Educational attainment is a term commonly used to refer to the highest amount of education a person has completed. There are various factors that make a difference a person's educational attainment. This may include poor socialisation, poor income young families, and gender and race inequality in education. Research workers suggested that the level of someone's educational attainment is definitely associated with recreational medication use. Recreational drug use here refers to drugs use with the purpose of creating or improving recreational experience. Such drugs are commonly used by teenagers and the usage of these drugs can cause cognitive impairment. This research proposal can be involved with the partnership between educational attainment and recreational drug use. The particular interest here's to find whether the use of recreational drug is the reason a person leaves university at a youthful age.
The main research question is 'why are a lot of people more likely to own lower educational attainment, than others?'
It has always been determined that the long term use of recreational drugs tends to have long-lasting mental and physical side-effects. Lynskey and Hall (2005) advised that 'there is a opportunity that cannabis use induces an 'a motivational syndrome' or that cannabis use triggers cognitive impairment'. They made both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, which disclosed the significant organizations between cannabis use and range of steps of educational performances including lower grade point average, less satisfaction with university, negative attitudes to college, increased rates of college absenteeism, and poor school performance. John Macleod (2004) in the mean time recognized 48 relevant studies and published longitudinal studies reporting the fairly steady organizations between cannabis use and lower educational attainment.
In addition compared to that Duarte, Escario and Molina (2006) analyzed the partnership which links back to you another recreational medicine that is pot consumption and university inability among students. That they had used the information provided by the Spanish Studies on Drugs Used in the School People to confirm that 'weed usage is a determinant for college inability among Spanish students'. In New Zealand, in the mean time, a report of 1265 children was made, which proved that cannabis use was dose-dependently related to an elevated risk of leaving school without qualifications, failure to enter into university and failing to secure a university level.
Leslie Iversen (2005), however, reported that there surely is little proof that long-term cannabis use triggers long term cognitive impairment, nor is there is any clear cause and effect relationship to explain the psychosocial organizations. There are a few physical health risks but as he mentioned in his study, cannabis could be looked at as a relatively safe medication. Furthermore, Lynsky and Hall (2005) noted that even though there is an indication that early cannabis use may significantly increase threat of early school departing, they still proposed that the link between early on cannabis use and educational attainment might arises as a result of social framework within which cannabis used. Relating to them(2005), 'early cannabis use is apparently from the adoption associated with an anti-conventional lifestyle characterised by affiliations with delinquents and compound using peers, and the precocious adoption of adult functions including early institution leaving, giving the parental home and early parenthood'.
Other than the use of recreational drugs, there are other factors impacting on specific educational attainment. One of them is the deprivation of the individuals in their house neighbourhood. Garner and Raudenbush (1991) did a report that test for the life of neighbourhood effects on educational attainment. After doing a survey and handling for pupil capability, family track record, and schooling, they however find a significant negative relationship between deprivations in the home neighbourhood and educational attainment. This strengthens the hypothesis that the use of recreational drugs comes with an impact on educational attainment.
However when Harris and Nixon (1993) made a study predicated on interviews with students, instructors and non-teaching personnel in three complete schools, they found that the 'discussion of family, community, peers and educators plays an important role in attainment, and a number of professors assumed that some young ladies were doing better academically because that they had learnt to 'conform to the conventions'. ' Such review helps us to understand that recreational drug is not the only factor that can determine a person's educational attainment. However, since socialisation and relationship performs an important role in attainment, it can be said that poor discussion can result a person to consider recreational drugs which eventually can contributes to low educational attainment. On the other hand, in Education Economic, Getinet Astatike Haile and Anh Ngoc Nguyen (2008) made a research that underscored the value of parental backdrop in describing differential academic attainment between whites and ethnic minorities in the United States. They discovered that 'backdrop, specifically educational and occupational history plays a essential role in deciding the difference in test results'. It really is determined that low test scores is one of the ways to assess educational attainment.
Reviews of the literatures suggest that recreational medication users do are affected some adverse outcomes from other use of drugs that will technically influence their educational attainment. However, there are other factors that led to negative educational final results.
This proposal will be made to examine my hypothesis that students, who used recreational drugs, are more likely to have a lesser educational attainment. In conceptual form the hypothesis asserts that there surely is a romantic relationship between educational attainment and recreational drug use.
The particular interest because of this research proposal is to find whether the use of recreational drug is the key reason a person leaves school at an earlier age. For this proposal I have decided to use an experimental design. As Atkinson and Bouma (1997: 126) noted 'an experimental design supplies the most thorough test of the hypothesis which specifies that X triggers Y'.
In order to test the hypothesis using an experimental design I, as the researcher must: select two group of students, devise steps for the variables, choose one of the two groups to be the control group, the centered variable will be assessed before and following the drugs are given to the experimental group, and lastly any difference between the two groupings can be related to the recreational drug use.
This experimental design will used both standard techniques of qualitative and quantitative research. Qualitative method because it involves watching the behaviour of the two groups of students in the mean time quantitative since it includes turning data into volumes, which in cases like this calculating the students educational performances that is through test markings. Using both the techniques has great advantages on my research because with qualitative method, I am in a position to gain insight into the students' behaviours and for that reason obtaining more in-depth information which allows me to concentrate on interpretations and so this means of such behaviours. In the mean time with quantitative method, it helps to ensure high levels of validity and reliability of gathered data.
