Integrating ICT in Teaching and Learning

Information and Marketing communications Technology commonly referred to as ICT comes from the acronym IT and CT and refers to ways of storing, manipulating and communicating information.

Information Technology (IT), as identified by the Smart Processing Dictionary, is

"An over-all term used to spell it out any technology that really helps to produce, change, store, communicate, or disseminate information. IT refers to the priciest, complex computers, with devices usually dealing with electronic data in binary format. However, these IT machines are not able to communicate with each other. "

And, Communication Technology (CT) is "the term used to describe telecommunications equipment by which information can be wanted and accessed". (New Zealand MOE, 1998). Examples include: training video conferencing, teleconference phones, and modems.

Globally, educational systems are implementing new technology to integrate ICT in the coaching and learning process, to get ready students with the knowledge and skills they want in their subject material. In this way the teaching occupation is evolving from teacher-centered to student-centered learning conditions. "ICT integration is known as the usage of technology seamlessly for educational procedures like transacting curricular content and students focusing on technology to do genuine responsibilities" (Kainth and Kaur). Nowadays ICT help not only the delivery of lessons but also the training process itself. This includes computer based systems, digital imaging, the internet, document servers, data safe-keeping devices, network infrastructure, desktops, laptop computers and broadcasting systems specifically radio and tv set, and cell phone which are used as instructional tools at schools.

INTEGRATING ICT IN THE Coaching AND LEARNING PROCESS

In Mauritius administration has spent tremendously to promote ICT integration in coaching and learning. Could it be worth investing a whole lot money? What advantages do ICT have in education? Many research workers have given their view points about advantages and exactly how ICT can be integrated in curriculum.

Allen (1997) presumed that the essential skills of the future will be the use of powerful solutions. The original textbook can't fulfill the need in the immediate changing and the information-explosion world. He asserted that the original teacher-centered way makes classroom no more an effective system to get ready students for the realities that they face soon.

Parmley et al. (1997) explained that technology works best as a helping tool-making complex processes or creative experience either possible or easier to accomplish. He thought that technology can offer new ways to provide significant, real-life framework for learning, it also allow students to collaborate with peers and experts across the country and around the World.

Rosener (1997) identified IT as effective as, or even better than, traditional approach to instructing and learning as it being limitless of your time and space. Poole (1998) remarked that suitably included computer use can donate to successful ends in the classroom as to: support teaching and learning, support children's socialisation, permit children with disabilities to assimilate and permits a educator to duplicate brilliance.

According to Kennewell et al. (2000), integration of ICT in educating requires understanding at a deeper level to accomplish the development of strategies and process to recognize opportunities, solve problems and evaluate solution. They think that these higher-level objectives require not only technological knowledge and skills, however the capability to choose an effective strategy for a challenge. Poole (1998) shared his view that the technology is merely a tool to both instructor and student. The effectiveness of the tool will depend on entirely on the skills they bring to the learning process. He assumed that the professors' activity is thus to nurture the students willingness to learn.

Gregoire et al (1996) provided the next important details in respecting college student learning in analysing that the contribution new technology can make to teaching and learning

New technologies encourage the development of intellectual skills

New technologies donate to the means of learning knowledge, skills and behaviour, but still dependent on pre-requisite knowledge and kind of learning activity.

New systems spur spontaneous interest more than traditional techniques of learning.

Students using new technologies focus more than those in traditional settings

Moreover the above outlined items are balanced by further genuine observations

Benefits of ICT for students are greatly reliant on the technical skills of the educators and their behaviour towards technology.

Skill and attitude subsequently are largely reliant on the staff training in this area. (UNESCO Paris, 2002).

2. 2. 1 Impact of ICT on education

In educational context, ICT gets the potential to increase usage of education and improve its relevance and quality. Tinio (2002) asserted that ICT has a significant impact on education in terms of acquisition and absorption of knowledge to both instructors and students through the promotion of
  • Active learning: ICT tools help for the computation and examination of information obtained for exam and also students' performance record are being computerised and made easily available for inquiry. As opposed to memorisation-based or rote learning, ICT encourages learner engagement as learners choose what things to learn at their own rate and focus on true to life situations' problems.
  • Collaborative and Cooperative learning: ICT stimulates interaction and co-operation among students, professors regardless of distance which is between them. In addition, it provides students the chance to work with people from different ethnicities and working along in groups, hence help students to improve their communicative skills as well as their global recognition. Researchers have found that usually the use of ICT brings about more cooperation among learners within and beyond university and there is a more interactive marriage between students and professors (Grgoire et al. , 1996). "Collaboration is a idea of discussion and personal lifestyle where individuals are accountable for their actions, including learning and value the skills and contributions of these peers. " (Panitz, 1996).
  • Creative Learning: ICT helps bring about the manipulation of existing information and create one's own knowledge to produce a tangible product or a given instructional purpose.
  • Integrative learning: ICT helps bring about an integrative method of coaching and learning, through the elimination of the synthetic separation between theory and practice unlike in the traditional school room where emphasis encloses only a particular aspect.
  • Evaluative learning: Usage of ICT for learning is student-centered and provides useful feedback through various interactive features. ICT allow students to find and learn through new means of coaching and learning that happen to be sustained by constructivist ideas of learning alternatively than students do memorisation and rote learning.
And a mentioned in "Teaching of ICT" by MIE/IGNOU (2005), improvements in telecommunication systems can lead education to provide more freedom to educators and students by

