Facilitation Theory Or The Humanist Procedure?

Teaching and learning today are very different from yesterday because we live facing the challenges of changes in advanced schooling for future years prosperity with todays young students and their readiness to take up these problems to handle up to the coming centuries. Understanding teaching and learning is challenging, not something that can be based on the representation of what has been identified or limited to a few methodological prescriptions. In such a chapter, we will go back and shed light on some ideas of understanding how to understand better from what extent teaching relates to learning and how they can impact in society.

1. 1 languages Teaching and Learning

Language teaching and learning still requires much effort to be stored in individuals' mind perfectly. It will have attained an appreciation of the values of a wide range of intellectual disciplines such as linguistics, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics and mainly applied linguistics as well as basic specific knowledge. So, how can language spread these disciplines to be energetic and pragmatic used? To answer this question, let us see what Campell's theory depicts, in number 1 below, about the relationship between three disciplines: linguistics, applied linguistics and pedagogy. Campbell ( 1980:7) says: " The relationship between the vocabulary sciences and terminology teaching has surfaced as one of the key issues in the development of a language teaching theory "For him: Applied linguistics is the mediator between the practitioner and the theorist. ". See Fundamental concepts of words teaching reserve of H. H. Stern, (1983:36)

Linguistics

Applied linguistics

Pedagogy

Theoretician Mediator Practitioner

Figure1 Campell's model of the partnership between theory and practice

According to Campell's theory beginning with linguistics, the study of language, exclusively is insufficient to get an efficient relation between pedagogy and linguistics. The latter requires much practice to associate theory to apply and make words more effective. For that reason, to consolidate the three disciplines, Campell included three extra elements to his conceptual platform. These elements are mindset, sociology and anthropology. Campell's model of the partnership between theory and practice made Spolsky( 1980:72) argued and then revised Campbell's theory. For Spolsky, sociolinguistics discipline is very interesting to attain a good bring about the relation between theoreticians and specialist. He divided language coaching into three main resources

Language explanation: Standard Linguistics

Language educating: mindset for the idea of learning and psycholinguistics for the idea of words learning

Language utilization in society : sociolinguistics

What we can understand from Sposky's theory terminology teaching is an interesting amalgam of disciplines, each one plays a part in educational language used and the target here's on the educational language. Pragmatically speaking, regarding to many people the understanding of language is not only learning theories but additionally it is our representation and thinking about knowing to what degree can be these theories impact on the teaching of terms. The theories will vary of how we learn, and they are useful and ready for how students learn and also how teachers teach. Each one of them, scholar and educators, has own thought process of own different way of learning. So who are we in these ideas? And what exactly are these ideas? To answer these questions why don't we see some fundamental theories of learning

1. 2. 1 Reinforcement Theory

This theory was developed by the behaviourist school of psychology, notably by B. F. Skinner (Laird 1985, Melts away 1995). Laird (1985) recognizes this aspect of behaviourism not relevant to education. It is about some positive and negative jobs the learners manufactured in his lifestyle. This theory requires much Competency Centered Training ( henceforth, CBT), It really is useful in learning repetitive tasks like multiplication furniture and the ones work skills that require significant amounts of practice but higher order learning is not involved in it. The criticism of the approach is that it's rigid and mechanical (Uses up 1995).

1. 1. 3 Cognitive-Gestalt Approaches

The concentration in this theory is on the value of experience, meaning, problem-solving and the introduction of insights (Melts away 1995, p 112). Burns up notes that this theory is rolling out the concept that individuals differ from someone to another, they have different concerns at different times with different subjective interpretations in several contexts. This theory is very near learners to get themselves in learning dialect by knowing from what extent they are different from each other. Additionally it is very near to the learners' characteristics of today (for more details see section 3)

1. 1. 4 Holistic Learning Theory

The basic knowledge of this theory is that the emphasis is on the composition of the average person personality which consists of many elements. . . specifically. . . the intellect, feelings, the body impulse (or desire), intuition and imagination' (Laird, 1985, p 121) that all require activation if learning is usually to be effective. This theory is approximately a complementary theory to Cognitive-Gestalt methods.

