in Pakistan is producing so many unemployable graduates of such indifferent quality that they are often not even good clerks and assistants. It is not the number of folks graduating that asses the efficiency of any education system however the quality of such graduates. If the incapable graduates increase by the bucket load and the culture does not have any system apart from the degree to find out merit, the incompetent are destined to infiltrate all strolls of life and realistic positions and threaten the very success of the socio-economic establishments. The proliferation of facilities for advanced schooling without appropriate merit standards is, therefore, counterproductive.
Waste of Girl Power. Women who constitute 52 % of the country's populace have literacy rate of only 26%. The dropout percentage for women during and after primary schooling is about 80%. The primary reason behind it is the fact that girls aren't considered as an economic advantage to the family hence their education remains a neglected aspect inside our society.
Production of Disgruntled Young ones. Relating to education coverage 1972-80, " the prevailing system of education is one of the root cause of the general dropout in our education system. At the moment there are internal examination from class first to seventh, under which students are failed or offered the basis of twelve-monthly test. There is no test of observing or saving the performance of the scholar over summer and winter. As a result the passing or faltering of a students in the gross annual examination becomes a matter of the pupils memory. The high percentage of failures not only causes heavy dropouts but also brings to life feeling of aggravation and inferiority in the scholar. This is not only a countrywide wastage but increases our society a sizable quantity of handicapped people, " which in the end produces disgruntled children.
Controversial Medium of Instruction. Notwithstanding the identification of Urdu as a national language in the constitution, education plan on the medium of training is always predicated on compromises. The happening of different dialects being found in various locations as medium of instruction and even within a region has generated a confused state. In these situations development of books in indigenous languages is not completed in a organized and co-ordinated manner. This apart, students remains subjected to learning three/four dialects. From this ensues limited linguistic capacity which " restricts the students horizon and forces them to count on memorising and learning by rote. " The students mug up few topics that they expect in exam; if the question paper include those issues, the examinees are happy of course, if the expected questions aren't asked, they protest violently and leave the evaluation hall.
Lack of Pleasure in the Teaching Vocation. Qualified and encouraged youngsters in the coaching profession is essential to ensure an excellent education. The very best graduates join either anatomist or medicine as the leftovers look for other outlet stores before getting started with as a teacher. Low pay grades, poor social status, meagre benefits and a lacking career-ladder in coaching profession will not entice the best students. Presently, teaching is a hard job with low salary, no position and ever-growing general population criticism. They are making it difficult for the teacher to utilize pride and commitment.
Improvement Towards Betterment
Having completed the evaluation, it is experienced that we now have quite simply five major areas in the training system, which needs close focus on put the items at their right place. The recommendations are being made in these fields one at a time which are:-
- Economic Reforms.
- Structural Organisations.
- Qualitative Advancements.
- Socio-Political, Honest and Cultural Development.
- National Emergency
User Charges. There is a strong justification to steadily raise fee composition for supplementary and higher level education. However, on interpersonal consideration the raise should be steeper for higher-level than secondary level. Those poor spectacular students, who qualify for higher studies, should be provided a fixed stipend.
Induction of Local Bodies and Private Sector in Education. Education is basically the responsibility of provincial federal, but at the same time it is also a national concern and using major areas, decision should be taken at nationwide level. There's a need to regard education as a federal-provincial partnership. Education planning should be decentralised to the district level and still right down to union council level. Moreover, there is a need to incorporate private sector particularly the NGO's and support them in a massive way through financial support to permit them to attempt literacy programmes on a much larger level.
Increased Budgetary Allocations. The government must allocate lowest 4% of G. N. P, to education as recommended by UNESCO. Additional resources be diverted from the budget to education by effecting some market in defence /Non developmental expenses.
Primary and Adult Education. Major and adult education should form the bulwark of the education structure and should receive highest allocation. Emphasis should be laid on properly equipping the prevailing schools before establishing new formal institutions or informal and community institutions. However, the prevailing and new universities should take into account the socio-economic environment of areas in the matter of educational routine and timings of schools. If this is not taken into account, high dropout rates and phenomena of ghost institutions will continue.
Secondary Education. Extra classes are of two types, basic and vocational/polytechnic. These universities should be unified and converted into complete level of education with curricula of compulsory things and some elective subject matter for preparing the students for an absolute vocational career.
