International Perspectives On Early Youth Education Education Essay

The aim of this article is to compare an Early Years as a child Education and Attention provision in the UK with a global ECEC provision. This article will concentrate on the ECEC provision in New Zealand. The essay will discuss the annals of ECEC in the united kingdom and the ECEC in New Zealand. The essay will think about the similarities and variations from each provision. There will be particular reference designed to the role of children, parents and teachers, the environment where children learn, the teaching methods, the role of play, furthermore it'll discuss the curriculum rules and type of assessment.

Education and Health care are frequently put into two different aspects of a child's schedule. However modern developmental theory recognises that learning commences at beginning, therefore splitting education and treatment settings ignores the fundamental dynamics of development. New Zealand was the first country to integrate responsibility for everyone early years as a child services under education, and the idea of 'educare' integrating childcare and education, and recognising their indivisibility, is wholeheartedly accepted within New Zealand" (Melhuish & Petrogiannis, 2006, p174).

In many countries early on youth provision, pre-primary and childcare has been a rising matter. The ECEC provisions have recognised the importance of education and services to the contribution of a range of goals, such as interpersonal, economic and educational goal. In some countries Early Child years Education and Attention is provided because of sociable reasons, for example so parents can go back to work. Early Childhood Education and Health care settings about the world are diverse, each of them mirror their own histories, beliefs, culture and prices. "International data allows cross-national writing of experience and practice in areas of common interest, while allowing accounts to be studied of countrywide similarities and distinctions" (Melhuish & Petrogiannis, 2006, p167).



The National Curriculum was presented to most important and secondary schools in England in 1988, it was the first curriculum that was based on a subject style of learning. The Country wide Curriculum impacted early on child years education; it resulted in professionals struggling to keep the progressive ideals placed by many early childhood educators and the governments aspirations to make a cohesive, centralised system of early on years as a child education that is from the National Curriculum. The Early Years Curriculum Group (1989) presumed that "Early years as a child is valid alone not only a prep for work, or for the next stage of education" (The Early Years Curriculum Group 1989, cited in Soler and Miller, 2003, p60). Edwards and Knight (1994) state that early childhood options before had been neither 'explicit, designed long-term, or coherent. ' (Edwards & Knight, 1994 cited in Soler & Miller, 2003, p 60). Encouraging these quarrels was the fact that all children were entitled to a curriculum that would offer them a basis to become literate and numerate parents.

Early Years education in Britain has been neglected over the years. It has considered quite a while to recognise the value of early years as a child education and health care. Bertman and Pascal's (2002) study discovered that "early years as a child education and health care policies in Great britain were dominated by short-term priorities of federal and local specialists" (Bertman & Pascal, 2002, cited in Palaiologou, 2010, p4). This implies that early education was not an important matter for the government and they did not wish to make any abrupt changes or put any new insurance policies in place.

Early year's education hasn't always received the same amount of attention as it does now. Researchers in the past have emphasised the value of the early many years of children's lives and their family members' lives, however it was through the 1990's when coverage advancements and research conclusions were starting to link together. Experts also began to check out European early on years provisions and started to make comparisons between England's perspectives of early on child years education and good care, to Western european perspectives of early on years as a child education and care and commenced to reflect on current techniques in England. Research had been conducted on whether learning and development was influenced by early on education and care. Palaiologou (2010) says Results from research have advised that it was important to improve the early on year's sector and advised the need for further regulations and development within the early year's sector. There had been resurgence in instrumental opinion, which caused the national early years as a child curriculum to give attention to ensuring that practitioners and teachers received guidance to prepare children for schooling.

The Early Years Foundation stage (EYFS) was introduced in 2008. The seeks of the EYFS are to provide children with a good commence to life and offer a platform that provides high quality environments for all children.