1. 1. 5 Experiential learning

In this theory, Kolb's research found that folks learn in four ways in learning (McGill & Beaty 1995). The ways are the following

Concrete experience

Testing implications of Observations and Reflections

concepts in new situations

Formation of abstract

concepts and generalization

Figure 1 the Experiential Learning Model (Kolb, 1981)

Learning through concrete experience

Learning through observation and reflection

Learning through abstract conceptualization

Learning through dynamic experimentation

In speaking about these ideas, we verify from the educational researchers' notion that learners are different in their way of learning. Kolb, one of the educational researchers whose interests get excited about showing that learner, singularly, can choose any style and way of learning which demonstrates his behaviour to act in learning which is the hyperlink between him and his society through actions and reflective process (McGill & Beaty 1995). This theory confirms Spolsky's debate ( 1980:72)

1. 1. 6 Facilitation Theory or the Humanist Approach

Carl Rogers as well as others have developed the theory of facilitative learning. The essential introduction to this theory is the fact learning will appear by the educator acting as a facilitator, that is by building an atmosphere in which learners feel safe to consider new ideas and aren't threatened by external factors (Laird 1985). Other characteristics of the theory include

Human beings must be eager to learn (prompt willingness)

Human beings must be curious to learn (interest)

To change on self's idea we must be engaged in a substantial learning. ( versatility and readiness).

Carl and Rogers observe that:

The Characteristics of Facilitative Instructors are:

They are not more protective of these beliefs than other teachers

They are really affectionate they are all listening to learners, especially to their feelings

They are really much attentive to their marriage with learners in the school room.

be open-minded and apt to accept responses, whether positive or negative and put it to use as a reflective and constructive understanding into themselves and their behaviours.

Some of the characteristics do fit our changes into progressive and modern instructors but others still to be altered according to our readiness to be autonomous teachers. With this work, we will concentrate on the changes from the original, affectionate and facilitative educators into modern instructors.

The characteristics of learners:

Should be courageous, autonomous and accountable for their own learning

Must good care and provide much information (type) for the training which occurs through their deep belief (insights) and experience.

are encouraged to evaluate themselves before their instructors and to be aware of their learning needs to focus on what factors may donate to obtaining significant results.

These characteristics are required and required in the new systems execution.

To get to know this theory which effects strongly our work we must understand the relationship between professors and learners or in another words between learning and teaching as well as the strategies made to enhance this relationship. So what is learning and what's teaching? And what's the relationship between them. Coaching is to get and spread knowledge while learning is to acquire this knowledge by

studies; it is also the procedure where knowledge is established through change of experience (see webpage 3 David Kolb 1981). It seems that the relationship between them is very strong and interrelated. From these meanings, we can also understand that the human relationships between coaching and learning business lead to the best academic success for students getting the desire to acquire learning words which represents a person's receptive cognition to learning different jobs depend on the context (Peterson, et al. , 2009). It really is an suggestions which differs from one individual to another will depend on the teachers in regard to what type of information is most reliable.

The concept that students and educators have different competence that change from one to another to learning and instructing language in several styles and ways lead theoreticians and experts, those who are accountable for curriculum control and revision, to think of the curriculum construction, i. e. how to be in charge of strategies and systems to structure coaching language and designed in the curriculum body work. The curriculum is currently very interesting to empower both learners and instructors to build up their potential in knowledge. So, what is Curriculum? Who are accountable for planning it? And the facts for? To respond to these questions we need first understand the curriculum interpretation.

1. 2 What is Curriculum?

The curriculum is concerned with two conditions coaching and learning, i. e. what's given in learning and educating, and exactly how they happen. What teachers coach or learners learn includes goals, strategy, knowledge, skills and benefits of learning students are intended to make apparent. The how of the curriculum matter teaching/learning methodology, teaching strategies and press resources.

