Globalization has made nations and civilizations interrelated and interconnected with one another. This can be applied perhaps in every aspect of human being life- from regional and governmental treaties, internationalization of business and trade and even education at specific levels. The planet has gone practically smaller and we now experience a feeling of global village. With the advancements in information and communication technology and vehicles industry, geographical obstacles can't hinder communication.
This brings about the dramatic upsurge in intercultural communication opportunities. Whether through computer mediated communication or face to face communication, we is now able to exchange information and start communication with people of other nationalities and culture. In the field of education, diversity in addition has been noticed to increase over the years. However, along with these increased opportunities, are problems brought on by clashes of social differences.
These issues are as a result of obstacles to effective intercultural communication. Hence, to defeat these barriers and maximize the learning opportunities from intercultural communication, we have to acquire intercultural communication skills that have been derived from the normal social communication with focus on the special characteristics of interpersonal communication.
The scope of the analysis shall include these intercultural communication problems and intercultural communication skills will be observed in the light of education as an organization that fosters ethnic diversity and provides opportunities for intercultural communication.
Statement of the Problem
The immediate response of teachers in the appearing variety in the class room is addition. However, inclusion is argued to acquire been a failure in dealing with diversities apart from disabilities, gender and religion. In the advent of globalization, diversity in the school room may also be attributed to social differences. It can be assumed that intercultural relationships have also been existing within the classroom setting.
With this, it could be argued that intercultural communication is a more effective technique to address cultural diversity within the classroom. Hence, this study aims to address this research question: How do intercultural human relationships and communication be detailed in the class room setting?
The specific questions that this study will pursue are the pursuing:
What are present conditions of intercultural interactions and communications? ;
What will be the existing intercultural communication problems Rodriguez High School students?;
What are ethnical barriers and factors resulting in these problems?;
What are the implications or results of the problems?;
How skilled are members in intercultural communication?; and
What effective communication strategy could be suggested for use?
Objectives of the Study
Still within the scope of globalization, internationalization of education is also an trend. This leads to observation of cultural diversity within school room settings. Oftentimes, cultural dissimilarities lead to problems such as bullying, stereotyping and sometimes, circumstances of school violence. Although inclusion strategies are applied in the recent years, it has not really solved the issues within the learner levels.
Hence, to avoid these problems, this review aspires to explore intercultural human relationships and the intercultural communication in just a classroom setting by using case study examination. To do this aim, this study proposes to purse the following aims:
describe today's condition of intercultural associations and marketing communications;
identify intercultural communication problems among determined high school students of Rodriguez High School students;
determine the cultural barriers and factors resulting in these problems;
find out the implications or results of these problems;
measure the intercultural communication skills of the members;
recommend effective communication strategy.
Postulates of the Study
This analysis is anchored in the assumption that intercultural associations and communication can be viewed within the class room setting with the use of case study. The specific postulates for this study are the following:
intercultural connections and communication can be found in the class room setting;
there are problems in the efficiency of the communication;
there are cultural obstacles that hinder efficacy of intercultural communication;
these problems and obstacles lead to much more serious implications;
intercultural communication skills are factors for far better communication; and
intercultural communication strategies can help in addressing cultural diversity in a school room setting.
REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE
This section provides a brief literature overview of the principles related to this study including ethnic diversity, intercultural interactions, and intercultural communication.
Diversity and Cultural Differences
Corsini (1984) explained cultural variations as something of ways its people work, value of possessions and way of thinking which are affected by culture's teachings or cultural icons. The culture's teachings and property are then handed down over years to generations. Aside from this collective observation, social distinctions are also discovered at the individual level which pertains to personality versus the public systems of characteristics (Hall, 2006).
Cultural distinctions in education are observed in three types: common, primary and supplementary. Universal cultural dissimilarities occur universally as every child needs to adapt to new culture in the classroom that is often completely different from that of the culture at home. Main cultural distinctions, on the other hand, happen when folks of different and dominating culture instruct their culture to the people who curently have their own culture. This leads to secondary cultural dissimilarities wherein the voluntary minorities are willing to accept the prominent culture while the involuntary minorities avoid it (Hall, 2006).