Principles and curriculum

The Early Year's Base Stage is dependant on four key principles that show the government's determination on integrating services and parental engagement. The four guidelines are: a unique child, positive connections, enabling environments and learning and development. The first basic principle 'a unique child' recognises that children are individuals and that all children are proficient learners. Runco (2006) says it is the role of the specialist to condition the child's self confidence and to offer the child opportunities to face new difficulties (Runco, 2006, cited in Palaiologou, 2010, p117). This basic principle is linked to the 'behaviour and worth' and 'skills development', MLA common learning outcomes. The second principle 'positive associations' illustrates that children need positive and loving relationships with parents and a key person to become strong and self-employed individuals. The practitioner's role is to provide out-of-setting learning, which evolves from a safe and reliable source. This rule focuses on the value of supporting learners and partnerships with parents. The MLA learning effects that this concept links to are 'activity, behaviour and development' and 'attitudes and values'. The third principle 'allowing surroundings' recognises that the surroundings in which a child can be an active participant plays an important part in promoting their learning and development. Experts will monitor, plan and examine children to be able to support and additional their learning and development. This rule links back to you to the 'excitement, inspiration and creativity' and 'activity, behaviour and progression' MLA learning effects. The last principle 'learning and development' recognizes that all children learn and develop at different phases "and that all areas of learning and development are evenly important and are inter-connected" (Palaiologou, 2010, p117). It's the role of the specialist to provide rousing opportunities and experience for any children to enhance their overall development. It's important that practitioners monitor each child's progress to enable the kid to attain their full potential. The MLA general learning outcomes that this principle pertains to is 'knowledge and knowledge of the world' and 'skills development'

These principles recognize that administration value the value of the first many years of children's lives and understands that every child is exclusive and also have diverse needs and they learn at different levels. The four key points also show that the federal government acknowledges the importance of parental engagement.

The EYFS includes seven learning and development areas. The first three are known as the perfect areas of learning and development and the previous four are known as specific regions of learning and development. It's the practitioner's role to plan enriching activities and opportunities that cover all areas of learning and development. Children are anticipated to work at their early learning goals for every of the areas.

'Personal, interpersonal and psychological development' is the first best region of development. This main concentrate of the is the child's self confidence, independence and behaviour. The Second primary area is 'communication and dialect'. This talks about the child's speaking and listening skills and begins to create basic reading and writing skills. The 3rd perfect area is 'physical development'. This looks at children's physical skills for example learning to eat, children will also lean about keeping fit and healthy life styles in this area. 'Literary' is a particular part of learning and development. This area introduces the kid to reading and writing, teenagers will learn to link sounds and letters alongside one another. 'Mathematics' is the next specific part of learning and development. Children will learn maths skills, it focus's on statistics and shapes. The next specific area is 'understanding the world', children will learn about a variety of things including the world, communities and people, technology and history and present. THE PAST specific area is 'expressive arts and design'. The main focus of this is self-expression, children will take part in a number of different activities using mass media and materials, such as party, painting and imaginative play. (Early Education, 2012).

Each part of development and learning has person learning goals that children are anticipated to have achieved by the finish of the EYFS. The training goals for personal, social and mental development are; self confidence and self consciousness, managing feelings and behaviour, and making interactions. The training goals for communication and terminology are; being attentive and attention, and understanding. The learning goals for physical development are; moving and handling, and health and self-care. Children are expected to learn reading and writing skills for the literacy section of learning and development. The training goals for mathematics are; volumes, and form, space and procedures. The learning goals for understanding the world are; people and the neighborhoods, the world and technology. The training goals for expressive arts and design are; discovering using press and materials and being imaginative. Each learning goal has a range of things that children are anticipated to learn. (DFE, 2012)


Assessment is essential part of the Early Years Groundwork Stage; it can be an on-going process and is viewed as an important part of child's learning and development process. Practitioners carry out observations on children to ensure they are meeting their early learning goals. It is important that parents and professionals converse to ensure that the child's development is the key focus, by having positive parent-teacher interactions ensures the child is obtaining the best support they have to thrive. Parental participation is an important aspect of the EYFS; it is based on an on-going dialogue predicated on observations and analysis of children. "The on-going dialogue takes place by means of a formal, formative analysis that is used as evidence to identify learning priorities for children, and relevant and motivating learning activities for every single child" (Palaiologou, 2010, p13).

