1. Digital technology will enhance the ability of children with attention and behavioural problems to be reflective thinkers.
2. The improvement in the capability to represent will have a positive effect on the intrinsic motivation of the children with attention and behaviour difficulties.
3. There will be a decrease in off activity and disruptive behaviours in the school room.
How does indeed reflective practice, using the medium of digital technology (video), impact the intrinsic drive for academics studies of a sample group of children with attention and behaviour problems in a calendar year 6 category?
a) What impact will digital reflection have on the intrinsic motivation of children with attention and behavioural issues instead of the experience of their peers?
b) Will reflective practice using digital media affect drive across reviewed subject matter similarly? (Maths, reading, general institution attitude)?
c) Does an increase in intrinsic inspiration have a confident impact on the attention and behaviour habits within the class room setting?
d) Does the original starting place of intrinsic determination effect the amount of change?
e) Does indeed reflective practice, using digital marketing, have any impact either positively or negatively on intrinsic drive?
As area of the first yr course work, the author of this task completed a small-scale experiment examining the effect of rewards and sanctions on children's class room behaviour. The final outcome involved a debate on whether rewards and sanctions condition children to react to the anticipations of others rather than requesting 'what kind of person do I want to be?' (Kohn cited in Fisher, 2003). Requesting this question challenges the individual to examine their own determination for doing something, a form of self - diagnosis that can lead to the introduction of their inner personal or intrinsic determination. The studies from the task, along with personal experience working in an International university where reflection for children is common place, shows the writer that reflective practice is a very important piece of personal assessment but that not every child locates easy to complete nor benefits anything worthwhile out of it. After reviewing an array of current research (for example: Barrett, 2004; Buchwald et al, 2009; Lofthouse & Birmingham, 2010) it became evident that using digital technology as a medium for reflective practice may help to develop an environment that may be more creative, interesting and motivating, whilst also getting rid of the aspect of expressive writing which many children with attention and behavioural troubles find difficult to carry out.
Although there is a growing prosperity of research looking at two of the elements to the dissertation, a combination of most three for this a long time has yet found. For example: Barrett looks at using video recording and representation for learning but through history showing whilst Buchwald take a look at using video diaries for representation but in the truth of children with serious ailments. However, by carefully examining criteria, it is possible to select ingredients from past studies and associate the books and conclusions to this dissertation.
A overview of literature has shown that there are a number of explanations for intrinsic drive but Lepper et al. (2005), is typical of many stating that intrinsic drive is: 'the desire to engage in behaviours for no reason apart from sheer enjoyment, concern, pleasure, or interest'. The question of how intrinsic inspiration develops and when it could be affected has been researched in many different ways and 'includes a diverse selection of theoretical viewpoints' (Green, Martin & Marsh, online). To gain an understanding of how desire in individuals may be constructed and exactly how individuals develop competence and control values about themselves, determination ideas, such as home - determination (Deci), communal cognitive / self-efficacy (Bandura), attribution theory (i. e: Weiner) and goal orientation theory have to be examined. An understanding of the task of Gottfried (author of way of measuring Inventory in this dissertation) regarding subject specific motivation, as highlighted by Green (online), is also important.
Brockbank, McGill & Beech (2002) declare that 'most modern theories (of learning) promote the idea of reflection as essential for deep and significant learning'. This dissertation will be using the training theory of constructivism as a theoretical model as it promotes the individual to use previous experience to make new knowledge or understanding. Reflective practice helps the learner to be more alert to these thought procedures therefore have a larger understanding of the strategies they use to get over problems (Wikipedia a, no day). That is particularly very important to people with attention and behaviour problems as Meltzer (2010) suggests these students often find it difficult to 'turn between strategies open to them'. Reflective practice is often referred to as 'knowing about knowing' and can be termed 'metacognition' (Wikipedia b, no particular date) with Donovan & Bransford in Alexander (2006) saying that metacognition can not work 'independently of content' but that strategies must be trained 'in context of subject matter areas'.
Although digital technology has been used extensively in research for the intended purpose of observation, its use as a medium for reflective practice is not well noted. Barbara Cambridge cited in Barrett (2004) shows that it helps the guidelines for 'deep learning including representation', whilst Buchwald et al. (2009) claim that popular television shows (such as YOUR GOVERNMENT) has made the idea of 'videos diaries' and audiovisual technology for 'the more radiant generation' a far more comfortable experience to share personal thoughts with.
The overall platform for this dissertation is a case study. Firstly, a way of measuring observation and way of measuring was needed that could give a wider picture of the children's behaviour than a study could provide. Second of all, as the author is currently not working in the school being utilized, 'hands on time' is a limiting factor so the cycle of analysis and reflection with schools, typical of action research, would not be possible. Finally, ethnography had not been chosen as this dissertation does not take into account the children's cultural or monetary backgrounds, nor should it examine the implications these may have on the final results of the dissertation.