As known by McNeil(1990:35), 'the term 'people' refers to all those people who could be contained in a research'. In the case of my research proposal, my people will be the orphans. It is because with orphans, school background will never be a variable that might affect the based mostly adjustable, which is the educational attainment. As stated above, I am going to need two sets of five students for my test. These students must be as as well as possible: same get older, same gender, same category background, and same academics expertise. The criteria therefore that are essential in the orphans are that they need to be final 12 months male students in high school, and most notably they haven't ever used any recreational drugs before. Since my population is not a large one and I am only considering finding ten students which are easily studied as a whole, sampling is not an issue here. After finding all the orphans with the required criteria, they all will get an academics test to check their academics performance. Ten students with the best and same educational abilities will be chosen. However if there tend to be than ten students with the same markings, then a arbitrary sampling technique will be picked to avoid any bias. A simple random sampling technique guarantees that every student comes with an equal chance of being selected. To make it less time-consuming and avoid any bias, place all the students' names in a field and draw out the titles required. After selecting ten students, split them into two groups of five. One group will be the control group and the other would be the experimental group.
Experiments as detailed by McNeil (1990:58) 'involve comparing what goes on in a single situation (the control group) with what happens in another (the experimental group)'. Therefore because of this research proposal I am going to conduct an test where in fact the two groups of students will be occur a same class, having the same learning environment. Same learning environment here means that the ten students will have the same educators instructing them the same content and most significantly they have the same group of friends. That is to make certain that peer effect will not be a variable that may impact the students' educational attainment. Before conducting the experiment, one of the two groups, this is the experimental group, will get cannabis and in the meantime the other one will be decided on as the control group. To make this experiment less time-consuming, a few of the newer strains of the cannabis, including skunk is utilized as it can be three times as strong as traditional cannabis. It works more quickly, and creates hallucinations. Furthermore it's been reported that such drug is associated with insufficient concentration and short-term storage which can lead to poor college performance, which in turn can contributes to lower educational attainment.
It has been determined in this proposal that the concept of educational attainment will be measured through observation of behavior and test grades. Therefore for observation method, I proposed to place a hidden video camera in the class to look at the students' behaviours in school, for example how well they respond to their teachers, and how well they can concentrate in class. This allows me to capture a couple of behaviours which assist me to analyse this is of such behaviour. I also suggested that the teachers should provide a every week test on the students as another way of way of measuring. That is important as it is known that 'way of measuring helps us to speak our observations more obviously' (Atkinson and Bauman, 1977:69). These grades will be considered as a couple of qualitative data and in order to summarise these data, desks and charts will be designed.
Simply it could be said that behaviours and test markings will act as dependent variables for every single group. For this test to work, these factors are important to be measured before and after the change in the unbiased variable, that is the recreational drug use in this case. It is relevant for me personally to have record of the behaviours and exams marks of the two teams before and when i give cannabis to the experimental group. Any changes in the results may lead me to attract my bottom line about the result of cannabis on the students' educational attainment. For example if the students in the experimental group are behaving in a poor way than before and their test markings are greatly deteriorating, it could be concluded that the cannabis has a poor impact on the students. In the meantime if both organizations did change nonetheless they change by the same amount. Any difficulty. the cannabis had no effects. This procedure will occurs for a complete year so that a clear development can be witness.
It is also highly recommended that following the end of the test, I should make an interview with the teachers and the students. In this manner I am able to get their views on their experiences. For example, if teachers I would wish to know their personal viewpoints on educating the students or on the changes (if there are) on the students. This same goes to the students. I would also wish to know their personal experience and for the experimental group, I'd ask them if indeed they would like to leave school or continue steadily to attain advanced schooling in the foreseeable future.
As McNeil (1990:52) summarised 'the reason for the test is to create a standardised situation for the researcher to study, where all parameters are under the control of the experimenter, and in which the results of manipulating parameters can be researched and measured. If some correlation is available between factors, the researcher has to show that this is casual romance rather than just coincidence'. This is true but there's a major problem as it pertains to experimenting individual behaviours. Individuals' behaviours or replies can be difficult to evaluate because they could be influenced by different subject. Even though other independent parameters like class backdrop, peer influence has been governed, there is no doubt these two groups of students can avoid from other outside effect that involve with the problem of feelings. For instance, a few of the students in the experimental group may well not do well because they may have personal problems like they fell in love with one of these classmates which end result them to not concentrate on their academic performances, or they have got problems back at the orphanage. Like Eisenberg (1996) once said 'rationalising behaviour through experimentation does not account for the procedure of thought, making benefits of the procedure fallible'. Furthermore, the professors themselves may be bias toward certain students. The professors can provide higher markings to the control group because they favour this group more than the experimental group.
Another problem that may arise is the problem with the students that are determined. As mentioned, these students derive from the test they have taken and how well they did. Therefore there could be a setback here as some of the students may actually do well on that test because these were lucky that day, not because they are bright people. However, this issue can be fixed by asking the administrator of the orphanage which orphans have high intellectual level. Addititionally there is another problem with selecting students. As explained they will be asked if they took drugs before and therefore there's a chance that these students in the control group may lay because these were frightened they get trapped by the orphanage.
Therefore it's best for us to simply accept the fact that we cannot control all the parameters and the thing we can do is usually to be alert to the possible influences of other parameters and make an effort to eliminate such affects as is possible.
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