Children likewise have their own person EYFS account. These profiles are used to keep a record of the child's development. The profile is a means for practitioners and teachers to keep an eye on children's development and learning achievements. This is important so that whenever the child runs onto primary school, it allows the teacher to gain a knowledge of the child's improvement and what they have achieved through the EYFS. There are 13 evaluation scales that are made from the EYFS learning results. The benefits associated with assessing and collecting EYFS are; parents have the ability to see how the youngster is progressing, it allows year 1 educators to plan effectively for children during the move from EYFS to KS1.

Observation and examination is an essential part of the EYFS, it allows advancements to be made to apply and children's progress is supervised throughout the EYFS, which is extremely important for children to prosper and achieve goals.

As well as children being evaluated, the EYFS is also evaluated by Ofsted to ensure that experts are interacting with the EYFS requirements and making certain configurations are safe and also have the relevant policies and procedures set up. Ofsted produce inspection reports of each early on childhood setting up. Parents often use the Ofsted reviews as a way of deciding which setting offers the best quality of childcare and education for their child. "32% of parents and carers said they might take a look at Ofsted records. Workshop conversations with parents validated that they relied on Ofsted accounts to provide information on the quality of early on years provision" (DFE, 2011)


All personnel in early on years settings must have the appropriate skills, training and knowledge. It's important that the providers ensure that staff receives induction training. Induction training should include child protection, health insurance and safety issues, emergency strategies and the options procedures. In group options, the manager must have a complete or relevant level three certification and also have at least two years experience of employed in an early years setting, and at least 50 % of the staff must have a full or relevant level two certification. Early Years Providers must make sure that the regular training is completed by staff, and they are providing personnel with opportunities to boost their qualifications wherever possible.

Each child will have a Key person in the early years setting up. The role of the main element person is to ensure that the child's good care is being designed to meet their individual needs. Other jobs of the key person include building associations with parents, making certain the child becomes acquainted with the setting also to create a positive romance with the child.

The adult to child proportion in early on years settings for children under two years old reaches least one employee for each and every three children, they need to hold the relevant level 3 qualification. For children aged two, there should be one employee who holds a relevant level 3 certification to every four children. For children aged three and over in an early years setting up during or outside the time of 8am and 4pm when there isn't a qualified tutor working with the kids, there has to be one employee with the relevant level 3 certification to every eight children. (DFE, 2012).

The experts' role in the EYFS is to give a safe, revitalizing and adoring environment for children. It is important that children and experts form positive relationships and experts offer support to children all the time. The practitioner in the first years establishing should provide adult-led activities; and child initiated activities, so that children can explore new things.

Role of play

The EYFS is a play-based methodology; all areas of learning and development must be supplied through structured, meaningful play, with a balance of designed activities from teachers and child-initiated activities. It's the practitioner's role to adopt a flexible method of coaching. Research shows "practitioner organizations welcome the play-based and child-initiated mother nature of the EYFS, and view it as a validation of proven early on years principles" (Brooker et al, 2010).

Play is a appreciated aspect of the EYFS, as it stimulates children's development. All experts understand the impact play is wearing children's learning and development. Through play children develop terms and cultural skills, imagination and intellectual skills. Langston & Abbott (2007) condition Children can practice new skills, obstacle themselves, and use their imagination during play. It is the adult's role to provide time and space and resources to permit children to explore through play.