More often than not, social distinctions lead to numerous kinds of problems and unfavorable conditions. Since there is now a slender lines separating voluntary and involuntary minorities, conflicts within an organization or corporation are oftentimes attributed to clashes between two different ethnicities. With the advancement of globalization and the planet becoming practically smaller, cultural distinctions become more and much more visible. Intercultural romance nowadays is becoming more and more inevitable.
Intercultural Associations and Problems
One factor that particularly emphasized intercultural romantic relationship is globalization. Although there are different perceptions and explanations of globalization, the normal theme among economical, politics and anthropological details of view is connectedness. People of different cultures can't live to be mutually exclusive compared to that of other ethnicities (Samover, Porter and McDaniel, 2007). This connectedness results in intercultural relationships in all respects of human life. Hence, there's a need to eliminate problems related to ethnical differences and to create good intercultural interactions.
Some problem that hinders good intercultural relationship are stereotyping and identification freezing. Whenever a person is seen to be a person in his own cultural group, he is forced into the predefined category and his unique characteristics and functions are in many cases neglected. This threatens the average person if the stereotyping is positive or negative (Gudykunst, 2005).
However, Adler and Gunderson (2008) argued that advantageous intercultural relationship is most beneficial attained by making cultural variety and distinctions more noticeable. Although acknowledgement of cultural distinctions may be viewed to be simplistic, primitive, racist, sexist, or stereotyping it ought to be kept in mind that recognition differs from judging. Reputation goes with esteem of the differences and similarities as well. Judging, on the other hands, include prejudice that restricts the perception of your respective full potential. Variety can be advantageous to intercultural relationship when cultural variations are accepted without prejudice.
One of the best ways to achieve ethnical synergy and good intercultural romance is by sticking with key points of effective communication and intercultural communication.
In this paper, we adopt the definition of communication as an exchange of ideas between two entities- the basic component of social communication. Communication then, is a two-way process of give and take. As the first ideas of communication analyzed to be one of the ways as having an origin (source) and vacation spot (receiver), it has been now greatly accepted that source and device is changed as individuals of the interacting circulation of ideas.
Intercultural communication is a type of communication happening between people who have different cultures. This communication in many cases makes participants restless and tense because they may find it hard to comprehend each other's way of thinking. They could also be using different verbal and non-verbal rules within the span of the communication. Hence, the result of this type of communication is less predictable so meanings of such codes should be negotiated carefully (Fielding, 2006).
Communication is intercultural when variations in cultural perspectives hinder the formation of a single and shared culture. Lack of shared culture can lead to contradictions and issues on meanings of distributed symbols (Baraldi, 2006). Some studies claim that the globalization craze increases the chance for intercultural communication (Samovar et al. , 2000). Alternatively, some states that it's the intercultural relationships and communication that paved just how for globalization and its increasing trend (Baraldi, 2006).
Either way, what is more important is to identify means on how to attain better intercultural marriage and also to identify and prevent cultural obstacles that hinder effective intercultural communication.
Cultural Obstacles to Effective Communication
Fielding (2009) enumerated the next cultural barriers that hinder effectiveness of intercultural communication: stereotyping, ethnocentrism, defensiveness or unwillingness to accept other people's ideas, language barriers, differences in interpreting non-verbal code, differences in beliefs and beliefs, prejudice and assumptions, variations in world view, and unequal ability. Hence, these should be avoided in order to attain good intercultural relationship and effective intercultural communication. Esteem regardless of variations is of outmost importance.
However, Baraldi (2006) argued that intercultural communication's modernist view have evolved from respectful talk to creation of a new culture. He called this happening as contamination being as a result of ethnic hybridization and intercultural communication. The new culture comprises the previous participating civilizations and the newly shared cultural symbolic form.