A case study is often described as 'single instance of the bounded system' and providing 'samples of real people in real situations' (Nisbet & Watt in Cohen, 2007) In this dissertation the 'bounded system' are two parallel classes that are being observed in the context of these classroom, getting involved in their day-to-day and normal activities. The dissertation is not made to alter or make a incorrect environment for the children to work within. An important characteristic of your case study is the fact data must be drawn from a number of options to provide validity to the outcomes (Qi, 2009). That is called 'triangulation' and, as in the case of this dissertation, can be considered a assortment of data from different sources a comparable phenomena (Yin, 2003). Within this dissertation the data will be taken from three different sources - a children's motivational inventory, class observation and educators' feedback. The data collected will be both quantitative and qualitative, with the inventory providing the statistical quantitative data and the observation and opinions demonstrating the qualitative descriptive narrative. Ary, Cheser Jacobs, Razavieh, & Sorenzen (2009) suggest that using a blended approach to data collection can in some instances be better a single procedure as it may offer an improved and more enlightening understanding. Gilham (2000) clarifies this by suggesting that very important statistical outcomes often don't supply the full picture, 'facts do not speak for themselves'.
Quantitative data can be used in research to 'explain phenomena using mathematically based mostly methods' (Aliaga & Gunderson cited in Muijs, 2004). With this dissertation, participating children will get an inventory to complete at both the starting and end of the reflective practice period with fixed replies that, using the Likert Range, will get numerical values and in turn be used to create graphs or furniture for conclusions to be attracted from. In this manner the impact of the time of reflective practice on intrinsic desire can be assessed in a numerical, exact and handled manner providing both a base collection to work from and also a scale to assess change. This will likely also negate the impact of the differing starting factors for each child as it is the change that has been measured not the level of intrinsic motivation by the end of the dissertation. The quantitative data will be collected in a 'quasi - experimental' strategy. This technique has been chosen as the task of children is set (established classes), variables which may effect intrinsic drive are identified before the research starts off with one self-employed variable (video recording reflection) being chosen to control the discovered and measured centered variable (intrinsic desire) (Ary et al, 2009).
Qualitative data is collected to assist 'understanding a individual phenomena, discourse or connections' (Lichtman, 2009) with other research workers (such as Yin, 2003; Sherman & Webb, 1988) emphasising the value of the information gathered being a 'discovery that leads to insight' alternatively than looking for a predetermined idea (Sherman et al. , 1988). The instructor interviews will be utilized to collect qualitative data for the intended purpose of both adding context and description to the final results of the Inventory. This method of considering the data is called 'description building' with the data providing a conclusion for the truth as a whole (Klenke, 2008). Regarding this dissertation, as the writer will not be in the school often and so the chance for the writer to act as a 'principal data collection tool' will be limited, the factor of teacher responses will be essential in providing an improved understanding into additional contextual and environmental factors for example: parental and peer affect. The need for this role is described by Klenke (2008) as he shows that it is only in face-to-face situations, that the 'difficulty and subtlety which is individual experience' can be 'captured'.
The video tutorial observation of the children will enable both qualitative and quantitative data to be accumulated. Under this technique, the qualitative information gathered (behaviour) will be allocated numerical value utilizing a coding system. This method allows for a snap shot of off-task behavior to be commentated on with conclusions being recognized with numerical beliefs. However, it also allows for descriptive commentary where necessary to explain results - for example: were some behaviours seen at particular things of the lesson or were any a reaction to a stimulation.
In designing this dissertation, one of the biggest problems to conquer will be the gathering of information on other factors that may also influence determination. The social environment within that your individual is present, for example: parents, different instructors and peers, likewise have an impact on the introduction of desire (Alexander, et al. , 2006). Whilst it is recognized that factors such as peer / father or mother relationships cannot be manipulated, it is hoped that the info provided by the instructors may help to explain some of the difficulties. In addition, to try and diminish the impact that different coaching styles may have, the coaching team have decided to deliver the same materials for each subject in the dissertation, at the same time of day and using the same coaching mediums.