Role of the environment

The environment in which children learn takes on a very important role in the EYFS platform. Enabling environments is one of the rules of the EYFS; it is therefore important that professionals provide a revitalizing environment for children. Options should give you a variety of playthings and play materials and space for the children. It is important that the learning environment is attractive and stimulating to both children and people. Practitioners should setup areas such as sand play, role-play, e book corners and painting stations. Children can explore and develop skills in their learning environment; there should be a number of enriching experiences available for children to engage in surrounding the classroom.

Role of parents

The EYFS practice assistance (2008) suggests that practitioners should work in partnership with parents to aid children. "The 'parents as associates' advice acknowledges that parents are children's first & most enduring educators and that 'parents and experts' have too much to learn from one another" (DCSF, 2008: Greeting card 2. 2, cited in Palaiologou, 2010, p116).

It is important that professionals inform parents of relevant information or changes that are taking place, and offer up-to-date information on the child's progress. Parents are a valued part of the EYFS, practitioners recognize that they have to talk to parents to guarantee the best quality good care and education of children.

It is important that parents recognize that they play an important part in the child's learning and development. Parents should use practitioners and talk about information about the youngster, to ensure that the best care and attention can be provided. The advantages of parents working with practitioners are; parents will feel valued and practitioners can plan effectively, children will see the great things about the partnership and can feel more secure. (ANON, N. D)

Special Educational Needs

'Providing an inclusive setting that helps bring about equality of opportunity does not imply that all children should be cured the same, but that the unique skills and skills of every child should be accepted and developed, and that addition is not optional: children have identified entitlements in this field and settings have legal responsibilities. ' (EYFS, 2007 cited in Everett, N. D, p19)

The Early Years Foundation Level acknowledges the value of inclusion and getting together with the diverse needs of most children in all early childhood settings. A couple of four principles of the EYFS and each theory had four commitments, inclusive practice underpins the initial child basic principle. "The EYFS means that all providers understand their responsibility to ensure that variety of individuals and areas is valued and respected which no child or family is discriminated against" (Kids, N. D).

All early on years provider must have and implement guidelines that work and ensuring that children with learning issues and disabilities are given the support and guidance that they want. Individual Learning Plans (IEP's) can be utilized for experts and parents to keep a track of the children's progress. An IEP is utilized to record goals, interventions and research. (Everett, N. D p 21).

The EYFS profile has been developed to be inclusive. Parents and pros must talk to each other to get a specific picture of the child's accomplishments. When experts are undertaking observations on children with special educational needs there are some variations in the analysis standards for example, "when the EYFS account scales provides the word 'conversation', children can use their set up or preferred mode of communication"(Anon, 2008).


In 2010 the Early Years Foundation level was evaluated. The modified EYFS construction was applied in early years in Sept 2012. Dame Clare Tickell carried out the review, she said the Early Years Foundation Level should stay essential for all early on years settings. From review Tickell discovered that the EYFS is successful and it includes driven standards up for children. There are numerous advancements of the review; one of them is to reduce the amount of paperwork for experts and simplify the assessment of children's development at get older five. Dame Clare Tickell also said that the 69 early learning goals were recurring and has narrowed them down to 17 early on learning goals. There is currently a small check for children between ages two. The EYFS requires that professionals provide parents with a written summation with their child's development in the three perfect areas; personal, cultural and emotional development, physical development and communication and vocabulary development. The review also suggests that the EYFS account be slimmed down, to benefit the transition process for children entering key level one. Teachers can make judgements against 17 goals instead on the 117 level factors in the EYFS 2008, this is to ease the process of changeover from EYFS to KS1. There are also changes to the welfare requirements in the new EYFS. The revised EYFS provides examples of child safety issues, such as indications of misuse and neglect, which can occur in adult's behaviours. There should be policies and procedures in place for the use of cell phones and video cameras in settings. Criminal history investigations for mangers will know be obtained by the providers rather than Ofsted. The revised framework ensures the utilization of clear vocabulary, to be able to enhance partnerships with parents and professionals. (DFE, 2012b).