Better use of learning resources- a demonstration once made through use of solutions can be confirmed to students again and again.

Motivating to learn-ICTs incorporate text, audio, and colourful, moving images that increase learners' inspiration and their interest to learn.

Facilitating the acquisition of basic concepts that are the base for higher order principles and imagination can be facilitated through drill and practice as repetition and reinforcement of content and skills are being centered.

Aspect

Less 'traditional pedagogy'

More 'growing pedagogy' for the info society

Active

  • Activities recommended by teacher
  • Whole category instruction
  • Little variation in activities
  • Pace determined by the programme
  • Small groups
  • Activities dependant on learners
  • Many different activities
  • Pace dependant on learners

Collaborative

  • Individual
  • Homogenous groups
  • Everyone for him/herself
  • Working in teams
  • Heterogeneous groups
  • Supporting each other

Creative

  • Reproductive learning
  • Apply known solutions to problems
  • Productive learning
  • Find new solutions to problems

Integrative

  • No website link between theory and practice
  • Separate subjects
  • Discipline-based
  • Individual teachers
  • Integrating theory and practice
  • Relations between subjects
  • Teams of teachers
  • Thematic

Evaluative

  • Teacher-directed
  • Summative
  • Student-directed
  • DiagnosticTable 2. 2. 1 Overview of Pedagogy in the Industrial versus the Information Society

While theoretical arguments can be put forward to give a strong rationale for the use of ICT in boosting the coaching and learning process, really the only rationale is based on whether, in practice, it has a positive effect on learning, the learners, and teachers (Newhouse, 2002).

learning environment entities and exterior entities.

IMPACT OF ICT ON LEARNERS

ICT has quite strong result in education and it provides extensive tools for boosting coaching and learning. There were many studies which have highlighted the various techniques ICT may support teaching and learning procedures in a variety of disciplinary domains including the engineering of new opportunities for relationship between students and knowledge and being able to access information. ICT permit new ways coaching and learning when used appropriately under right conditions such as appropriate resources, training and support. ICT also offers the to meet up with the learning needs of specific students, to market equal opportunity, to provide learning material, and also promote interdependence of learning among learners (Leach, Ahmed, Makalima & Electricity, 2005).

The five ways to establish and support effective learning environments through ICT recommended by the Committee on Trends in the Technology of Learning (2000) are

1. Real world problems

2. Scaffolding

3. Feedback, representation and guidance

4. Local and global communities

5. Extending teacher learning. (Newhouse, 2002)

IMPACT OF ICT ON TEACHERS

Roblyer and Edwards (2000) recommended that we now have five important known reasons for teachers to utilize technology in education

(1) Motivation;

(2) Distinctive instructional talents;

(3) Higher efficiency of teachers;

(4) Essential skills for the Information Age and

(5) Support for new coaching techniques (Samak, 2006).

In order to employ technology in the classroom effectively, educators should have a good attitude toward technology and they should be trained in using the modern systems in their respected field of education. Chin and Hortin (1994) mentioned that teachers must become the "change agent" in the partnership between technology and the students as professors are more likely to execute the recommended and proposed changes pertaining to ICT in education.

But at exactly the same time there are extensive challenges confronted by teachers as they consider how better to best integrate ICT tools into their teaching. That is being reviewed in the next article.

2. 4. 1 Factors impacting technology integration in Teaching and Learning

I. Jung discusses the enormous obstacle instructors are facing inside our society due to the rapid enlargement of knowledge. The present day technologies are challenging that teachers learn how to utilize these systems in their teaching. Hence these new solutions increase the teachers' training needs. Gressard and Loyd (1985) asserted that teacher's attitudes toward personal computers are a key factor in the successful implementation of ICT in education. They remarked that teachers do not always have positive attitudes towards personal computers and their poor behaviour may lead to a failure of the computer- founded projects.