Interview with the two class teachers
CAIMI - Children's Academic Intrinsic Motivational Inventory
Pupil observation will need place to determine the particular level and level of attention and behavioural issues occurring in target subjects. The observation of pupils will be in the form of any video recording taken by the course teacher. In advance of the dissertation commencing and with the class teachers, a set of behaviours that are regarded to be 'attention or behavioural problems' constituting off activity behavior will be used. From this, a rating size for both amount and level of off job behaviours can be devised. Both category educators and myself will then view the videos, with an evaluation of results. It is important that two individuals review the videos, as it'll enhance the validity of the info gathered (Ary et al. , 2009). It is also important to note that, as they know the course well, the professor observers are at a risk of bringing a biased view with their observations (Muijs, 2004). At two-minute intervals, an archive will be produced of the kids displaying off task behavior and what they were doing. This information, together with the professor interview information, will be utilized to make an independent analysis of the children's level of intrinsic motivation for the purpose of internal validation of this dissertation. In other words: will the reported degrees of children's intrinsic drive match what's being seen? If not, then your videos can be reviewed to help provide data to help make clear any unusual studies that the CAIMI may produce. The data collected from the observation will be primarily quantitative (use of the numerical ranking range), but with the chance for the professor to include qualitative explanation to clarify results. This formal approach to observation will be non-participatory for the observer as it is wished to view the school in a natural setting, with the pupils unaware they are being recorded. It really is noticed that alerting the pupils to the taking beforehand will bring about some pupils altering their behaviour patterns. This immediate observation of the category, Ary et al. (2009) suggest provides 'more accurate data' than thoughts of instructors and children exclusively. You can find two main down sides of this form of observation. First of all, the amount of time it will take to view the videos and carry out the coding and tracking of the prospective information (Gillham, 2000) and second, the ethical implications of videoing children. This aspect will be discussed later in this task.
Closely related to the school observations, both class teachers will be interviewed and asked about their 'beliefs and thoughts' about the intrinsic determination of the school and any contextual factors they feel are essential (Ary et al. , 2009). The interviews will be semi - set up and use wide open - concluded questions. Based on the comments made by Sherman et al (1988) before in this task, the data accumulated is likely to provide information towards a 'context' for some of the children's exhibited behaviour somewhat than provide a test for the proposed hypothesis. Much like the observational approach, the main disadvantages of this form of data gathering is in the time it requires to review the interview and the prospect of biased views from individuals. Furthermore, it ought to be known that the interviewer is not experienced in this form of data gathering and expects that inexperience may effect the procedure with the necessity to repeat, ask for clarification or ask further questions at a later time.
The main bulk of quantitative data gathered in this dissertation would be the undertaking of the Children's Academics Intrinsic Motivational Inventory (CAIMI). Devised 1986 by A E Gottfried, the range steps children's intrinsic motivation in a university environment as identified by Gottfried herself. This Inventory has been chosen over others as it focuses simply on intrinsic drive, while others which were considered, including the Elementary Institution Motivational Scale, also include procedures for factors such as extrinsic desire. This 'home - report' Inventory is made for children of primary school get older, with wording of the 44 questions at an get older appropriate reading level, however, it is possible for the questions to be read to individuals who are unable to complete this task independently. Class professors will administer the Inventory. The Inventory steps intrinsic determination in four school subjects and also provides an overall school determination rating. This links with the feedback made earlier in the books review regarding metacognition and intrinsic inspiration needing subject matter specific attention. The members are asked to react to each question using a five point Likert size that is scored by assigning a numerical value to each answer. The biggest benefit of using a listing like this is the fact that it can be administered efficiently to all participants and it requires little justification for conclusion (Williams, 1997). Alternatively a disadvantage is that children might not act in response 'truthfully' (too little understanding the question or unwillingness to provide truthful answers) so the results are compromised (Ary et al, 2009). Gottfried has attemptedto negate this by using years appropriate words and 'both negative and positive instances of intrinsic motivation' (Williams, 1997) an evaluation that will point out bias.
Although quantitative data is easy and simple that to remove results, it is important to ensure that all data accumulated is given an equal weighting in the final survey (Hesser - Biber, 2010). After completing the CAIMI, the natural score for each of the five sub scales (four educational and one overall) can be gained. Once uncooked scores have been determined, the Inventory's manual provides desks to convert the info into normalised T results and percentiles. By using this form of comparability with a mean score, it is possible to place a child on a determination continuum from low to high intrinsic determination. Utilizing a graph, in conjunction with either a percentile or standardised level, you'll be able to draw club graphs for the intended purpose of evaluation and comparison of data, for example: before and after results for every single child over the target subjects. It could also be constructive to plot, as a pub chart, the change in intrinsic determination for each and every child, reflecting the possibility of both negative and positive changes. Additionally it is possible to observe that for one of the dissertation questions (d) it might be helpful to draw a scatter gram to demonstrate the level of change which may have occurred.
The evaluation of the video looking at behavior will also be collecting data in a quantitative format. Each one of the target behaviours and people will get an identification code. This natural data can be viewed in both a graph form and also have a qualitative aspect where contextual information is provided in a written explanation. Again, as the information will be collected both before and after the research you'll be able to produce a direct evaluation of behavior change.