Intercultural Communication Skills
Intercultural communication skills are crucial towards effective communication. These skills may vary from the usual interpersonal communication that we use with others within the same culture. Based on various studies, Williams (2005) summarized four general categories of intercultural communication skills: 1) overall flexibility and wide open mindedness, 2) social empathy and non-judgmental, 3) personal autonomy made up of personal strength and stableness, and 4) ability to cope with stressors throughout the intercultural communication. These skills may also be grouped predicated on the following sizes: cognitive (the mind), affective (the emotions) and behavioral (the psychomotor) proportions. In general, effective intercultural communication may be accomplished by willingness to conquer the barriers and obtain these skills.
Theories of Intercultural Communication
To better understand the idea of intercultural communication, theories and models of the process are also devised. While intercultural communication may well not be entirely different from the usual communication procedures, it is vital to include the special characteristics of intercultural communication in its individual models.
The convergence model of communication of Kincaid (1981), communication is thought as a process wherein two members exchange information to attain a level of shared understanding. Cultural convergence theory is based on the convergence style of communication devised by Kincaid (1981). This is used to devise a numerical theory of the consequences as a result of communication within cultural differences. Within the laws and regulations of thermodynamics, it could be predicted that members' communication in a shut down system may converge over time. Cultural divergence theory predicts the convergence of two collective cognitive state governments if the members of both cultures converge (Gudykunst, 2005).
Another relevant intercultural communication theory is the personal information management theory of Cupach and Imahori (1993). That is based on the interpersonal communication competence theory. Interpersonal competence is one's capacity to make a deal mutually the satisfactory identities of connections (Gudykunst, 2005). This can be long to intercultural communication skills summarized from Williams (2005) talked about in the previous section.
In this study, these theories will be utilized. With the ethnic convergence theory, it could be predicted that there will be convergence and accomplishment of mutual understanding within the sealed system or the school room over time. Moreover, the intercultural communication skills can be utilized towards the accomplishment of shared understanding.
This chapter presents the theoretical and conceptual frameworks of the analysis. Moreover, the functional definitions of conditions used in the analysis are outlined. This review shall explore the cross-cultural problems among students in Rodriguez High School.
The theoretical construction of this analysis is devoted to two theories describing the process of intercultural communication: the cultural convergence theory and the id management theory.
With the social convergence theory, it is predicted that shared understanding may be accomplished through exchange or posting of information as time passes within a shut down system. Common understanding is assumed to be favorable in any relationships including intercultural romance for that matter. Identity management theory, on the other palm, emphasizes intercultural capacities or competency of the members to determine the obstacles towards effective intercultural communication and have the ability to suppress these barriers.
Based on these ideas, the researcher intends to incorporate and customize the theories in to the environment of education as an organization that fosters ethnical diversity. Within the ethnical divergence theory, the exchange of information can be observed within the finished system of the school room through time. We are able to presume that within the classroom setting wherein there is a high incidence of cultural variety, intercultural interactions and communication can be found. The identity management theory, on the other palm, can be translated to the intercultural communication skills of the students/participants so that they can deal with cultural diversity in their classroom, and achieve common understanding- an impetus for a harmonious learning environment.
Operational Meaning of Terms
Intercultural communication- a type of communication happening between people with
different cultures. This communication frequently makes participants restless and anxious because they could think it is hard to understand each other's way of thinking (Fielding, 2006).
Intercultural romance- occurs when two individuals with different culture exchanged/
Shared ideas with each other within a period of time (Samovar et al. , 2009).
Globalization- interrelatedness or interconnectedness of the nations regardless of
Inclusion- technique found in the training as a response to ethnical diversity
Cultural variety- dissimilarities in culture or the methods of living and pondering.
Mutual understanding- the convergence of the culture based on the cultural convergence
theory. This may also be called cultural synergy.
Intercultural communication skills- skills are essential towards effective communication.
These skills may vary from the most common social communication that we
use with others within the same culture. Predicated on various studies,
Cultural convergence theory- predicts the convergence of two collective cognitive
states if the users of both cultures converge (Gudykunst, 2005).