Also the most commonly cited barriers are
  • lack of the time;
  • lack of gain access to;
  • lack of resources;
  • lack of expertise and
  • lack of support (Butler and Sellbom, 2002, Leggettt & Persichitte, 1998).

Another barrier given by Butler and Sellbom (2002) and Chizmar & Williams (2001) is consistency. Trustworthiness included hardware failures, incompatible software between home and school, poor or slow internet connection and out of time software which are available mostly at university as the students/educators are experiencing more up-to-date software at home.

SUBJECT DIFFERENCE IN ICT INTEGRATION

Subject being taught is also one factor influencing the integration of ICT in the teaching and learning process. Generally, science teachers have significantly more positive behaviour towards ICT and have got a higher degree of computer literacy knowledge than other teachers such as Arts, Humanities and Commerce.

Law et al (2000) think that they used ICT in their coaching more frequently. Rosener (1997) sated that the utilization of IT should be used when they offer more opportunities for students to visualise and understand research materials. In areas where the subject matter centers more on value, so this means and philosophical ideas, IT will only partially be able to substitute for human being connections. However, in areas that have a high level of students studying the topic like the sciences which constitute of an standardised curriculum and factual content, it'll more likely be able to supplement the content and teaching methods with use of ICT.

ICT AND MATHEMATICS

There a wide range of potential uses for pcs in the teaching and learning procedure for mathematics. Matching to Oldknow and Taylor (2000), the role of ICT in the teaching and learning process of mathematics are the following

In terms of teachers, the utilization of ICT:-

Improves their efficiency

Reduces their administrative burden since less paperwork

Releases more time to handle students individually

Provides better details of students' progress

Acts as a stimulus to rethinking their method of their mathematics teaching

Acts as a stimulus to rethinking their understanding of mathematics

Acts as a way to communicate with other teachers writing the common problems.

The use of ICT makes students:-

Engage their attention and motivate them

Stimulate their curiosity

Encourage them to build up their problem-solving strategies

Provide models and images which help them in theory formation

Improve their test and examination results given that they learn by own rate and learn through responses provided to them.

Mathematics lessons are associated with true to life situations and escalates the relevancy of the lessons to the real world. The curriculum needs to be updated regularly to take consideration of the technology common in culture. Mathematics has tended to be very abstract some students have a tendency to operate on a concrete level. The use of concrete materials in a few lessons is useful but often not convenient. The computer can provide experiences with exclusive concrete materials. In nearing problems associated with remedial and extension students' computer use can offer appropriate material and overcome school room management problems.

In 1995 the National Council for Educational Technology publicized a leaflet in which are included the six opportunities students can enhance their mathematics learning through the use of ICT

Learning from reviews: Fast and reliable responses is provided which motivates students to make their own judgements and also to test out and work over their ideas.

Observing habits: The use of computers and digital calculators permits students to apply as many cases as you can when working out numerical problems. This chains their review of patterns.

Seeing associations: With use of ICT graphs and related formulae and furniture of numbers are readily connected. Changing one value probes these to see the immediate effects in the other parameters thus helps students to understand the contacts between them.

Working with active images: Students can make use of IT to control diagrams. This encourages those to visualise the change of geometry with all the required software and this advances their reasoning skills.

Exploring data: With the use of IT students receive the opportunity to use real data that can be represented in many ways, which supports description and analysis.

Teaching the computer: When students design algorithm to accomplish a particular result, they must express their orders obviously and in the correct order thus growing their thinking skills.

These placed opportunities are applicable with the living of ICT tools that will help students in their mathematics learning and educators can map those talked about opportunities with the many types of ICT tools (including both software and hardware), from the guide "ICT and Mathematics", for instance

Hand-held technology - use numerical and graphing features of graphical calculators with data-loggers

Programming dialects - use Logo

Small software - in the form of video games and simulations.

Spreadsheets - set up a basic spreadsheet to type in data and replicate formulae- use of progress facilities of like statistical graphing

Web-sites - explore web-based resources related to mathematics coaching.

Whiteboards - use of digital whiteboards for whole-class teaching, using OHPs.

General goal software - Microsoft Office package such as Excel, Term, Explorer and PowerPoint.

Mathematics teaching software - strong geometry software(for constructions and transformations e. g. for coordinates, methods) and interactive bundle including graph-plotting using Graph-plotters, data-handling (data source or statistical software), symbolic algebra.

E-learning- For e. g. Xerte (available source e-learning) can be an interactive program and a fully-featured e-learning development for creating rich interactive environment.

An example is taken from the guide "ICT and Mathematics" on the dynamic geometry software. This can help students arrive at a convincing evidence.

