Education in Latvia comprises levels: nine years compulsory, secondary and advanced schooling. Vocational schools, fine art schools, business academic institutions, colleges for special types of children, universities for children with special needs and kindergartens also form area of the program.
In vocational education programs prolonged two or three years provide theoretical and practical
knowledge. The majority of vocational classes in Latvia provide 2-3 and 4-12 months vocational education and training programs, however in special education colleges or special education classes within general education institutions provide education for children with special needs that match each individual's physical and mental condition.
There are private schools and universities, where fees are charged. But majority of students go to state schools which can be free.
The main purpose of the nine season school is the overall intellectual and public development of the kid. Children in Latvia are compulsory by law to attend school from the entire year when they convert seven till age 16. In a few special situations the acquisition of basic education may carry on till the age of 18. Promotion from one grade to another is based on the pupils' skills in all school themes and on the results of testing.
In secondary classes most pupils follow a course which includes latvian, science, cultural studies, mathematics, physical education, foreign languages. Elective themes may be chosen in line with the student's interests. A student is graded from 10 (outstanding) to 1 1 (faltering) in each subject matter he calls for. Students receive article cards twice a year.
At the end of the 12th level every school-leaver is meant to adopt 2 compulsory examinations chosen by the Ministry of Education and 3 tests in the things each individual university student has preferred himself.
About 80% of teenagers graduate from college with an over-all license of education. To get this certificate each student must complete a specific number of subject matter and pass 6 final exams graded no less than 4 and up-wards. Usually pupils have a separate teacher for each subject.
Schools in Latvia begin on September 1 and end near the end of May. The year is divided into semesters, typically- Sept- Dec- January- May. The school breaks for getaways 4 times a year. There's a week holiday at the end of October, 2 weeks at Christmas Holiday seasons, a week at the end of March and 1 week at Easter. The essential university day comprises from 5 lessons in levels 1-3 up to 8 lessons in grade 9. The institution season is 34 weeks long in first quality and 37 weeks in level 9 per season.
In Latvia have two sorts of higher education programs - academic and professional. Such a division of advanced schooling allows the college student to choose either research or professional activity in the future. Professional higher education is divided into two levels. First level professional advanced schooling programmes enduring 2-3 years and there are both state-financed and private advanced schooling institutions.
2. Early years as a child education system in Latvia
Children sign up for pre-school when they are under age group of seven years, but it is also possiable to lenghten studying for just one more 12 months, if a child has some health, emotional preparedness problems, considering desire of parents, doctor, psychologist thoughts and opinions.
Early years as a child education programms provides prep to primary college, incluging the introduction of individuality, mental, physical, cultural development, independence, ingenuity, strengthening health and also bettering basic skills of express language.
Main kind of activity for pre-school children is games, so the coaching process is organised that a children can learn by playing and by this learning process kids takes over community experience, acguire knowledge, skills to create behaviour, explore themselves and also action independently.
In pre-school educational establishments it isn't allowed by law to hold entry examinations.
The municipality, in arrangement with the Ministry of Education establishes, maintain and fund, as well as reorganize and liquidate pre-schools.
2. 1. Curriculum in early on childhood education
All subject matter in early youth education and curriculum content is very important to giving children a knowledge of environment that is arround them and develop their creative, logical thinking and in making curriculum for early on years as a child education it is importan to comprehend what children already can do and what they need to learn and what they have to improve and educate.
Curriculum in Latvias early on childhood education includes such content: latvian language (children develop conversation of mother tongue also improve knowledge of literature, folklore, literacy), natural-sciences (children learns constructing, creat mathematical ideas), cultural sciences and ethics ( children develop social skills, explore environment and also cultural life), music, physical education, that should go closly together with didactics of tempo and movement, visual skill ( children are increasing creative aspect by sketching, painting, modeling), housekeeping and technology ( children are doing needlework, applique or origami).
Teaching methods and curricum in early years as a child education dipends from children level of development and years. You can find four levels in children level of development. The first level is good for kids till 2 yrs years, second level is for kids till three years, third level is ideal for kids till five years and the previous level is till years of six. Curriculum for each and every level, instructing methods and methodical approaches are profesionaly created by Latvian Education Curriculum Centre but it isn't forbitten that educators in early childhood education use their own professionaly created methods and materials.
Now I want to speak more closly about curriculum and children degrees of development. At the particular level first, when kids are one, two years old, they can learn throught observation( going in walks and observing environment and it can even be made together with old kids, for exchanging their ideas and observation effects), demo ( these demostrations can be made by exhibiting some crops, mushrooms), movement games, musical games, manipulating things and exploring real objects.
In second level, when children are in a get older of 3 years then generally all methodical strategies are playful and children are learning throught simbolistic, plot, harmful, rhythm game titles (swiping hand hands and performing mutually) and sensible work ( children are involved in impartial work, for example writing calligraphy). Many video games can be used older children from different levels and levels of development. Such kind a methodology improves cultural skills and experience exchange.