Tertiary Education. The colleges and the universities, both standard and professional, have outgrown in number. The necessity is to consolidate and improve these seating of higher learning than growing them. This improvement and consolidation should be brought about by:
a. Admitting the students strictly on merit after subjecting them to aptitude tests so as to determine if they really be eligible for specialised studies.
b. Making the colleges and universities autonomous and research oriented.
c. Throwing out politics and professional students from the campuses.
d. Bestowing on Professors and Teachers the same cultural status as is relished by them in advanced countries.
Medium of Instructions. The problem of medium of teaching has stayed skirted due to its sensitivity. The problem should be tackled rationally and boldly as under:
At primary level the nationwide terminology as unanimously agreed to by the reps of the people and enshrined in the Constitution, should be presented as the medium of instructions.
At the supplementary level also, the nationwide language should be produced the medium of instructions. British should be taught as compulsory subject matter and its own curricula should be completely revised to encourage communicative and cognitive skills in this dialect.
c. At tertiary level, British should be the medium of instructions. The probability of intro of national dialect can be reviewed later.
Teachers Education. The output of qualified teachers has lagged behind the expansion in the classes. Therefore, the number of teacher's training organization should be increased and unqualified educators should be compulsorily trained in these institutions. Those that do not qualify shouldn't be retained. At the same time, the conditions of service of professors should be better to make career of education attractive.
Teachers Guidance and Performance Diagnosis. Together with the growth in the educational network, supervision and examination of teachers has received a significant setback. This lack of guidance and support has led to large-scale absenteeism and low morale among professors. Hence, to be able to improve guidance and carry out on-the-spot support to instructors (model teaching, operating training etc) existing training and inspection system should be strengthened.
Incentives. Appropriate twelve-monthly awards should be instituted for the meritorious work in neuro-scientific literacy at nationwide, provincial and local level. It has been observed that authorities schoolteachers take up alternate employment while their attendance is registered regularly by junior instructors going to the classes. In the rural areas the problem is a lot worse.
Number of Students in a School. To prevent overcrowding, the number of students in a class should be restricted to thirty-five or less.
Physical Facilities including Instructional Materials. The educational institutions are lacking in four areas, particularly properties and furniture, laboratories and equipment, textbooks and athletics. These facilities should be made available without the delay.
Curriculum. Curricula in educational establishments are not only overcrowded but also out of tempo with progression of knowledge. Therefore, a significant effort should be produced to revise curricula at primary, secondary, university and college or university levels to make it significant and responsive to the needs of the culture. Moreover it ought to be same for both the federal government and private institutions throughout the country.
Textbooks. Our textbooks are of poor quality lacking content, approach to presentation, printing and set-up. At exactly the same time, they are really cost fruitful. These textbooks also have a strong flavour of foreignness which, to a large magnitude, owes to syllabus as also to scarcity of freelance writers who can create textbooks without relying closely on plagiarism. Therefore, an enormous reform of textbooks should be undertaken.
Examination System. The examinations test the students for rote storage area and essentially exclude conceptual and cognitive checks. The system should be reformed with emphasis on internal assessment and its linkage with curriculum development process. Gleam need for the standardisation of the evaluation system. All examination papers should be prepared by one central power, through one curriculum both for private and federal schools. Effort also needs to be made to make analysis system foolproof. Gleam need to take ideal measures to get rid of test paperwork and notes other than prescribed curriculum.
Parents-Teachers Meetings. It is necessary to hold parents-teachers meetings in order to develop relationship between them. Of these meeting educators can guide the parents about the performance of these children. Parents would be able to eradicate the shortcomings of their child and create better environment of learning.
Parameterizing the Private Universities. A policy must be framed to designate the parameters of establishing a private school in a locality basically to steer clear of the cluttering up of private schools in one area. Once founded it should be properly monitored, so as to curb the tendency of business orientation and in doing so guaranteeing quality education.
Socio-Political, Moral and Cultural Development
Reform of Curricula of Pakistan Studies and Religion in Universities. Although Pakistan Studies and Islamiat are taught as separate things in colleges, the curricula should be revised in accordance with the reality of record which interalia boil down to democratic ideals and specific liberty as the foundation of our have difficulty. The curricula of Islamiat, which concentrates more on rituals, should be modified to include the values our religion preaches, so that the character of the nation can be built around moral and moral values of our religion.