The curriculum has been modified credited to changes in systems implementation such as CBA, LMD and ICT's integration in the class room. The second option needs some instances of the technology of new technology to change the content and expand knowledge to produce a good curriculum. The systems, CBA, LMD and ICT's integration, in lots of ways can be seen to be influencing the curriculum both in conditions of content and methodology.

Further, we imply by the term curriculum "run a Course", i. e. it describes some steps in educating and learning specific articles. It is also considered as a series of learning encounters; the fact of these meanings that without curriculum none of them can control the average person students' experience. Thus through curriculum students can be provided with opportunities to learn a specific content. Through the second option, we can understand also that the best classification to the curriculum is' a collection learning opportunities given to students in their analysis for specific purposes'. A series of learning opportunities cannot be seen but it can be designed and made through the class room activities. Thus, curriculum looks in different aspects which can be found in books for specific items to facilitate teaching and make professors useful to pave this series of learning opportunities for students.

It is in fact made to develop learners' competence; herein were speaking about the value of curriculum development

1. 3 The Importance of Curriculum Development

The importance of curriculum development shows up in its focus on knowledge transmitting and skills development in respect with competency structured language teaching (henceforth CBLT) or learning results. That is to say, working on the four skills (reading, speaking, writing and listening), knowledge and attitudes make effective teaching strategies. With regards to CBLT, Docking says that

CBLT [Competency-Based Language Teaching] is designed not around the notion of subject matter knowledge but around the notion of competency. The focus moves from what students know about language to what they can do with it. The focus on competencies or learning results underpins the curriculum platform and syllabus specification, educating strategies and evaluation.

(Docking, 1994: 16)

From the above quotation basing on what have recently been said, we can understand that Competencies concentrate on four main guidelines appears in the next

Learning outcomes

Curriculum

Syllabus

Teaching strategies (a course)

Assessment

Figure 1: THE PRIMARY Variables of Learning Outcomes or Competencies

Figure one signifies the partnership between curriculum and its aspects (syllabus, instructing strategies and analysis) in respect with learning results. These four fundamental ideas help theoreticians and professionals to identify the context in relation to the student's needs about the curriculum construction which is evidently related to students' learning needs. To react to learning needs and CBLT the curriculum planning must take care of the following tips

Setting: Students' number, age, gender, purpose, education

Aim: Type and reason for course, required and required checks.

Materials needed or available: words, books, e- books, periodicals, articles or computer systems, laptops with the connection to the web and so forth.

Time: How many hours, day of week, time of day.

These four factors can also be viewed as part of syllabus. The latter is very important to create a course that must give attention to the needs of learning benefits. Herein, to comprehend more the principles given why don't we check out exactly what is a course in respect with syllabus or vice versa.

1. 3. 1 Course

A course is "a built-in group of teaching-learning activities, whose ultimate goal is to lead the learners to a particular condition of knowledge". (Hutchinson and Waters 1996: 65) The difference between a curriculum and a course is important because some of the regions of matter in curriculum development as: societal needs research, testing for location purposes or program vast analysis may be out of the hands of teachers who are expanding classes (Richards, 2001).

1. 3. 2 Syllabuses

Syllabus is a more detailed and operational statement of coaching and learning elements which translates the viewpoint of the curriculum into a series of designed steps leading towards more narrowly defined goals at each level

Dubin & Olshtain, (1997: 28),

Syllabus is essentially a assertion of what should be taught, year by 12 months - through vocabulary - syllabuses often also contain tips about the technique of teaching and the time to be taken

(Lee 1980:108).

Another opinion is the fact that

Syllabus is a far more detailed and operational statement of teaching and learning elements which translates the philosophy of the curriculum into some organized steps leading towards more narrowly described goals at each level"

Dubin &Olshtain, (1997: 28).

