Phonics in Early Years Teaching

Keywords: article about reading skills, phonics in reading

"Reading is important and motivates students to speak and think critically and empowers these to learn a number of lessons. Students in most important schools are still weak rather than thinking about reading either British or Malay literature. They fall short in tests as they have got not mastered reading skills and when this weakness is not rectified early, it'll be disastrous for a student at extra level".

Reading is a complicated process more accurately described as a number of cognitive processes occurring at the same time

Hjh. Hasnah Kula, the Senior Region Education Officer ( Brunei III ) emphasized how important reading capacity in Brunei is which ability must be cultivated from the first years (Major institution). Reading is approximately understanding written texts. It is a complex activity which involves both understanding and thought. Reading involves two related processes: word reputation and comprehension. Expression recognition refers to the procedure of perceiving how written icons match one's spoken terminology. Comprehension is the procedure of earning sense of words, sentences and connected text message. Readers typically make use of history knowledge, vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, experience with wording and other strategies to help them understand written content material.

Teaching struggling viewers to read takes time and patience. Many teachers are worried about the numbers of elementary children who have a problem with reading. Such concerns are warranted. Studies reveal that when students get off to a poor begin in reading, they hardly ever get up.

Struggling readers encounter negative outcomes such as an assignment to special education classrooms or contribution in long-term remedial services. Further, as they improve through the grade levels, the academic distance from those who read well increases more pronounced (THE TRAINING First Alliance, 1998; Rashotte, Toregesen, & Wagner, 1997; Country wide Reading Panel, 1999; Torgesen, 1998). Why do some students struggle with reading and what you can do to increase their success? These questions plague instructors and parents and are ones that compelled them to find answers.

1. 1 Track record of the study

Decoding is the ability to apply the data of letter-sound interactions, including knowledge of letter patterns, to properly pronounce written words. Understanding these connections gives children the capability to identify familiar words quickly and also to figure out words they have not seen before. Although children may sometimes find out many of these relationships independently, most children reap the benefits of explicit instruction in this field. Phonics is one method of reading teaching that shows students the ideas of letter-sound connections, how to sound out words, and exceptions to the concepts.

Therefore, appropriate early on direct instruction seems to be the best drugs for reading problems. Reading is not developmental or natural, but is discovered. Reading disabilities echo a continual deficit, rather than developmental lag in linguistic (phonological) skills and basic reading skills. Children who fall behind young (K and level 1) show up further and further behind as time passes. Longitudinal studies show that of the kids who are diagnosed as reading disabled in third level, 74% continue to be disabled in ninth grade (Fletcher, et al. , 1994; Shaywitz, Escobar, Shaywitz, Fletcher, & Makuch, 1992; Stanovich, 1986; Stanovich & Siegel, 1994). Insufficient phonemic awareness appears to be a significant obstacle to understanding how to read (Vellutino & Scanlon, 1987a; Wagner & Torgeson, 1987).

However, in Brunei, it was only in Year 2009 that the phonics strategy for teaching reading was launched. It really is one of the approaches that is roofed in the new educational system, known as the SPN21, where the phonics approach must be executed in teaching reading and writing to Preschool and 12 months 1 students. The action was also taken in respond to a national article which reveals that about 76 percent of students in Yr four and 44 percent of students in Season six had not learnt the essential literacy skills in Brunei ( Country wide Study of Pupil Competencies in Mathematics and English, 2008).

In an effort to introduce professors to the phonics approach, the Ministry of Education possessed conducted workshops especially for the English language teachers which aims to supply them with the phonics strategy knowledge and how it is trained.

1. 2 Assertion of the Problem

Having an effective teaching instruction including the phonics method of educate reading in a classroom will be a relief for just about any professors who face issues with students who cannot read. However, not all students could achieve the same level of reading in a classroom even although same way was used and was found to be effective with others. While most students are ready to read on an increased level, effective classroom teachers might notice that some students are lagging in reading skills. Those students who aren't strong readers often aren't as successful as they could be in confirmed content area. Their improvement is slow without the help of an observant and effective instructor. This is where a remedial reading program is needed to help these struggling readers to read. Generally in most colleges in Brunei, children who have problems in reading are positioned in a remedial program through a pull-out system (students are taken up to a special room throughout a particular lesson for a remedial session ) which is run by a special education educator. However, the remedial lessons were usually carried out for instructing reading in Bahasa Melayu and because of this the reading problem in the English dialect remains.

As for the school in this study, the remedial reading session was run on the initiative of the English language teacher during the English lessons itself. This was seen to be inadequate because this particular professor found it difficult to provide extra time through the lessons to help these difficult readers because the instructor would also need to deal with various other average students who may need help during the lessons. Therefore, the remedial reading consultations were not consistently finished with these difficult readers.

