Keywords: man is a social animal
'Man is a interpersonal pet', said Aristotle years back, human races proved and realized the value of his declaration by the duration of time. Individuals are in groups and cannot isolate themselves from being part of an organization. Individuals have their own importance, their behaviours and performance can not be overlooked as these impact the behaviours and production of groups they participate in.
Groups exist all over the place, and we are a part of it whether we realize this or not. This will not mean that individuals do not give greater results when performing by themselves, they certainly, but man is dependent on others to fulfil different varieties of need. Working in groups is effective for an individual as he gets more visibility and leaning takes place in lots of ways, and he also learns to endure in group which is the basic necessity for a person.
In order explain individual's behaviour in an organization it is important to understand different types of communities, their norms and values and possible causes of the conflicts. There have been researches and tests conducted by several experts in order to describe unique behavioural structure of each specific in working environment.
Individual and Group:
Groups are of vital importance in every areas of life whether its work situation, personal or communal life, these are either formal or informal. Some people may would prefer to work by themselves as they perform better plus some might want to be a part of a group in a variety of situations. I wish to put myself as an example here, when this task was given I got concerned to work singularly on it and the real reason for this is that firstly Personally i think more comfortable to discuss ideas with people and second, when i write simple and upright I feel better working as a group where I can use other persons words to flourish and speak about my ideas more obviously.
Critical Examination with Instances:
Formal organizations are formed by organisations to attain certain goals or jobs (Bowditch and Buono, 1994). In these categories goals, tasks, roles and norms are identified by the management (Brooks, 2009). Employed in a formal group is of great profit for an individual as this produces different skills and capabilities in a person. One gets an opportunity to observe how others react and react to different situations and figure out how to work in a group effectively.
I functioned as a teacher for 2 years in Pakistan and learned many things working in a group of teachers. Personally i think working in a group influenced my frame of mind and behaviour as individual, I gained more self confidence of doing duties or projects I've never done before. It also helped in expanding decision ability and handling multi jobs in given array of time. Employed in a competitive environment transformed my attitude once i started out getting positive reviews from management and parents. Children react me very well as I performed hard on each child, tried to build up skills and work on their weaknesses. There I acquired chance to review behaviours of children and parents as well. I attempted to bring positive changes in children showing them my very own example, when i was a job model on their behalf, so in this manner got an opportunity to study and watch own behaviours and behaviour in detail. .
People join casual groups to fulfill their social, mental health and personal needs. These communities fulfil the individual's needs of interpersonal conversation that lack working in formal groupings. These organizations not only exist out side work place but also at work places and people of same thinking and worth turn into a part or make themselves an integral part of a particular group.
When I joined College or university of Salford in January as an international postgraduate student, I got a part of a formal group that was defined by university or college comprising almost thirty five students. Later students put into informal groups to be able to fulfill their social needs depending on culture, terms, race, era and gender.
According to Maslow's Hierarchy of need theory, specific try to fulfill his basic needs which are different in importance. He identifies eight innate needs which range from physiological and safeness must self-actualization needs (Mullins, 2005). This theory answers one of the questions why casual groups are formed also why folks are attracted towards each other to be part informal categories.
According to Hunsaker and Make (1986) informal categories have strong effect on an individual than formal. Folks are open to become a member of a group of homogeneous thoughts; this gives emotional satisfaction and helps them to execute better in formal categories.
All groups involve some norms as a proof of their existence or value. Norms are recommendations arranged by organisations or groups and are considered as code of conduct for its members. Corresponding to Kreitner, Kinicki & Buelens (1999) norms are unwritten and are rarely discussed. It really is an attitude, mind-set and being shared by people, which bounds them to follow these as to continue with their regular membership with the group.
I wish to state a good example here from the institution where I had been educating, it was a norm for children to come quickly to institution in proper standard and the ones who deviate from this norm were regarded as violating the guideline. There were some discipline guidelines as well which all children got to follow within their training and personality development, like they were prohibited to talk noisy or shout in the class, needed to leave the room in queue if going some where together, ask for agreement before they type in class, raise hands before they speak in class. Such norms are advantageous for students in order to discipline and organise them.
According to a study group norms have strong influences on new members and they take up the same behavior as a result of group pressure. It gives example of a youngster who indulges in violent activities after becoming a member of a gang involved in such brutal activities (Yablonsky, cited in McKenna, 2000).
Roles are behavioural aspects which are anticipated from a person or group in a specific position. Matching to a study, frame of mind change is driven by tasks (Bowditch and Buono, 1994), and the performance of a person is enhanced if the role he's into suits his personality (Belbin, cited in Davies and Kanaki, 2006).
An individual performs many jobs in an organization, like a tutor plays many tasks in order to fulfill management and own personal need or others' public needs. For children she actually is a teacher and a mom, who cares for the coffee lover gives them sense of safeguard and security, trims them to face realities of life; also achieves set goals utilizing her own potentials to gratify management; fulfils co-workers' social, internal needs. She takes on more tasks in her personal life like, of a little princess, sister, wife, mother, good friend with various targets from her that are not communicated formally but grasped.
Boulden (1983) says this custom of high level of goals in work situation was occur sixties, which includes brought decline to the firms as it's very difficult for a person to match that degree of expectation.