In the third level, when kids are in age group till five years of age, then the primary teaching and learning approaches is throught discussion, evalution, throught didactic games, construction games and story role games. In this particular level it is also very common to look in excursions, go for a walks and do some game titles or playful activities outside the kinderganten garden.
Till age six, when kids are within the last level, then the most frequent methodical methods to children are by experments, dialogues ( professor asks questions and making diagolue with children, about what they have observed today or making dialogues about some testimonies and fairy-tales), dramatization and theatrical video games and also folk game titles (One of the most famoust folk game titles in Latvia is Kas drz?" or Whats in the garden?" It is game in a circle and when educator stops singing one of a child find another child to put in a centre of group).
2. 2. Rythm and movements in early years as a child education
Rythm and activity goes closly together with such kind a content as physical education, health and music and thats why am going to review curriculum of these themes to understend better about rythm and motion importance in early youth education curriculum.
Physical education and health themes definitive goal is to market children health, conditioning their body, improving activity but music subject matter promote childrem emocional, intelectual development, knowledge about rhytm and improve ingenuity.
The main jobs in physical education and health is to acuire the skills to manage the body and improve the natural movement activity and promote children emotional, sociable development throught exercise. For instance curriculum for physical education and health includes stepping and operating, crawling and climbing, tossing and capturing, moving and jumping. All these process enhances childrens movement.
The way how can improve children moving and working is by participating in some movement video games (Craw and at the same time rolling the ball, by this proces children discovers to control route of ball). For instance in running, you can find many tasks to improve it and the more more mature are children, the more challenging will be job and curriculum.
When the youngsters are about 2 yrs old they are able to run freely throught the field, evading rather than touching other play participants, but when the youngsters are about four and five years of age, then the level of running comes more challenging. For example kids have to run after every other, run in environment with obstacles, cones, filled balls and run by doing curves and changing guidelines, but when the kids are about six years of age, then they are able to use some rhythmical actions like run and at the same time kick to a ball.
Crawling and climbing is one of the ways how to improve activities and strengthen body. In a first level, when kids are one, two years old, they can crawl and overcome a number of high obstacles, however they are still learning to craw in immediate route among objects and arround them.
When the kids comes more aged, they can freely craw on rought surface also on extensive, sloping surface. Kids can also suport moving yourself hands and feets, climb the stairs along.
In a fourth level children can craw and rotate the ball at the same time by controling balls path.
There is also tossing and capturing process in early on childhood education curriculum. These proceses comes closly together with playful learning. In an initial level of children development, they could throw some things in uncertain directions and get transmited objects from close distance, when children cross to next level they they are able to throw things in easily choosen directions, however in a third level of development children is ready to throw objects in horizontal goals (package, container) from a tiny distance. Children are also able to throw and get objects from a short distance by working in pairs. In the fourth degree of development children have the ability to throw items in vertical goals and capter the ball after it includes hurtled the ground.
2. 3 Music and rhythm in early youth education
One of the most crucial learning content, that creates development of rhythm and activity is music. Music subject in early years as a child develops engine coordination, sense of rhythm, encourage to learn music and rhythm instruments. Inside a curriculum of music, there is certainly such important process as performing, listening music, boogie and musical rhythmical moves, use of rhythm and musical tools.
The subject performing includes dealing with folk melodies, children tracks, chants, vocal range and tune. In a first level of development in performing children are understanding how to sing a simple children sounds in a little range, play as well as teacher tempo accompaniment to instruments. When the kids ages and complete next level of development, thay can sing openly and normally without pressure and can use different tempo, sing music with different accompaniment types, use rhythm instruments like rattles, sticks.
Another curriculum subject matter is listening to music, which includes tempo, dynamics, sound layout, genres, songs. In a time one and two children are listening various may seem and voices and at exactly the same time are learning to read low and high register, linking it with a graphic. At this age group children are also able execute variouty of movements while audio of music. With a period children ages, they can recognise some specific drum sounds and express their feelings about the composition and also recognise hearded structure. When children is five or six years of age, they are able to improvise movements distributed by music, perceive music mood (character), genre (song, dance, march) and dinamics.
The other subject matter in music curriculum is dance and musical rhythmical activity, wich includes such important objects as posture, pulsation, sounding gestures. In an initial degree of development children have the ability to listen music accompaniment and do actions of mimics and participate in simple musical and rhythmical has. When children pass next level of development, than they are able to perform some motions while being attentive musical accompaniment and learn most basic party steps as well dance in couples, however when the kids are about five years of age, they can do dance moves, dance steps and can also stand in circle, wich they can reduce or expand.
In a era of six, kid is preparing to party simple dances, and throught musical accompaniment improvise actions and reproduce structure in their actions. In this years children can also acquire folk boogie grib and do gallop steps.