New Zealand


Education for children from beginning to school time is not compulsory for children in New Zealand, however there are a variety of services for children in the first years; since there is a variety of diverse services for children, these are allowed to attend several early childhood provision. Soler and Miller (2003) assume that the Te Whariki curriculum platform has been influenced by sociocultural and intensifying theories and beliefs. The Te Whariki curriculum is similar to the early years as a child curriculum in England in that the curriculum was linked to the National Curriculum in main institutions. Despite being restricted into what could be implemented into the early on child years curriculum, the creators of Te Whariki developed a construction that has executed a "bicultural perspective, an anti racist methodology and reciprocal human relationships with the Maori community in New Zealand" (Smith, 1999 cited in Soler and Miller, 2003, p62). Practitioners and early childhood services were mixed up in development of the Te Whariki framework. The Te Whariki report is written in both English and Maori, regardless of the Maori perspectives being truly a separate framework. Carr (2001) state governments, "from the beginning Te Whariki took under consideration the foundational key points evaluated from Maori epistemology, via Tilly Reedy, to make a bicultural doc" (Soler and Miller, 2003, p60).

The name Te Whariki pulls upon weaving true to life activities into learning within traditional Maori culture. The literal so this means of Whariki is 'the woven mat', which everyone can stand on; "it interweaves guidelines and goals into different ways which each setting can form their own particular learning methods" (Carr & May, 2000, cited in Soler & Miller, 2003, p63). Another so this means conveyed in the name is the idea of a 'spider web' model of curriculum rather than 'step' model of curriculum. The Te Whariki curriculum goes away from the idea of a step model where there are measured final results that are assessed, moreover Te Whariki is thought to have several different strands thus the contrast to a 'spider web'

"Te Whariki emphasises a model of knowledge and understanding for young children as a tapestry of increasing intricacy and richness. The weaving model of learning conceptualises the child's development as some increasingly intricate patterns of associated experience and so this means, centred on cultural and individual goal" (Carr & May, 1996, cited in Soler & Miller, 2003, p63).


The curriculum in New Zealand is versatile; the early child years sector is diverse. Te Whariki is the ministry of educations early on childhood curriculum plan assertion. Te Whariki views children as energetic agents and rights holders. Youth in New Zealand can be regarded as a social build understood in different ways at differing times in different situations. Te Whariki is a curriculum predicated on sociocultural aspects, ideas from Rogoff 1995; Vygotsky, 1978 and Wretsch; 1995 have massively affected the Te Whariki curriculum. The curriculum recognises that children learn things that are appreciated and helpful within their community through distributed romantic relationships and activities with others. Te Whariki is "a ethnical site whose cultural reality is designed by, and subsequently constructs, the communicative connections amongst educators and students" (Carr, 1996; cited in Melhuish and Petrogiannis, 2006, p105).

The curriculum is dependant on strands, principles and ideas. The Te Whariki curriculum is different to other international curriculums as it generally does not setting rules for content or methods; it allows the educators to weave their own Whariki (mat). This enables each setting to maintain its own ways of teaching children and offer enabling environments to allow them to learn and develop. "Te Whariki has empowered the diverse early childhood procedures to be preserved within one countrywide curriculum" (Alvestad et al, 2009).

Carr & May 1997 found that it is important that all educators associated with the Te Whariki curriculum have enough knowledge and skills on how children learn and develop. However Cullen, 2003 discovered that because professors maintain their own methods under one curriculum, it might lead to instructors ignoring challenges that might be found in a normal curriculums (Cullen, 2003, cited in Carr & May, 1997).

Teachers in early childhood configurations have introduced a all natural curriculum in response to the children's learning and development. The curriculum features the value of the learning partnership between teachers, parents and young families.

In 1996 numerous varieties of early childhood good care and education provisions were released such as; university, play centres, kindergarten, childcare centres, home-based institutions, community structured play communities, To Kohanga Reo, Pacific Islands Early Youth Centres (PIECCs) and Pacific Island Words Groups.

