Piaget And Vygotsky Were Both Considered Constructivists Education Essay

Piaget and Vygotsky were both considered constructivists. Constructivism is a theory of coaching and learning based on the idea that cognition is developed through mental structure. This shows that humans learn, creating new knowledge by piecing together their previous activities. Another similarity between Piaget and Vygotsky is that they both consider societal influences set up the boundaries of cognitive development.

The main ideas in Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories regarding cleverness differ. Relating to Piaget, intelligence was something of action. He thought that children learn by connection with their surrounding which such learning's occur after development. Vygotsky however, believed that learning occurs before development can and that a child discovers because of background and symbolism. Vygotsky also thought that children appreciate input from their area and also other people. Piaget on the other palm did not place any importance on the source of others.

Piaget and Vygotsky's ideas regarding the stages of development have differing views as well. Piaget's theory of cognitive development is made up of four stages which mark the emergence of new intellectual skills. The earliest stage is the sensorimotor stage, which occurs between birth and 2 yrs of age. During this stage infants and small children use their senses and electric motor skills to explore the world. Through physical activity and somewhat unintentional motor reflexes cleverness is manifested. Toward the finish of this stage children also acquire the concept of thing permanence, and therefore they understand an object is there even if the kid cannot see it.

The next level in Piaget's theory is recognized as the preoperational level. This occurs during age groups two through seven. During this stage a child's terminology and principles develop quickly, however their thinking process is still rather primitive. In this level characteristics such as centration occur, which leaves the child so centered on taking care of of a predicament that they fail to see other important factors. Another characteristic is the fact that children are egocentric. They believe that everyone thinks, or has the same desires and needs as they are doing.

The third stage in Piaget's theory is the concrete functional stage, occurring between your ages of seven and eleven. In this stage children start to experience a major change in their thinking process. Their thoughts become less egocentric and more logical. "Reversibility, the ability to execute a mental operation and then change one's thinking to return to the starting point (Slavin, 2003, p. 33)" occurs during this stage. Children at this stage still have a problem with abstract thought.

The last stage in Piaget's cognitive development theory is recognized as the formal operational stage. It is during this level in which a child begins to develop abstract and symbolic thoughts. It allows hypothetical situations to be dealt with, and problem handling through experimentation. This development gives young adults the capability to reason their way through situations they have got not yet experienced.

As discussed Piaget's theory has four specific levels, however Vygotsky believed that there are no set periods. The first facet of Vygotsky's theory is a system known as private speech, speaking with oneself. Vygotsky found that it was important to carefully turn distributed knowledge into person knowledge. He believed that children would integrate the talk of others into their problem resolving process. Private talk is commonly seen amongst small children who speak to themselves openly and often. In adulthood private conversation is also very important, though it become silent and internalized it is still a helpful problem solving tool.

Vygotsky's opinion of the zone of proximal development is the next part of his cognitive theory. "A area of proximal development is the level of development immediately above a person's present level (Slavin, 2003, p. 44)". The zone of proximal development involves things a kid cannot quite do by themselves, but could complete with help from a far more experienced child or a grown-up. It includes duties a child has not yet discovered but is capable of learning. Vygotsky believed that to attain maximum learning it was important to work with the area of proximal development.

The last idea in Vygotsky's cognitive development theory is scaffolding. This consists of using encouragement, clues, reminders and assistance by means of suggestion to aid the child in separately learning. By understanding how to solve problems individually and without the help of others, the kid gains the ability to self-regulate.

Both Piaget and Vygotsky's cognitive development ideas have had an impact on education practices and classroom management. Piaget's theory is used in classrooms daily by using developmentally appropriate education. Another example of Piagetian theory being used in the class is through hands on activities. Corresponding to Piaget, young children (preoperational) learn through their actions and aren't with the capacity of abstract thought, therefore providing a variety of physical activities for smaller children is vital to any school room schedule.

Aspects of Vygotsky's cognitive theory are also within many classroom settings. A good example is a class room which has your children divided into groupings, or desks. This uses Vygotsky's ideas regarding use of the area of proximal development as well as scaffolding. By inserting children of differing developmental abilities along for group work, children have the ability to mentor and learn from the other person through scaffolding, as well as work in their zone of proximal development.

It is clear that cognitive development ideas play an important role in responding to the educational needs and learning methods of children of varying stages. From the theories provided by Piaget and Vygotsky it is possible to create an improved class experience for not only the pupil but the professor as well. Whenever a teacher uses solutions to instruct children developmentally appropriate material, it creates for a more interesting and conducive learning environment. Thanks to such psychologists as Piaget and Vygotsky, teachers today have the various tools available to them to create this environment.

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