There is without doubt that the necessity of improving the grade of primary schools specifically in rural areas is very urgent for government. One of the most encouraging solution is through utilization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). With this newspaper we present our effort and work in increasing the grade of primary school professors and the students' learning process so that increases the quality of most important education. This work is part of the research project carried out in Keerom Regency, Papua Province that is funded by Directorate General for Highly Education - Ministry of National Education.
Keywords: rural digital learning, major school, teacher's quality, students' learning process
The issue of countrywide education quality has gained much attention lately. A major weakness in rural main schools is the lack of qualified teachers had a need to deliver the lessons in a class room, primarily in Mathematics and Sciences. Field observations show that most primary school educators have non-Math and Knowledge background and they deliver these themes in typical ways. The result, students misunderstand many abstract concepts of Math and Sciences .
The need of bettering the quality of education for major schools is urgently required, especially for those in rural areas. Inside our recent studies, one of the very most effective approaches to address this issue is through the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICTs). Studies in  reveal that ICT is a key tool in the warfare against world proverty in quantity critial areas including education, healtcare, federal government, trade, and small business support. Further, Teresa states that ICT-based alternatives that work in develop countries cannot simply be transplanted to expanding country environments. The solutions must be based on a knowledge of local needs and conditions.
Through funding give from Directorate General for Highly Education - Ministry of Country wide Education, ITB Research Focus on Information and Communication Technology conducts a research program to improve the quality of most important school teachers and enhance the students' learning process so that improves the grade of primary education, especially for those in rural areas in Indonesia. In such a paper, we record our work and work on progress in building and implementing ICT-based environment and learning process for principal classes in Keerom-Papua.
In the next section, we provide the overview of related work. In section 3, we summarize our focus on designing and implementing ICT-based environment and learning process for main colleges in Keerom-Papua. Section 4 presents the challenges of deploying an electronic learning system in rural area. Section 5 describes the conclusion of the research.
Our prior work in Research Center on Information and Communication Technology - Bandung Institute of Technology suggest that ICTs plays important role as an alternative for delivering learning programs in primary universities such as through virtual class application. Hopefully that these programs can talk about some issues in rural areas like the disparity of high quality professor syndication and the lifestyle of many hard-to-reach geographical locations.
Recent studies show that the utilization of ICTs will offer some benefit in improving the grade of key education. ICT can broaden information access needed by educators and students as base for expanding knowledge-based community of teachers and students, ICT can increase the efficiency of learning process as well as enhance the professors and students skills, and ICT can maintain carrying on and extended life learning.
ICT for Teachers: developing teacher community network, learning reference repositories, and instructing guidelines repositories.
ICT for Category: creating virtual class that will help teacher delivering the lesson.
ICT for Laboratory: comprising virtual lab and sctructured computer lab.
ICT for Students: creating a condusive environtment for students self-learning.
ICT for Community: allowing the learning process to be sent and conducted from anywhere and anytime (e. g. particularly from homes).
Both of ideas of ICT for Instructors and ICT for School have been carried out in a pilot job that was funded by ITB research grant . The job involves two key institutions in Subang (representing rural principal school whose professors have little understanding of using computer), two major institution in Bandung (representing urban school whose teachers are computer literate) and one key college in Cianjur (representing a sub-urban institution with modest understanding of computer use). Learn from our own encounters, we bring that model to be executed in Keerom-Papua.
In this paper, we present our work last year in making and implementing ICT-based environment and learning process for main institutions in Keerom-Papua. Actually, the machine deployment involves two main activities: i) deployment of digital learning infrastructure that is attaching all PC-based terminals and network devices through TCP/IP protocols and ii) deployment of digital learning programs that is providing several ICT-based learning applications and processes such as web-based educators cooperation (ICT for Instructors) and digital class (ICT for School).
The pilot job in Keerom-Papua entails three primary academic institutions, as members are SD Inpres I Arso 2, SD Inpres Arso 6, and SD Inpres Arso 7 and one supplementary school as middle of the city is SMAN Arso. Kantor Dinas Keerom is prepared for future years deployment. Table 1 shows the GPS-based survey from some locations.