When individuals discuss same targets, pondering and work tightly together with commitment to accomplish certain duties, shows a good level of cohesiveness in a group. Cohesiveness of small organizations boosts when they are less diverse and much more interactive, where as larger communities are less cohesive when they are more diverse and also have competition (Capon, 2004). Cohesive categories share same attitudes, likings, performance and better in dealing with deviants than less cohesive communities (Bowditch and Buono, 1994). Mullins (2005) states a cohesiveness in categories is beneficial for organisations, it also leaves the people with rewarding encounters.
The best exemplory case of cohesiveness can be of military services, where changes in level of coordination can change the problem in fight field. It is therefore necessary for those to co-ordinate well for attaining greater results.
I remember enough time in school when we were preparing for annual function and some programmes were included in schedule. Teachers experienced to get ready children for level performances and there was a skill exhibition on a single day. Annual sports day was following this event, scheduled to which timetable was too limited for educators as well as for children, who experienced to manage themselves for so many activities though at lower level and under teachers' supervision. Such situations require high level of cohesiveness to accomplish goals, which is challenging as outsiders get excited about observations who also critically evaluate the organisation's performance. Such situations in work experience give its members to study from observations like other individuals' or communities' behaviours, and coping techniques with organizations and individuals.
Good cohesiveness in a group influences an individual's behaviour, also gives higher level of job satisfaction. The member practices the norms of the group that have either positive or negative impact on his attitude and behaviour both. In the event the group norms are good and polish his creativities and skills, that helps expanding his personality, but if the norms are negative like, to create less than capability lefts negative impact on his behaviour.
According to Hawthorne's experiment of fourteen men employed in a wiring room developed their own informal group and typical which everyone highly followed was to produce less then their ability. That's how norms can be disadvantageous, if they're negative in characteristics (Mullins, 2005).
High degree of cohesiveness is not necessarily always favourable as it prevents creativity, pondering, decision electric power and problem solving skills in an organization which results in Groupthink. Corresponding to a study previously it was thought that high cohesiveness is essential for powerful, but it was Janis, who gave an idea that high group cohesiveness causes group think - an ultimate devastation & fiasco for categories' decision making capacity (Eaton, 2001).
I want to estimate Vietnam Conflict here that was a consequence of high cohesiveness that lead to group think and America attacked Vietnam without considering the after effects they had face.
Bowditch and Buono (1994) quote Janis's work declaring groupthink contributes to 'overoptimism 'and 'high risk taking by group users'; there is rationalisation of group's decisions so other associates are not allowed to question the decisions made.
Leadership is essential which cannot be avoided in order to control activities, conflicts and decision making. Relating to Mullins (2005 p. 282) "Leadership is a romance through which one person influences the behaviour or activities of other folks. "
It is the command which moulds the behaviour of normal group associates to competitive group, which improves the competency level of members of that group. Great man theory points out well the characteristics of good market leaders, according to which the leaders affect the behaviour of men and women by force of their personality (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004). The very best example of leadership I believe is Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the creator of my country, Pakistan. It was because of his strong management features that he united the Muslims of sub-continent on one dish form, as a land.
Different design of authority have different impacts on individuals' personality, like, Autocratic management style suppresses the talents of the group participants. On the other hand if the leader tries to require the member to make decisions, he is victorious their confidence, able to take better decisions, this also have very positive effects on the behaviour of members.
I want to talk about my own connection with dealing with SLM Connexions, a call centre situated in Manchester, UK. The business began business with a great deal of investment, and recruitment of talented personnel. The autocratic style of leadership was used by the directors who use to tell the staff what they need those to do or sell. Sometimes suggestions were welcomed but no one was permitted to question their decisions, and consequently the company keep much reduction in last few months for making many incorrect decisions.
Whenever individuals connect to each other, there's always a probability of turmoil between them depending on multidimensional thinking, understanding and behaviour. Discord my arise credited to many reasons ranging from improperly defined functions to ambiguity in norms. Whatever reason of issue is, it affects its member both favorably and negatively. Role discord mainly arises due to unethical behavior of a member (Johns and Saks, 2005). Issues may also happen from cultural, demographic and value dissimilarities (Vodosek, 2007).
I want to quote a good example from my very own experience in school where educators were given find and drop service. These band of educators were from different level, like some were from pre-school and some from most important and their finishing time was different from one another. Pre-school teachers finished an hour prior to the primary level tutor and had plenty of time to wind-up prior to going home, but principal teachers use to complete at 2o'clock. Turmoil arouse when pre-school instructors demanded truck to leave school as they get free early without considering the teachers who surface finish at 2o'clock. This discord leads to a great many other conflicts in college regarding duty timings and some others. Then our academics co-ordinator decided to have consensus and time was set for the school vehicle to leave after university.
Conflict brings success to a organisation and organizations in lots of ways. Conflicts are a sign of healthy mental strategy; bring new ideas, innovations which individuals should figure out how to take favorably as it is beneficial to them as well. On other hands conflict has unfavorable affects on personality & behavior of a person that can bring about stress and frustration.
The subject discussed above displays the negative and positive areas of group behaviours on specific. Individuals and groupings work parallel to one another in every sphere of life and review of a person's behaviour in a group is as important as organization's. A person interacts with other folks in perspectives of behaviours and attitudes throughout life and figure out how to polish, boost and builds up his personality, through learning from different experience.
Management should take the responsibility to resolve the issues related to tasks, status authority, norms, and grows good cohesiveness so that individuals can get maximum benefit from it. Generally problems are used as hurdles but these are there to instruct us. We ought to take them as opportunity gives a fresh horizon to perception of an individual.
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