Syllabuses are usually more localized and are based on accounts and details of what actually happens at the school room level. Given these meanings it's advocated that it seems helpful to establish a curriculum and a syllabus as distinct entities. To summarize we can now ensure that we can see syllabus design within course design, they are complementary and parts of curriculum whose importance shows up also in the next

"

"The educational reason for the program.

The content teaching strategies and learning experience which will be necessary to accomplish that goal. (the means)

Some opportinity for assessing whether or not the educational ends have been achieved. "

( Richards, Platt and Platt 1993: 94)

From these most crucial points Allen views that

Curriculum is an extremely general concept which involves consideration of the whole complex of philosophical, communal and administrative factors which contribute to the planning of the educational program.

(Allen quoted in Nunan, 2000: 6)

Thus, it is the change of instructions in teaching and learning in all over the world. For that reason, most developing countries' institutions included in this Algerian companies have amended and modified their curricula in another words their syllabuses, methods, approaches and systems to react to the earth requirements, considering the many factors( internal or external) that impact learning process. To understand more this plan of education we must understand its basic notions in the structural education such as competencies or learning effects, syllabus, course, evaluation and curriculum.

Today, there are a lot of instructors and students who think that curriculum is syllabus; in fact, syllabus is a part of a curriculum. It explains the content of the course. i. e. It shows this content of what is going to be educated including a set of knowledge and skills. Herein, the importance of presenting the basic notions education is to go over the global changes and structures of the many disciplines to study from others and be apt to really know what others think folks.

In addition to curriculum development made by policy creators which enables learning to take place, during the course of study, in conditions of knowledge and skills, professors should highlight the key syllabus to present the main learning and methods and supply the learners with resources and gadgets to aid the effective teaching of the course. In cases like this the instructor' idea must give attention to how to structure the knowledge to be well received by learners. The next quotation ensures our declaring the learning structure through coaching.

Teaching is knowledge transmission, management of learning. The tutor is a conclusion maker, supplier of learning framework, collaborator, and learning resource. (Designed from Graves 2000: 31)

Our aim from understanding the curriculum development and its own importance is to ensure a successful and effective coaching of the language through established curriculum delivered by policy makers to be applied in institutions and universities. Putting into action such curriculum requires much effort to respond to the learners' needs and competence.

Algeria as you of expanding countries and a multilingual schooling is along the way of growing out of its historical origins run riot to make changes in educational insurance policy encouraging the education ministry to revise, enhance and upgrade the curriculum for basic education, specifically in basic education programs.

Speaking about changes in educational programs and arranging content business lead us to think of the CBA way and LMD system that will be the fundamental ideas, today, of the curriculum whose pursuits are in arranging and exploring learner's competence (knowledge and skills). They both work on type (data/ knowledge) and effects. The question to be brought up here what are these implementations? These systems implementations are CBA approach in primary and secondary universities and LMD system in colleges.

1. 4 Historical Record about CBA

In 1973, the term competency was unveiled to psychology books when David McClelland argued in his article 'Examining for competence somewhat than for cleverness' that neither job performance nor success can be received through old and traditional lab tests of academic willpower. Thus, the search for theory and tools that can unfailingly see arriving effectiveness at work began (McClelland, 1973).

In1982 it was Boyatzis who first drew alongside one another comprehensive data that had been gathered inthe USA using the McBer & Company 'Job Competence Assessment' method. Since that time, competency has become a significant element in HR development tactics (Simpson, 2002). The term competency comes from a Latin term signifying "suitable" (Bueno & Tubbs, 2004). Boyatzis (1982) identifies a competency as "an underlying characteristic of your person which results in effective and/or superior performance in a job" (p. 97).

According to Boyatzis (1982) employment competency represents ability. An individual's set of Contemporary Management Research 49 competencies reveal their ability or what they can do. Employment competency may be considered a motive, characteristic, skill, facet of one's self-image or communal role, or a body of knowledge that an individual uses, and the presence and possession of the characteristics may or might not be known to the individual. Likewise, Mitrani et al. (1992) state that competencies could be motives, attributes, self-concepts, behaviour or worth, content knowledge, or cognitive or behavioral skills.