A successful remediation requires immediate, intensive treatment with an effective program. Effective remediation is not teaching down to less level, supporting the students learn ways to 'take care of' his reading issues, or continuing practice of impaired reading. Effective remediation straight develops necessary skills so the students acquire the necessary skills and can move forward. To learn proficiently the scholar needs to convert printing to sound and develop phonologic processing pathways. After important phonemic processing is established the student must build advanced skills. Effective reading remediation programs directly develop all skills essential for proficient reading.

Phonics could be useful to show reading to difficult viewers in the Primary university, especially in conditions of getting them acquainted with the sounds of each letter. Moreover, they need a program which can help them to learn in a short time period so that they might not show up back too much from other students of their levels. Ignoring them and expecting that somehow they would catch up and also read like their fellow classmates will probably create problems in the future.

1. 3 Reason for the study

This study aims at achieving the next objectives :

To explore the execution of the remedial reading program using the phonics procedure for difficult viewers in a Year 4 class.

To measure the reading achievement of the difficult viewers within 3 weeks of daily remedial periods (thirty minutes per day).

To promote the right time (outside the classroom lesson) for the instructor to run a remedial session with the difficult reading students.

1. 4 Research Questions

How is the remedial reading procedure in the institution being conducted?

How much is the phonics knowledge being included in the program?

What is the impact of any regular reading remedial procedure with difficult visitors on the reading performance utilizing a Synthetic phonics strategy?

To what magnitude would a morning session time (before the classroom lessons) and recess time could be put in for remedial reading procedure.

- How much could the students improve from these sessions?

1. 5 Significance of the study

One of the major challenges of the principal school professors is how to recognize the very best ways to teach their students how to read, especially with all different learning styles among children. Children come to class with assorted reading skills and literacy experience. All children be capable of figure out how to read but at different rates and in different ways (International Reading Relationship, 2000; Moore & Whitfield, 2009). It is essential for a tutor to truly have a comprehensive understanding of the reading process, the ability to observe and evaluate a student's strengths and weaknesses, and the ability to adapt one's teaching in response to the training needs of the students (International Reading Association, 2000).

It is the responsibility of the teachers to provide reading instructions that fulfills the needs of these diverse students. Teaching students to read is one of the most challenging things in coaching because teachers would need to be alert using their teaching methods or instructions so that they meet every single children needs in understanding how to read. And while many children follow an average pattern while understanding how to read that allows their individual differences to be attained with one program, those who do not follow that structure often fall behind. Many remedial programs are simply just a slower version of reading programs used for typical students, but these don't automatically work with atypical learners. That is why it might be more effective to develop remedial programs for specific students.

Therefore, throughout this review, it was hoped that the consequence of the study can be beneficial for English teacher in structuring a remedial program for his or her difficult readers and to encourage them to reflect on their efforts in assisting the these students to learn reading. It was also hoped that the results would be able to make the educators, college administrator and the curriculum creators of the institution under study to realize how important a fabricated phonic approach is to be contained in the remedial program.

1. 6 Limitations of the Study

This study however has its limitations. These include the distance of research time, small samples used and also the different reading issues of the participants.

The consultations were conducted over a three-week period only where in fact the participants were taught five times in weekly ( 2. 5 time altogether). The analysis only engaged two students from per annum 4 course in a decided on school in Brunei Muara District (small sample size). The reading problems of the individuals might be different from others because difficult visitors might have a lot difficulty in applying the phonics skills and for that reason this might vary the instructional way used in this study with other settings. Thus, the conclusions of the study should be interpreted with these limitations in mind.

1. 6 Description of Terms

The conditions below were found in this analysis:

Letter- sound romance :

Skills associated with sound-letter knowledge:

the knowing of how spoken audio and written words relate to the other person in the British language

the titles of letters and the tones associated with them

the ability to identify words previously seen

the ability to apply knowledge of how sounds and characters are related to each other to figure out the pronunciation of words not seen before, which is known as decoding

(Shedd, 2008)

Phonemic Awareness

This skill includes the capability to change and understand may seem, and the relationship between does sound and words. For example, children figure out how to recognize that two words audio similarly (or rhyme), and can identify the first or last sound in short. They could manipulate sounds in words to make up new words (eg "might" minus the /t/ audio is "my"), and know that sentences are made of separate words.

(http://elr. com. au/phonological/design. htm#a03)

Difficult Readers

Students with the next reading problems :

- difficulty in corresponding tones and letters

- has trouble in reading and spelling phonetically

- decode in an exceedingly laboured manner

Remedial Lessons

Lessons conducted especially to help low reaching students which is designed to help these students to improve and simplify their learning challenges and to catch up with other fellows of the same levels.


Teaching reading by training the students to connect letters with the sound values.

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