The procedure for pondering and learning has became attractive and interesting for most philosophers, academics and experts for centuries. Due to internal and neurological research, proof has been collected about use of intelligence and brain's functioning. Learning, formal and casual, occurs every day and there are many explanations explaining its process. These definitions vary matching to theorist's own views and strategies towards learning (Pritchard, 2009). Kolb's (1984, p. 38) 'working description' of learning is among the many interpretations 'Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience'.
When learning, individuals often choose to use or change a preferred learning style. There are various identified learning styles and one way of finding out, which style is the the one which an individual prefers, is by responding to and evaluating a learning style questionnaire. Depending on results, learners are being detailed in various conditions, such as aesthetic, reflector, pragmatist and so many more. Not all ideas provide questionnaires or checks to recognize learning personal preferences. These ideas, for example Gardner's Multiple Intelligences, are, nevertheless, useful tools aiding recognise regions of advantages and weaknesses.
In this task I discuss various learning ideas and how they are really relevant to professional and personal practice. I present a variety of learning styles/ideas and put together their main points, for example Myres-Briggs Type Signal, aesthetic, audio, kineasthetic learning style (VAK), Gardner's Multiple Intelligences, Goleman's Emotional Intellect and Kolb's Experimental Learning. I compare various learning styles and appearance the way they are executed in countrywide curriculum. I assess how sensible it is to use the learning styles in practice and I also think about my own activities. 270
Learning styles and theories of learning
A learning theory, perhaps more associated with adult learning (androdogy), that identifies and classifies various personal types, is Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The theory originates from ideas of Carl Jung and it recognizes four choice scales, they are really: Extroversion (E)/ Introversion (I), Discomfort (S)/iNtuition (N), Thinking (T)/Feeling (F) and Judgement (J)/Perception (P). By incorporating the four characters of each inclination the personality type is set up. Altogether, there are sixteen whole types that describe individual choices (Myers, I. Briggs, 1995).
Some critics of MBTI are quick to point out that the descriptions of different personal types are too vague, general and some overlap (Bayne, 1997). There are many factors that can influence individuals when answering questions, such as: Have they got previous experiences of specific situations when explaining their behaviour and actions? Just how many experiences can they compare? Just how do they feel that particular day? Is there a probability of an incentive when dropping into a certain category? (For example promotion). Who is going to be critiquing questionnaires, workplace or an outside company? Are results going to influence any changes in current job position? Are individuals going to be stereotyped? Are they heading to be prompted to utilize their strengths rather than given chance to enhance their weaknesses?
Despite the defects the MBTI enables visitors to gain an improved understanding of themselves and how other folks think and connect to each other. Additionally it is important to remember that each particular personal type is as important and useful as the rest of these. (255)
Another theory, strongly promoted by Division for Education and Skills (Pedagogy and Practice: Teaching and learning in secondary classes, 2004), is the Visual, Sound, Kinaesthetic (VAK) learning style. One way of finding out which style is the one which an individual prefers is by answering and assessing a learning style questionnaire. These choices can be visible, auditory, kinaesthetic, or sometimes a blend of several styles.
The VAK learning style is recognized by many teachers, who are provided with valuable knowledge of what learning style is recommended by a person, which learning environment allows the students to expand their learning and, which teaching strategies provide a balance of opportunities for the students.
Scratching beneath the surface of it all, we find a rather intriguing world of accelerated and brain-based learning, a world of pseudoscience, psychobabble and neurononsense. (Bowker et al, 2008, p. 311)
Some of the ideas consider other intelligences, aside from linguistic and mathematical skills. Howard Gardner (1993) recognises nine intelligences, formerly there have been seven, that are: linguistic, logical/mathematical, musical, spatial/visual, kineasthetic, social, intrapersonal, naturalistic and existential.
Department for Skills and Education (DfES) also recommends Gardner's construction of multiple intelligences to be applied to plan lessons and activities ensuring that they may be inclusive for everyone children (Pedagogy and Practice: Teaching and learning in extra classes, 2004).
However, Gardner's theory lacks research and proof to aid it.
Following Gardner's theory is Daniel Goleman. He also targets intelligence split from IQ that is certainly Emotional Cleverness (EI). EI has become ubiquitous and is widely used in a variety of areas, which demonstrates that many people as well as children can reap the benefits of using Goleman's ideas in practice every day. Goleman identifies five key rules: home and other awareness, feelings management, self-motivation, empathy and management of associations. The word 'emotional intellect' is worldwide known and directly associated with working environment. Goleman (2004) argues that EI is more important than IQ. For example when considering having a nursery practitioner mental and communal skills tend to be more important than academics skills as the specialist needs to be able to relate with parents, children, acquaintances and other professionals involved in a child's health care. Additional training, to ensure that the specialist has appropriate certification, can be provided by company or desired by a worker.
One of the main element points of Goleman's criticisms is that he's not presenting a fresh theory but a topic that is studied for a long time under personality research. The idea was originally set frontward by Jack Mayer and Peter Salovey, whom Goleman hardly ever mentions in his work. He uses the word emotional brains too broadly as he includes aspects of personality and behaviour. However, many universities in United States of America have successfully included programmes on psychological brains in their curriculum and also have been working them for a decade.
Both, Goleman and Gardner, suggest that not just academic skills, such as writing and reading, but also other intelligences are part of learning process, equally important, and have to be considered when forming inclusive learning environment for children and individuals.
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