A competency is an individual characteristic that can be assessed or counted

reliably and that can be proven to differentiate significantly between superior and average performers, or between effective and ineffective performers. Meanwhile, competency can be described as a set of behavior patterns that an incumbent needs to bring to a position in order to perform its duties and functions in the delivery of desired results or effects (Bartram, et. al, 2002; Woodruffe, 1992). Spencer and Spencer (1993) viewed competency as "an main characteristic of an individual that is causally related to criterion-referenced effective and/or superior performance in employment or situation" (p. 9).

They acknowledged five types of competency characteristics consisting of motives, qualities,

self-concept, knowledge and skills. First, motives will be the things that an individual

consistently thinks about or wants that stimulate action. Motives drive, direct and select

behavior toward certain actions or goals and from others. Second, attributes are physical characteristics and regular replies to situations or information. Third, self-concept can be an individual's attitudes, principles or self-image. Fourth, knowledge is the info that an individual has in specific content areas.

Finally, skill is the ability to perform a certain physical or mental job. Knowledge and skill competencies tend to be obvious and relatively surface characteristics, whereas self-concept, qualities and purpose competencies tend to be hidden, deeper and central to personality. Surface knowledge and skill competencies are not too difficult to build up and training is the most cost-effective way to secure those worker talents (Spencer & Spencer, 1993). Number 1 illustrates central and surface competencies.

Knowledge

Attitudes, Values

Trait Motive

Surface: Most easily developed Main Personality: Most difficult to develop

Skill Knowledge

Self-Concept Characteristic Motive

T

Skill Knowledge

Self-concept

Trait Motive

tr

The Iceberg

Visible

Hidden

Figure 1 The Iceberg Model and Central and Surface Competencies

Source: Spencer and Spencer (1993: 11)

In other words, visible competencies such as knowledge and skills may be

somewhat specialized competencies in essence required by the work, whereas hidden

competencies such as self-concept, characteristics and motives are behavioral competencies that

drive an individual's performance in the work. Boyatzis (1982) expresses that motive and trait

competencies hold the most direct effect on self-concept and possess an impact on

skill. The United Nations Industrial Development Group (UNIDO, 2002) defines

competency as a set of skills, related knowledge and attributes that allow a person to perform a task or activity within a particular function or job. If an individual possesses

these three components of competency they can effectively perform tasks as required by the precise job.

From the huge selection of related literature, the definition of competency can be

summarized as an underlying characteristic of a person that is causally related to

criterion-referenced effective and/or superior performance in a job or situation. Job

competency is a set of behavior patterns a job incumbent must bring to a position in order to execute its duties and functions with competence. A job competency can be a motive, trait, skill, self-concept, body of knowledge or an attribute that allows someone to perform a task or activity within a particular function or job.

1. 4 The Execution of the CBA Methodology in the Algerian Classroom

The CBA methodology has been used by the Algerian education ministry to be included in the primaries and supplementary school to improve teaching and learning. It really is enforced on both teachers and learners to explore their competence and tasks in lifecycle. A competency based mostly approach is a new reform plays a part in better the learners' knowledge situations which may varied in a range of skills. The CBA is meticulously related to a context-of-use. In other words, students will be good learners to make use of language effectively in their lifecycle by pulling a map to master what they have learned in institutions.

1. 5 The reasons of the CBA Way Implementation in the Classroom

The reasons why the Algerian authoritarians those who are in charge of educational policy implement the CBA strategy in the principal and secondary school classrooms is to develop students' linguistic and problem-solving capacities that can make students to cope with different duties cognitively and pragmatically challenging any difficult situation in the class. It will make learners autonomous and discover learning as an important process for both their studies and their future. So it is applied in schools since it is a profitable strategy basing on the actual learners are anticipated to do rather than on what they are anticipated to find out about.