It is supposed to use the qualitative data that is accumulated from teacher interviews as explanation for the quantitative results. It might be possible to code the info gained and bring information from it in a quantitative format, however, in cases like this it is the expanded descriptive information that is important. For take note of taking easiness, it is supposed to 'group' connected thoughts, topics and quotes jointly.
Williman (2000) areas that 'sound ethical procedures will be the basis of good research'. As this dissertation will be carried out in a main stream institution and entail two yr six classes, the to begin the ethical concerns will be asking for consent for both research to be completed and for participants to agree to partake. In the beginning the school board of governors and the top teacher have to be asked, on paper, for their agreement. They should be provided with a whole put together for the dissertation which includes issues such as timelines, staff involvement and functional implications for the institution. Furthermore, they must be fully aware of ethical things to consider such as, what data gathering instruments will be used, the use of video and how all material will be stored (Walliman, 2000). Greig (2007) implies research using children should be something that is 'done with them, rather than to them', whilst the 2002 UNICEF recommendations on child research helps it be clear that both the children and parents got to know the implications of the study. Out of this it is clear that the next thing is in increasing consent for contribution from the kids and the parents of the two classes. Parents will be up to date across the same lines as the panel of governors with parents asked to come back signed consent forms. However, children could discover a simplified version of the research format to ensure that they all understand. A authorized consent form should be accumulated from each child. It must be made very clear to all or any children and parents that if any child will not wish to be a part of the study, or wishes to withdraw after the research has began, then it would be possible for them to discretely get an away of category activity when data collection activities are going on. Although increasing the consent of most is not anticipated as issues, alerting the children to the supposed objectives hazards them altering their behaviour patterns throughout the research. One way around this could be to supply the parents with a full outline of the dissertation proposal and the children a partial one, for example: informing the children they will be observed but not when it will be done. The BERA Rules (2004) talks about this form of 'deception' and areas which it must be 'averted' unless it can be used to 'ensure the correct data is gathered'. Another issue which may be raised is the actual that one class is getting something the other isn't. The institution is fairly sure that the promise of a roll out programme after the dissertation is completed will keep parents happy.
Another account to reassure parents and participants about will be the way the gathered data will be stored, used and then, where it will be published. This should be done in advance of the dissertation starting. Arriving at an agreement about how and what format the results can be looked at is also important. Plainly, it would be interesting for parents to see results for not only the youngster but both classes as well. These details will be provided to all mixed up in form of a leaflet at the end of the dissertation. However, ensuring the privacy of all the children must take top priority with any information that could identify a kid kept out of the books (Quigley, 2008) for example: all names or discovering markers should be blanked out or given pseudonyms (McNiff and Whitehead, 2009).
During the dissertation there will be occasions when the children will be videoed. This boosts a number of honest issues such as who's allowed to see the videos, how they'll be stored and what goes on following the dissertation ends. These are all different issues from non-visual data as regarding the training video all the kids can be easily identified (Flewitt, 2006). These issues have to be discussed before the dissertation with both school and parents. It really is anticipated that the educators of the classes will take the videos and download them onto the school server for looking at. They will not be copied or seen outside of the school properties. Through seeking authorization before the start of the dissertation, it will be possible to ensure that only children who have awarded consent will be observed on the videos. With some types of observation it is suitable to use the footage within supporting proof or for even more research at a later time. However, in this case it might be possible to delete the video considered as soon as the dissertation is complete. As the children's own reflection diary will participate normal institution activities, the school is taking responsibility for all those areas of data collection, circulation and ethics in relation to it.
As the school is currently starting some staffing changes and requires time to get and install video technology, a delayed start night out has been negotiated for September 2011. Later part of the in the summer term 2010 a meeting with the parents and governors of the school to outline the study proposals and gain consent will be kept. This can be accompanied by a gathering with the kids, again to describe the research and gain their consent. The initial teacher interviews, behaviour observation and CAIMI data collection sessions will take devote the first three weeks of September. From the end of September before February 2012 half term, the information gathered will be collated and written up. With this, a literature review will be performed with the first draft ready for substantiation reading by the end of February 2012. Following the February fifty percent term, the next circular of data collection will be performed. It is predicted that coding, compiling information etc will take until the end of Apr 2012. From early May before end of June the writer intends to concentrate on writing up the look, methods used and studies section. Finally, July will be utilized for the draft of the dialogue and finish section. As each section has been completed it will be passed to another individual for confirmation reading. It really is planned that the rest of the time will be utilized to put together and print the completed dissertation.
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