Table 1. The GPS-based survey
Kantor Dinas Keerom
69, 1 m
SD Inpres 1 Arso 2
57. 3 m
SMAN 1 Keerom
43. 1 m
SD Inpres Arso 6
44. 1 m
SD Inpres Arso 7
35. 0 m
The deployment of digital learning infrastructure in Keeom-Papua is based on Wi-fi technology using celebrity network topology . The topology is one of the most typical computer network topologies that are choosen as a result of ability to isolate individual nodes in the maintenance and troubleshooting process. In that network, SMAN Arso functions as primary node that is connected to SD Inpres I Arso 2, SD Inpres Arso 6, and SD Inpres Arso 7 straight using WiFi website link as shown in Fig. 1.
Figure 1. The mapping of some locations that will be
networked in Keerom-Papua [Y]
Considering several benefits, SMAN 1 Arso is choosen as a central network (see Fig. 2). SMAN 1 Arso is based on the center of three primary college offering ease to implement celebrity network with the school as the guts of the network. This school has Internet connection to Jardiknas network provided by Ministry of Country wide Education that will also provide Internet access for the participants. This school also has a computer instructor that is possibly grabbed as tech support team for the sustainability procedure of the digital learning infrastructure.
Figure 2. The WiFi-based digital learning network using
star topology in Keerom-Papua 
The infrastructure is consisting of PC-based terminals and some network devices. In SMAN 1 Arso, we track down some devices like a PC-based router, a digital learning server, a wireless gain access to point, an IP Telephone, and outdoor Wireless devices. In each key school, we locate a virtual class container, a notebook, a wireless access point, an IP Telephone, and Wi-fi devices. Many of these devices are being used to provide some digital learning services including web-based professors' collaboration and virtual class.
Digital Learning Program
From the five methods of improving the quality of primary education, we have been utilizing ICT for Instructors and ICT for Category. We will ellaborate each one of these scenarios in the next section.
The idea of ICT for Educators relates to the use of ICT for providing digital services to teachers and experts. It requires an Internet-based networking of instructors and experts so that permitting them to interact witch one another, to talk about learning resources and also teaching guidelines . This concept is being applied in a pilot task undertaken in Keerom-Papua regarding three primary schools (SD Inpres I Arso 2, SD Inpres Arso 6, and SD Inpres Arso 7) and one supplementary college (SMAN 1 Arso) . The participating schools are provided with PC/Laptop and software program as well as access to the web. With this infrastructure, a couple of learning program are set up for teachers from participating universities. Similar to our pilot project in Bandung-Subang-Cianjur , among of them are chatting program in a certain time where all taking part teachers interact with each other online as well as online conversation forum among teachers and experts (see Fig. 3).
Figure 3. The WiFi-based digital learning network using
star topology in Keerom-Papua
The ICT for School is implemented by providing a virtual class room services for aiding distance learning. The primary idea is the fact ICT will be used to allow a professor help educating a class in different school and never have to physically attend to that college, for example using a recorded multimedia (offline function) or through multimedia system streaming on the web (online setting) . Fig. 4 shows the diagram of online exclusive classroom design through WiFi-based network in Keerom-Papua. In the web mode that uses teleconference and IP telephony system, a far more interactive period can be conducted between students and remote control teacher.
Figure 4. Diagram of online digital classroom system in
The circumstance for utilizing ICTs in rural main universities is difficult. Study by Misuraka show that there are lots of technical and human barries that treaten the utilization of ICTs, mainly in rural areas .
Our prior analysis also reveals that we now have number obstacles in the deployment of digital learning system in Keerom-Papua including the limitation of electricity availableness, the bottleneck of WiFi-based intranet in several network pathways, inflexibility of digital learning applications, and the real human barriers in system operation and maintenance. In the foreseeable future, some research activities will be conducted to handle those issues. To conquer the human obstacles, a combo of organized training and training-by-doing also will be conducted.
We have described our experiences this past year in utilizing ICTs for enhancing the quality of primary school instructors and the students' learning process so that enhances the grade of main education. A case study is performed in Keerom Regency, Papua Province. Today, the implementation of digital learning program is still in progress, specially the execution of ICT for Professors and ICT for Category. Although the consequence of this research is not conclusive yet, we think that our research will be promising to address some quality issues of most important education, specifically in rural areas.
This research is partially recognized by Directorate General for Highly Education - Ministry of National Education and is conducted at Research Center on Information and Communication Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology.
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