1. 6 The Characteristics of the CB Approach

The CBA approach enables learners to check on their capacity to overcome obstacles and problems; it is problem- resolving approaches that produce learners think of well doing. It is a creative use of the recently constructive knowledge. Moreover, it characteristics can be stated the following

It makes students challengers to experience and face all kind of intricacy and ambiguity in learning.

It is approximately representation, self-assessment, and performance review are totally integrated into the exercise. Because of this, problem becomes success.

Collaboration in teamwork is essential to the effective learning experience.

It permits student's competence to impact the world beyond the class room and make contributions that are appreciated by professional and experts.

It provides learners with information predicated on assessment jobs.

It is based on authentic terms proficiency across sociolinguistic context.

It unveils the learners' innateness.

It is usable for instructions and curriculum version to the learners' needs.

It is dependant on the outcomes just as Schenck's stating

It is outcome-based which is adaptive to the changing needs of students, teachers and the community competencies differ from other students' goals and aims for the reason that they express the students' capability to use basic end other skills in situations that are communally encountered in everyday life.

Thus CBE (Competency Based Education) is dependant on a couple of results that are produced in life role situations.

Schenck (2001:14)

To reinforce what has been said about "CBE" let us see a little extra explanations of Competency Established Education to comprehend better from where does CBA result from? Richards and Rodgers (2001) says

Competency Established Education focuses on results of learning. CBEaddresses the particular learners are anticipated to do somewhat than on what they are expected to find out about. CBE emerged in america in the 1970s and identifies an educational movements that advocates defining educational goals in terms

of exact measurable information of knowledge, skills, and behaviors students should have at the end of a course of study.

Richards and Rodgers(2001)

To reinforce Richards and Rodgers's meaning of CBE Savage note that CBE is an operating approach to give attention to skills depends upon the learners' needs and competence. He sees in his definition the following

Competency Based mostly Education is an operating approach to education that emphasizes life skills and evaluates mastery of those skills corresponding to genuine leaner performance. It had been defined by the U. S. Office of Education as a "performance-based process leading to confirmed mastery of basic and life skills necessary for the individual to function proficiently in contemporary society.

Savage (1993: 15)

For Mrowicki, referring to skills only is insufficient in talking about CBE because competency is an interesting amalgam of knowledge and attitudes for far better results. Thus he considers in his meaning the next

Competencies consist of a description of the fundamental skills, knowledge, behaviour, and behaviors required for effective performance of your real-world task or activity. These activities may be related to any domain of life, though have typically been linked to the field of work and to social survival in a new environment.

Mrowicki (1986: 144)

It is very interesting to understand what we've presented because so many significant meanings of CBE about the Communicative Strategy which reaches the foundation of the Competency Centered Approach, the educational system applied in Algeria, and that can be also considered to be at the foundation of the LMD system applied at the level of the School, next section is specialized in the display of the latter, i. e. of the LMD system, to see in what manner is the LMD system a continuation of the CBA.

1. 7 What is LMD?

The LMD system, launched in the Algerian universities by 2003-2004, is an ongoing concern that specialists in Algeria and anywhere else are interested in. The LMD system (Licence, Professional and Doctorate) is the latest reform applied in the Algerian colleges. It aims at providing the Algerian diploma to the universality and also to bring the Algerian learner to a higher level of learning on the one hand and the world of job on the other hand. The introduction of LMD in the Algerian colleges should be associated with these new ideas for progressive teaching practices to improve the performance of the college or university system but also lead to greater employability of graduates.

1. 8 The Characteristics of the LMD System

In practice, we discover that the formalization of these concepts in the regulatory wording is not apparent. The brand new Article 18 of Decree No. 137 from 20/06/09 merely claims that the analysis of skills and knowledge acquisition is based on either a constant and regular control, or by your final exam, or a blend of both settings of control, but top priority should be given to ongoing monitoring. It is one of the present day pedagogical methods that was born out of any lot of reflections the recent years tend to transform the learner, the slave, the docile 'subject' and the unaggressive agent into a primary agent (the learner) in a learning process more well-codified.