The curriculum is based on the following dreams of children "to expand up as skilled and positive learners and communicators, healthy in mind, body, and nature, secure in their sense of owed and in the knowledge that they make a appreciated contribution to modern culture" (Papatheodorou & Moyles, 2009, p26)

The curriculum highlights the importance of socially and culturally facilitated learning and common and responsive interactions with people, places and things. The child learns through distributed activities with others, and information from others and by individual experiences and reflection. The curriculum targets the average person child; the key focus is how the learner brings knowledge, skills and behaviour with their experience. The curriculum acknowledges that the training begins at home as well as in early on childhood options.

"There are four guidelines of the curriculum, empowerment; the curriculum empowers children to learn and grow, holistic development; the curriculum shows the alternative way children learn and grow, family and community; the wider world of family and community is an integral area of the early years as a child curriculum, and relationships; children learn from mutual romantic relationships with people, places and things. " (Perris, N. D).

There are five strands that occur from the ideas; each strand has various goals. Strand an example may be Well-being; this ensures that each child's health and wellbeing is secured and recognized. The goals from strand one are to provide an environment where; children are stored from injury, health is marketed and children's psychological welfare is nurtured. Strand two is Belonging; this emphasises that children and people have entitlement to feel a sense of love and belonging. The goals from strand two are to offer an environment where; children understand restrictions and limitations of suitable behavior, understand that they belong and that there are opportunities for links to be made with family and the wider world and there are exercises and values to ensure the individual is comfortable. Strand three is Contribution; this strand is approximately providing opportunities for learning and acknowledging a child's contribution. The goals of this strand are to offer an environment where; children can make a positive contribution; children are acknowledged as individuals and are encouraged to engage in learning encounters with others. Strand four is Communication; this strand induces and protects dialect and symbols of their own culture and other cultures. The goals of this strand are to offer an environment where; children can experience ways of producing non-verbal and verbal communication skills for different purposes, there are opportunities for producing and obtaining ways to be creative. Strand five is Exploration; the child actively explores the environment. The goals of this strand are to provide activities for children to, explore and gain assurance, play is respected as purposeful for learning and spontaneous play is recognised as an important aspect in a child's learning experience, the kid will learn skills such as reasoning and thinking and children will develop working theories to make sense of the surroundings. (Ministry of Education, 2009).

These guidelines, strands and goals form the platform of the curriculum. Learning final results have been made for each goal in each of the strands, this is so Whariki becomes and included basis for each and every child's development.

The New Zealand curriculum has prices that should be encouraged, modelled and explored. Principles are thought to be portrayed through how individuals think and respond. Your choice making process that is related to the curriculum or that happen at the school reflects the principles of everyone included and the prices within the setting up. Students will be motivated to value "

"Superiority, by aiming high and by persevering when confronted with difficulties,

Innovation, inquiry, and attention, by considering critically, creatively, and reflectively,

Diversity, as found in our different civilizations, languages, and heritages;

Equity, through fairness and sociable justice;

Community and contribution for the common good;

Ecological sustainability, which include care for the environment;

Integrity, which involves being honest, in charge, and responsible and acting ethically

Respect themselves, others, and human rights"

(Te Kete Ipurangi (TKI), 2007).


The Te Whariki curriculum will not evaluate children's learning and development against milestones. Te Whariki is convinced that to be able to determine children's development we have to know very well what children are trying to achieve and what's possible. Assessment is about promoting children and motivating them to reach their potential.

Margaret Carr came up with the thought of 'learning reviews' as a means of assessing a children's improvement. Te Whariki has very alternative goals therefore it is hard to examine a child's development. The idea of 'learning reports' is to avoid examining specific skills and the use of checklists. Learning stories are about taking children's learning through tales. Practitioners will document and photograph children's learning activities. The experiences are distributed to children and family members. Learning stories create a picture of the child's overall development and the actions and relationships they may have engaged in.