Figure 2. 6: Geometry Software

The software is employed to see the sights of the relationship between the regions of quadrilaterals and the regions of the figures formed by getting started with their midpoints. Both areas seem to be equivalent, but clearer seen by dragging A, B, C or D about through the program. So formulating a speculation that the area of EFGH is definitely 1 / 2 that of ABCD EFGH always is apparently a parallelogram or with the addition of a diagonal BD, might suggest geometric romantic relationships that students can reach a convincing evidence.

As described in the leaflet from "Mathematics and IT - a pupil's entitlement" in the guide "ICT and Mathematics"

"As the technology progresses and becomes more frequent, teachers will also have to be continuously reconsidering the numerical content with their teaching. Having software which can, for example, solve systems of equations at the touch of a button has strong implications for just how particular matters are approached. "

One vital facet of the widespread availability of ICT tools and quick access to resources of mathematical information through the Internet is that they can allow us to keep in touch with developments prevailing across the world for Mathematics.

The four key ideas, highlighted in the ICT in mathematics (DfES, 2004), that are noteworthy for mathematics are

using data and information resources;

organising and looking into;

analysing and automating techniques;

models and modelling.

How can the utilization of ICT raise benchmarks in mathematics? (DfES, 2004)

ICT can be used as a tool

to support professors in teaching an objective better, in improving lesson design and increasing coaching and learning;

to permit pupils to engage with learning and also to be motivated to boost their learning;

to enable pupils to gain access to geometrical, graphical and statistical ideas dynamically and so to make cable connections in their learning;

to build pupils' confidence in their mathematical abilities by testing their conjectures, learning from reviews and using reasoning to change their alternatives.

Students learning mathematics most take advantage of the use of ICT in areas such as

the educator using an interactive or electronic whiteboard to begin with and plenaries;

the teacher using an electric whiteboard for interactive teaching in the main area of the lesson;

using generic software such as databases or spreadsheets as a way of earning sense of data;

using content-free, mathematics-specific software on computers or visual calculators to assist visualisation and help to make contacts in algebra and geometry;

using simple programming languages, such as Logo design, to build more and more complex mathematical models and relationships in shape and space, number and algebra;

using content-specific software, usually focusing on specific mathematical skills;

processing and interpreting experimental information from data-loggers;

using information resources such as the Internet, CD-ROMs or data files.

E-Learning

E-Learning "comprises all varieties of electronically backed learning and teaching. " (Wikipedia). It can use an information network or even no network necessary for the lessons delivery and connections. It can be referred to as term online learning. Tinio described that Web-based learning is a subset of e-learning and refers to learning using an Web browser (such as Netscape or WEB BROWSER).

Figure 2. 6. 2: E-Learning

2. 6. 3 Blended Learning

Another learning model which is developing in our educational system is combined learning. This refers to combining traditional classroom methods with e-learning solutions. For instance, students in a normal class can be given with printed copies and also online materials through an educational program and even have online monitoring periods with their professors through the talk. Combined learning is a supplementation to traditional delivery methods in class to aid face-to-face lessons. (Tinio). Mixing learning is definitely an online or offline process.

2. 6. 4 Open up Source E Learning

Like any teaching styles, e-learning takes a variety of resources to be run effectively. (Tinio). So there are many interactive deals which may be of great use and they are free software packages and of good use to educators given that they help to add plain text message, images, videos, drawings and other interactivities with their coaching and also various types of questions are included like

true/false

multiple choice

matching

fill in the blank

calculations

When the pupil clicks on the submit button, they get their responses straight and can have repetition of the work if need is.

Thus e-learning can be beneficial to educators in the following ways as described by the College or university of Nottingham

E-learning is shipped through blended understanding how to complement traditional learning methods.

E-learning can cover a sizable or small part of your lessons, having already the required materials that can be converted into e-learning.

Any use of technology to support the teaching and learning process serves as a e-learning.

Help to control and organise lessons materials in a far more effective and reliable way

Reduction of administrative tasks, for example paper materials and marking tests

Enable educators to monitor pupil involvement and progress and offer support and advice rapidly and make effective use of teacher-student contact time

Widen communication opportunities with students

Help the change in educators' role from knowledge supplier to learning facilitator

Encourage the development of versatile learning materials.

The School of Nottingham explained that in terms of students, e-learning

Encourage overall flexibility of access to lessons materials- anytime, anywhere

Provide self-responsibility for learning and invite students to learn at their own pace and to keep an eye on their progress

Enhance student participation while stimulating less positive students for taking part

Encourage student proposal when using interactive learning materials and improve students' motivation and satisfaction and facilitate knowledge of the subject matter

Promote communication with educators

Promote peer support as there is more interaction between your students

Help in the preparation of upcoming subject areas and revision of preceding lessons

Increase the convenience of information and lesson materials to students with low talents in the subject matter.

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