Consequently, the role of the educator has been modified for the reason that it suits a lot more flexibility given and prescribed for the learner. Thus, the educator has to acknowledge now his/her role as a mediator, a facilitator of the knowing and the learning processes. The tutor, therefore, is forget about the sole, exclusive omnipotent of knowledge. S/he is called to master not only the discipline s/he teaches but also the methodological competencies that allow him/her to evidently define the aims of the learning process as well as the referential of the competence which is based the control of the training process.

In the same manner, within the platform of new strategies, the teacher should be able to go away logic of knowledge managing to a process of evaluation rather more complete. This objective of analysis encloses the diverse techniques that matter not only the data. The evaluation of students leans now on a set of procedures meant to gauge the results of the second option in conditions of the grasped knowledge, the deduced understanding and the purchased competence.

1. 9 Aims of the LMD System

The LMD new system allows the following

Equivalence: to make equivalence of the countrywide diplomas to the international diplomas

Flexibility and Drive: Algerian universities make cooperation with other colleges in another country to ensure follow up studies in international universities. This means that students have opportunities to go in another country for a report period.

ICTS' Use: combine the ICT to bolster coaching as well as learning. ICT end up being the mastery of modern international languages

Autonomy: to make students, educators and universities autonomous.

Lowering: to reduce the amount of time: (between 20h and 25h maximum)

Decrease: to lessen the number of students per group : about 20 students

1. 10 The LMD System Aspects

The aspects of Licence ( L), Get good at (M) and doctorate ( D) are the following

A-Organization of L, M and D

B-Evaluation

D-Progression

C-Re-orientation

A-Organization of L (1+2+3)

The licence, L (1+2+3), is divided into 6 semesters, the semester is of 14 to16 effective weeks. The suggested plan

Semester one starts off from October to February

semester two starts off from Feb to June

make up examinations or resits: in September

Remark: The exact same suggested plan is directed at Master beginning with semester 7 to semester 10 and Doctorate from semester 11 to semester 16.

B-Evaluation

The analysis of the half-yearly knowledge by way of a continual assessment and/or a final exam

The publication at the beginning of each semester of the number, nature, length, level-headedness and the method of the analysis tests.

The second session ought to be the max in Sept.

The compensation is at three levels, a teaching product, a semester and per annum.

The main of bettering the performances purchased even for the UE got by reimbursement.

D-Progression

The primary of entrance in an excellent season with debts

The passage from L1 to L2 can be done with at the least 30 credits on 60 with least 10 credits valid per semester

The passage from L2 to L3 by validation of at least 90 credits on 120 and of important items required.

The entrance from M1 to M2 is by validation of 45 credits on 60 and the acquisition of UE pre-required in M2

C-Re-orientation

Re-orienting the university student to some other field in case there is failure

The capitalization of obtained themes and the possible dispense of lectures TD and TP for the non-acquired things.

A maximum stay of five years in Licence and three years in Get better at even after the re-orientation.

To know more information about the LMD system and work, see section three.

In this section, as we have already said, in the general introduction, to bolster and make ELT under the LMD implementation successful and effective we favor to add and conclude our talk by adding the value of technologies quite simply integrating the ICT in the classroom. So first what's ICT?

1. 11 What's ICT?

Information, Communication and Technologies (ICTs) have just lately become one of the needs of modern learning, teaching and communication. Today, in Algeria, ICT or Information, Marketing communications and Technology play a major role inside our lifecycle, the ICT development have started out from 1990s in universities where new technologies of digital systems have shown to provide opportunity and hope to a new education to obtain the most current knowledge in teaching and learning. ICT offer troubles to learners to attain the planet at distance.