"This assessment procedure orient children and professors to learning goals concerning mastery, persistence and striving towards increased competence, rather than performance goals, which are oriented towards avoiding failing" (Miller & Pound, 2008, p155).

Role of Play

Te Whariki recognises that the role of play is a positive facet of learning and it values that play is purposeful for children's development. In addition, it acknowledges that play is a source of satisfaction. "Te Whariki curriculum recognises the importance of spontaneous play and the worthiness of play as significant learning" (New Zealand Ministry of Education, 1996).

"Play can be interpreted in the curriculum as resourceful action in and across options" (Edwards 2005, cited in Samuelsson & Fleer, 2009, p24).

There are many different types of play that children can study from; such as symbolic, pretend or dramatic play. Children may take on roles and explore storylines whilst participating in. Te Whariki focuses on child-initiated play alternatively than adult-led activities. Play is recognized as stimulating children's development therefore teachers often offer an environment for children to explore independently through play.

Role of children

Te Whariki is convinced that children should learn what interests them; it is therefore the teacher's role to support the kid in their learning. The child's role in the Te Whariki curriculum is to explore new things, so the teacher can work with them to analyze and explore new topics. Children are acknowledged as being self-assured learners. It is important that kindergartens are providing a whole lot of learning opportunities for children that promote learning dispositions such as fun, interest, task and should empower each young one.

Role of parents

Early childhood provisions encourage partnerships between parents and experts. "In New Zealand, family and community form an integral part of the early childhood curriculum, and parents expressed a high degree of satisfaction with early on years provision and with opportunities for involvement in parent-led services" (Mitchell, 2008).

It is important that parents are participating with all aspects of their children's learning because as well as teachers, parents have knowledge of how the youngster learns and what things their child needs support with. The kindergartens in New Zealand value the type of parents, Wellington kindergarten thinks "kindergartens should be neighborhoods of mutual esteem where everyone's contribution is appreciated and respected for the worthiness it adds to a child's wellbeing and learning" (Wellington Kindergartens, 2006).

Role of the environment

A Child's learning environment should be allowing, stimulating and encourage children to explore new things. The environment is an essential requirement in the Te Whariki curriculum. "Learning is about the way in which children perceive and deal with the environment" (Ministry of Education, 2009). The Te Whariki curriculum has some links with Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. The first covering of the idea links to the child and their immediate environment. The next layer acknowledges the main environments the child activities and the connections between the conditions. The third layer influences the adult's capacity to service and educate, children are damaged by the outcomes from these affects, for example media and parent's work environment. The fourth part identifies the wider interpersonal system, and the values, values and cultures.

Te Whariki is interested with the first two layers of the theory, nevertheless the other layers impact the quality of the curriculum. In the first two levels the learner and the surroundings are closely linked. Te Whariki recognises the influence that the city can have on a kid and their environment. "Each community that children belong to provides its own specific curriculum demands: the city of learners who will be able to respond to task and change; the city of children who have individual needs and protection under the law; and the city of New Zealander who are gaining knowledge of the nations languages and are developing skills in using cultural tools" (Ministry of Education, 2009).


All teachers employed in kindergartens will have relevant skills and should have 3 years of tertiary education. It is important that teachers are current with training and the latest coaching and learning ideas.

The adult to child ratio in early on years setting up in New Zealand is one employee to every 5 children under the age of two, and one member of staff for each 6 children aged two and over. They are just the bare minimum requirements, however some configurations believe that they may struggle with only the minimum amount requirement. (New Zealand Legislation, 2008)

The role of the tutor is to aid children's learning by getting insights of the child's world and responding correctly by offering direction and support. The teacher will provide items, and materials for the children to explore. The tutor does not have set guidelines to follow therefore educating methods will be diverse in each environment, It's the instructors role to provide opportunities that relate with the principles and strands of the curriculum. Te Whariki is convinced that children are active agents and this teachers is there to aid, guide and provide opportunities for children to learn and develop.