Press and Multimedia. The press and press is an efficient device in educating the people who have the political company and the system, their rights and commitments; inculcating in them patriotism and nationalism and instructing them on the character that their religion needs from them as Muslims. Our press and media should be targeted at play this role in a concerted and effective manner particularly in motivating the visitors to support the literacy programmes.
Leadership. The command in a population is a great medium for educating people. Our authority should assume this role by not only educating our people who have the values of your world but also by establishing personal illustrations for the visitors to emulate. This would lead to eradication of the cynicism amidst our individuals who there will vary values for the market leaders and the led.
Better Opportunities for Female in Education. Females should be prompted to take part in education. The ladies play an important role in grooming of upcoming generation. When a mother is not informed she will not be in a posture to educate/groom her child. Parents should be encouraged to send their daughters to colleges and after completion of education, women should be provided with respectable jobs. In this respect following is also advised:
- Maximum variety of female instructors at primary level.
- Stern steps against labour discrimination on the basis of sex.
- Incentives such as authorities careers etc for informed females.
- Mass advertising drive against keeping young ladies out of university.
Politics in Educational Institutions. There must be university student unions in the universities, colleges and universities but these shouldn't be affiliated with the political party. A student who is best in the education and other institutional activities should be appointed as president of the students union for a maximum length of time of one time.
Family Planning. Pakistan is a producing country with limited resources and with people development rate, which is highest in your community. Government cannot deal up with certain requirements arising out of 2. 85% human population development and inflation rate of 28. 5%. There is a need to teach visitors to follow the insurance policies of family planning.
As a short term measure emergency must be declared to mobilise maximum resources for increasing literacy. In this regard following is advised:
- Employment of Army
- Maximum volume of government schools to perform nighttime shifts for illiterate children, adults and females.
- Award of degrees to all school students should be associated with minimum six months service in a federal government primary school ideally in a rural area.
- All factories, business organization and people whose annual gaining surpass a certain limit must be asked to establish and deal with one primary institution each.
- Maximum government initiatives must be concentrated in areas having low literacy rate.
- Primary education must be made mandatory for everyone children, through legislation.
Pakistan is facing plethora of problems in the site of education. Our education malaise is a result of ineptitude and disinterest for successive government authorities towards this important interpersonal service. Education guidelines and strategies devised every once in awhile could not carry fruit anticipated to lack of objectivity and foresightedness. The various education plans since freedom have only produced scores of unemployed youngsters.
Hazrat Ali once said, " orphan is someone who has no education and not a person whose parents have died". Matching to this expressing there are about 80 million orphans in our country. There is a little disagreement today that human resource development takes on an important role in the progress of a region. In fact, the strength of a nation lies in the strength of its education system. Our present plight did not appear right away and the responsibility for our current situation is wide-spread. Reform of your educational system will take time and unwavering commitment. Equally it should take widespread energetic and dedicated action.
1. Gulzar, Iffat, "Revival of Education", "The News", 24 June 2000, p. 6.
2. Iqbal, Ahsan, "Aparatheid of Worst type of Kind", "The News", 20 June 2000, p. 6.
Kurian, George, Pakistan.
Saeed, Rizwan Sheikh, Private Schools in Lahore.
Ahmad, Qudus Saeed, Education and National Reconstruction
of Pakistan: Lahore, 1979.
6. National Workshop on Community Action Programme, Federal government of Punjab: Lahore, 1997.
Dr. Ghaffar, S. Abdul, Journal of Rural Development.
The Citadel, No 2/99.
Iqbal, Muhammad, Education in Pakistan: Lahore 1977.
10. Dr. Mahboob UL Haq, Man Development in South Asia, 1998.
11. Elizabeth, Johnson, "Why Young People Leave Institution", Encyclopaedia of Education and Research.
12. Education Insurance policy 1972 - 80.
13. Myrdal, Gunnar, Asian Dilemma.
14. Economic Survey, 1996-97.
15. Planning and Development Department (Education Section) Figures.
16. Statistics of Academy of Educational Planning and Management, Islamabad.
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