The previous learning subject in music curriculum is rhythm and music instruments. In this subject it is very common to use rhythmical devices, sound tools, pulse. In a years of three kids in early childhood have the ability to play some sound tools by hearing accompaniment at the same time. Kids can also play some tempo equipment like rattles, do better than with a stick.
When children cross to next degree of development and come bit more aged, they are able to recognize several musical devices, improvise accompaniment with rhythm and musical musical instruments.
3. Riga Instructor Training and educational management academy
The Academy's goal is to provide each learner with an chance to acquire professional and educational advanced schooling in the regions of pedagogy, psychology, business and management, as well as motivation for professional life and constant self-improvement. RTTEMA prepares professors who are able to prepare pupils forever and work in information contemporary society.
RTTEMA is a conceptually and technically modern professional advanced schooling establishment and academy is founded by a state. It began its work in 1994 with 1273 students and today is one of the greatest higher educational corporations in Latvia in terms of the amount of students. Academy educates more than 3, 5 thousand students in full-time and part-time studies, utilizes 160 lecturers and docents, offers 25 research programs at university, bachelors, expert and PhD levels. RTTEMA also organizes international conferences, publishes scientific articles, implements projects of medical research, promote college student and professor international mobility, is an active person in international organizations.
Academy's intellectual environment consist of Pedagogic Scientific Institute, Creativeness Scientific Institute, Child Language Research Middle, Psychological Research Institute, Nature and Working Environment Institute, Several methodic centers, Young Professors' Club, RTTEMA Centre of Further Education, Library with shares in 10 towns of Latvia.
Students are provided administrative support at International Office and sociable support at Students' Parliament. Aside from these systems students have a chance of involving themselves in the next social undertakings, that are Blended choir " Fortius", female choir "Balta", chamber orchestra "Gaudeamus Orchestra", "Big band", sports club, folk party group "Dejotprieks".
In RTTEMA is also possible to study education programs that are related to rhythm and movement content, for example professional bachelor's education programs and second level in the brief vocational advanced schooling program offers to review and be a "Dance and Rhythmic Professor" or "Music Teacher". Professional Master's program offers "Boogie Pedagogy", "Music Pedagogy".
If students wants to get Bachelor level in "Dance and Rhythmic Teacher" education program, then he/she must study in full time for four years or partly time, that can take four years and 90 days. This educational program offers opportunity to work in an occupation of dance and rhythmic teacher also manage party communities. Main requirements of the program is to obtain theoretical foundation of pedagogy and mindset, website link the theoretical realization with the useful work at university, primary university also acquire research skills and be able to utilize them in practical work, develop skills and skills necessary for Dance and Rhythmic Instructor as well as personal attributes and competences. This education program includes a plenty of subjects like classical dance, historical dance, party anatomy, structure of party, rhythmic, methods of children party, the notation of Latvian dance, jazz dance, didactics etc.
The Latvian education system is organised at four levels: major, secondary, vocational and higher education. There's also private academic institutions and universities, where fees are priced, but most students go to state schools that happen to be free. Children in Latvia are obliged by law to wait school from the year when they transform seven till age 16.
Children sign up for pre-school when they are under age of seven years, Main type of activity for pre-school children is video games, so the coaching process is organised that children can learn by playing and by this learning process kids gets control community experience, acguire knowledge, skills to make attitudes, explore themselves and also take action independently.
Teaching methods and curricum in early childhood education dipends from children stage of development and get older. There is four levels in children level of development. Curriculum for every single level, educating methods and methodical solutions are profesionaly created by Latvian Education Curriculum Centre.
Early child years curriculum includes physical education and music topics, witch will go includes knowledge about rhythm and activity. These things main goals are to promote children health, building up their body, bettering movement but music subject promote childrem emocional, intelectual development, understanding of rhytm and improve creativeness.
Riga's Tutor Training and educational management academy (RTTEMA) definitive goal is to provide each scholar with an opportunity to acquire professional and academic higher education in the areas of pedagogy, psychology, business and management, as well as determination for professional life and constant self-improvement. In RTTEMA is also possible to review education programs that are related to tempo and movement themes, for example professional bachelor's education programs and second level in the short vocational advanced schooling program offers to study and be a "Dance and Rhythmic Teacher" or "Music Teacher". Professional Master's program offers "Dance Pedagogy", "Music Pedagogy".
http://www. aic. lv/ENIC/en/enic/ed_in_Latv. htm, Retrieved November 24
http://izm. izm. gov. lv/education/education-system. html, Retrieved November 24
http://www. likumi. lv/doc. php?id=20243, Retrieved November 26
http://www. rpiva. lv/index. php?mh=statistika, Retrieved November 26
http://viaa. gov. lv/files/news/1808/educ_in_latvia. pdf, Retrieved November 26
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