Special Educational Needs

Children with special educational needs in New Zealand are provided with a diverse selection of early on education and care and attention settings. "The curriculum assumes that the health care and education will be included within the key points, strands and goals that are lay out for children in the first childhood settings (Ministry of Education, 1996).

All children with special educational needs will have an Individual Development Plan or Individual Education Plan (IDP or IEP). The plans are also used for children who require additional support. IDP or IEP are used to monitor the way the child is doing and enable educators to plan and provide era appropriate and developmental activities for children to positively engage in. "Te Whariki was created to be inclusive and befitting all children and anticipates that special needs will be fulfilled as children learn mutually in all types of early years as a child education settings" (Ministry of Education, 1996).


There are similarities and differences between the two curriculums. Both New Zealand and UK provide early years as a child education and good care to children from labor and birth until school entry. Another similarity is that they both offer an inclusive curriculum for children with special educational needs. Partnerships with parents are an important aspect of both curriculums. Parents and the city form an integral part of the early youth curriculum in New Zealand. The EYFS also prices the importance of partnerships with parents, the EYFS acknowledges that parents will be the child's first educators therefore they encourage partnerships in order to discuss the child's development and some other issues. Both countries recognise that if there are positive relationships between instructors and parents, it will benefit the child. Play is also a similarity that both countries show. Both curriculums are play-based techniques and recognise that children need to experiment with to build up. Through play children have the ability to take risks and try new things. Play is the primary facet of both curriculums. In both curriculums there are four ideas, the EYFS ideas act like the Te Whariki's principles as they both stress the initial child and relationships. Each curriculum also places out goals for children in each basic principle.

Teachers in both options must have the relevant requirements. The role of the instructor is to aid and offer information to children. Yet, in the EYFS children have an integral person, an integral person is in charge of a tiny amount of children and can plan, monitor and evaluate them.

One main difference is the assessment process. Te Whariki assesses children through learning reviews; they do not have established goals that they must attain by the finish of the curriculum. However both evaluation processes are on going through the whole curriculum.

Another difference is the fact New Zealand doesn't have a set curriculum. The instructors weave their own methods into the curriculum; therefore most adjustments will have diverse teaching methods. The Early Years Foundation Stage curriculum is emphasised on subject related learning goals, which will put pressure on professionals to get ready children for college admittance through more formal teaching methods, which varies from New Zealand's calm coaching methods. Another difference between your two curriculum frameworks would be that the EYFS establishes educational learning goals and content beforehand whereas Te Whariki provides the key beliefs and goals of the curriculum but will not state how the curriculum should be put in place and how the goals should be achieved.

The Te Whariki curriculum is influenced by culture, and experts and early years as a child services were involved with the execution. The EYFS is not influenced by culture; the government designed to provide high quality and affordable childcare. However the EYFS review (2012) performed involve practitioners and parents with the looking at process, to see whether it was successful and what changes should be produced.


From this article it is obvious to see that the Te Whariki curriculum and the Early Years Foundation stage are extremely similar. They both stress the importance of inclusion and working with families. The main focus of this essay was to research the main details of each curriculum and the values and beliefs of both countries. Through researching both curriculum frameworks, it is clear to see that the beliefs and worth in each country are different, however the aim of each platform is to provide high quality childcare, to permit children to attain their potential. Although there are dissimilarities in each curriculum, there is no facts to suggest which one is more successful. It isn't easy to explain which curriculum works best because they have bad and the good aspects in each curriculum. One of the main dissimilarities is the examination process. From Researching them both the Te Whariki assessment process 'learning stories' seems more enjoyable, however the EYFS use a checklist, this can even be seen as a positive aspect because experts have the ability to keep track of the child's progress. It could be argued that the EYFS has been affected by the Te Whariki curriculum, as New Zealand was the first country to combine education and treatment services together. Both these approaches emphasise the value of play and the surroundings in which children learn and develop.

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