The objective of this research study is to better know how the pedagogical integration of ICT as extra part of reform put into CBA strategy and LMD new reform can donate to enhance the quality of teaching and learning in Algerian organizations. The development of the use of ICT in Algerian education would be the main focus of researchers to see and follow the procedure of the utilization of ICT in the class room.

Furthermore, the research workers' observation must also concentrate on the educators' role which is the primary pillar in the new reforms made round the world where determined, skilled teachers must use the energy of ICT to activate students in collaborative work to build up their skills and competence in looking and controlling information as well as creating assignments to contribute to success in education of today. In other words, to contribute to professional development, teaching and learning; also to research and analysis that can enhance the complete educational system from old to modern system.

For that reason, our debate in this context is to aid the idea that success in LMD reform is related to the utilization of ICT in the school room and the starting place of this success must be been through in universities where CBA is applied. From this idea, we refer to another point which is communicative dialect teaching (henceforth CLT). CLT is now the world subject of all educators and researchers those who wish to identify the new methodology the educators (either traditional or modern) use in their classrooms, refer to "communicative" as new methods and concepts. To give additional information about CLT we must first ask the following question

What is the potency of CLT in LMD? This is very important question to be responded to make the connection between your reforms CBA and LMD created by Algerian policy to better coaching and learning foreign languages.

1. 12 Communicative Dialect Teaching

The first appearance of CLT was at England 1970s. It is a methodology of focusing on learning and teaching of languages. It speedily became recognizable across the world. CLT played a major role in bettering teaching English terms through practice (skills). It became a connection between learning and educating through communication it is a communication itself. Li Xiaoju (1984) defines it as "vocabulary is communication and learning a terminology a terms is learning how to communicate".

Moreover, communicative terminology teaching can be comprehended as a couple of principles

about the goals of terms coaching, how learners learn a dialect, the varieties of school room activities that best facilitate learning, and the assignments of professors and learners in the classroom( Jack C. Richards 2006). There were many studies designed for studying CLT in EFL settings (Ellis, 1996; Gorsuch, 2000; Incecay & Incecay, 2009; Li, 1998; Rao, 2002; Sun & Cheng, 2002). But we, as new analysts, wish to work on it in LMD implementation in Algerian colleges and contexts.

Giving the value of CLT to the present English teaching circumstances in Algeria, leave us the atmosphere to work on what can CLT method brings to LMD and CBA implementations. To reinforce this idea, we should all concentrate on the common advantage which is communication because our purpose as EFL teacher, Algerian authorities, policy creators and mainly students or learners those who are undergoing these types of implementations is to breakdown all obstacles between developing countries and developed countries.

1. 13 Areas of CLT

CLT consists in the next aspects of terminology knowledge

Knowing how to use language for a particular purposes and functions

Knowing how to alter our use of words according to the setting and framework. ( depens on the amount of terminology formality)

Knowing how to comprehend language and produce in it.

Knowing how to be accountable for getting.

Because the importance and the qualities CLT has to overcome the down sides and difficulties in teaching dialects, the Algerian corporations made an important part to assimilate CLT in the execution of LMD reform in the class. Using CLT in EFL configurations to confront changes and triumph over all the down sides of the implementation newness with an increase of performance and efficiency help to reach success in educating foreign dialects under new systems. Thus, this is our response to the prior question what is the potency of CLT in LMD? CLT is a medium to help the sophisticated changes made in the coverage of coaching as well concerning provide and reinforce the professionals' success.

Further, today's study is significant for the reason that it aims to inquire about and illustrate the connection between CLT, LMD and CBA as impressive and interrelated methods that cannot be separately worked to conquer all the problems of teaching and learning of English in the classroom. The second option becomes very challenging.

As EFL instructors, we are appreciated to learn much to change our techniques and solutions to our students must overcome the issues of British fluency and we should also find solutions to students' demands. We must become innovative and methodic instructors to master all the systems implementations and apply them successively in the school room.

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