Identity management theory- Interpersonal competence is one's ability to negotiate
mutually the appropriate identities of connection (Gudykunst, 2005).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES
This section details the study plan along with research technique, data gathering types of procedures, and data analysis techniques.
This analysis proposes to explore with the use of case study, the intercultural connections and communication in a class room setting. This includes the intercultural communication problems, cultural barriers towards effective intercultural communication, and the intercultural communication skills of the preferred students in Rodriguez High School in Fairfield, California. This university is noted to truly have a very high university student diversity rate. This is an attempt to handle cultural variety in the class setting that may lead to conflicts, bullying, cultural stereotyping and other types of school violence. Effective intercultural communication, if properly inculcated one of the students may diminish the event of the mentioned problems. This will be a qualitative account describing the intercultural marriage and communication in a higher school classroom which fosters high cultural diversity. However, scheduled to time constraints, only the observable attributes of the intercultural connections may be observed deeply. Demographical characteristics of the members may only be used as aiding data.
With this, the traditions of Inquiry this research is intended to make use of is ethnography. One of the most commonly used queries to evaluate intercultural communication competence is ethnography (Asante et al. , 2008). In this analysis, ethnography shall include explanation of the intercultural relationships and communication, recognition of problem, obstacles and their implications, and the intercultural communication skills of the individuals. Hence, the researcher should also act as an active participant in the do of the study (Scollon and Scollon, 2001).
Data Era Method
The sampling method that will be used to choose the participants of this review is purposive sampling. The researcher shall find out with the administration of Rodriguez SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL about which category gets the highest incidence of cultural variety. However, this degree of the students under this category should be recognized to be older enough to comprehend the concept of cultural diversity and intercultural human relationships and communication, for that matter. Nevertheless, the engaging class should be observed with a high incidence of ethnic diversity.
Since the setting of the study is a class room setting, the members for the study will include every one of the students and the homeroom educator. In the event that the class is too big for a centered group discussion, arbitrary sampling will be applied in support of statistically great number of individuals will be included.
Focused group discourse will be data gathering method for the students/participants. The topic shall be cultural variety in a school room setting. The move of the discussion should be deductive in characteristics. First, the perceptions of the students about social variety will be revealed. Down the road, intercultural communication will be the key concentration of the discussion. Again, the concept should be recognized in a general perspective and can down the road be applied to their own classroom environment. This may surface their intercultural communication skills, and the prevailing intercultural communication associations among the students/individuals. The researcher should be an observer and participant. The locust of control should be centered on the researcher to limit the opportunity of the dialogue within the range of the analysis only. The homeroom tutor can also act as the 3rd person/observer in the case study.
For the comprehensive interview, the homeroom educator would be the participant. He/she will be the key informant regarding the problems, obstacles, and intercultural communication strategy within the class environment. The interview could also be used to verify information gathered from the concentration group conversation with the students. Additional activity such as team development could also conducted with the teacher in order to observe the efficiency of the intercultural communication strategy which will be recommend.
The instruments which will be used for this research include: self-administered questionnaire for the demographic characteristics of the students/participants; observation guide and when possible, sound or video recorder for more accurate documentation of the focus-group dialogue; and interview plan for the in depth interview with the homeroom professor. Additional materials may also be needed to report the team building activity with the tutor and the students.
The data examination and display for the demographical characteristics of the members will be frequency counts and percentages. This can be used to spell it out the heterogeneity of the members. On the concentrate group debate, data evaluation and demonstration will be complete enumeration of the intercultural connections existing and intercultural communication skills that students/participants possess. Videos or pictures can also be shown. Finally, for the in depth interview qualitative analysis and complete enumeration of the issues and cultural obstacles that he/she will identify. For the team building activity, narrative presentation, pictures, and video clips enable you to present and emphasize the observations. All information generated from these activities should be summarized and carefully examined to create an extensive and detailed ethnography report.
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