Principle And Practice Of Examination Theory

Within device three of concepts and practice of evaluation, we as students were required to research the next areas: Rules of assessment, Peer and Personal Assessment, Opinions and Questioning and Evaluation Record Requirements.

Research was completed on the four subject areas to assist in understanding and background understanding of the areas. Further study of these topics would allow me to take into account how I teach my students, be able to include the ideas and demonstrate the procedure of coaching and learning using these procedures.

During the study, it was supposed that people explore the topics given, selecting and analysing material and using it to relate with the specialised area in which we teach.

Initially, we worked as an organization to research the ideas of analysis which we were then to present back to other students as a micro teaching time. Petty (2004, pg 219) suggests that group work is energetic and provides students 'chance to use the methods, guidelines and vocabulary they are being shown. '

Assessment is a method which measures the extent and degree of learning which has taken place within or beyond the school room. Skills, knowledge and behaviour can be assessed against a pre determined standard arranged by the teacher or evaluating body of a subject module or certification. Dictionary. com (2009) identifies evaluation as '. . . the act of assessing; appraisal; evaluation. '

As Petty (2004) advises, assessment serves a variety of purposes. It can grade the attainment of learners, help select prospects for jobs or courses, donate to evidence the potency of a course content and tutors skills and offer a permanent goal for learners. Evaluation also allows possibility to adjust coaching to ensure all goals or criteria is being met. However, it has been argued that diagnosis is unreliable and inaccurate and is also a poor tool of predicting a student's future performance.

There are various types of analysis methods; these include preliminary diagnostic, formative, summative, norm and criterion referencing. Analysis starts at the very beginning of a student's academic profession. The initial or diagnostic analysis may take on many forms such as an informal chat to an entrance essay or examination. The target is to attempt to discover just as much information as it can be about the scholar. The more info we have on the scholar, a lot more we can adjust the learning experience, to suit the learner's needs. When working with parents with learning disabilities it is crucial that a tutor attempts identify the skills of a student as soon as possible. That is so we can identify their basic literacy and numeracy and concerning whether we must place extra staff support in to the class room to ensure an inclusive environment.

Often a student and tutor will create an Individual Learning Plan or ILP, that will identify learners needs and support they could require as well as any goals they may have for future years. Initial assessment can also help identify a student's learning style. Gravells (2008) believes that 'a key part of primary analysis is to involve your learners in assessing their own skills and knowledge. '

Formative analysis is constant and frequent and is also a tool used to see the learner and the tutor of student's improvement and whether they are achieving the objectives of the course. This form of analysis provides information and feedback upon which decisions and adaptations can be made and provides students with guidelines for future learning. Research has shown, (Petty, 2004) that this feedback when you learn has more influence on student achievement than other factor. It offers students an intrinsic determination to learn alternatively than extrinsic, therefore doing something or learning something because they would like to not because they are told they need to. Usually the results of formative analysis do not contribute to a student's last class but are simply for the purpose of assisting students to comprehend their advantages and weaknesses to be able to work towards improving their efficiency. A major hurdle to the potency of formative analysis is the fact that the tag generated doesn't usually count up towards a student's last grade and for that reason students can be less stimulated to put significant amounts of effort into such evaluation. Brown and Knight (1999) suggest that if found in an effective manner, formative evaluation can help students to be more autonomous in their learning and think about their performances and take responsibility because of their academic growth. As being a tutor, I tend to rely on formative analysis with my students; the reason behind this is to alleviate any stress or nerves for the student. Due to having students with autism, the thought of a formal summative analysis would annoyed that university student and impact on their final level.

Summative evaluation occurs by the end of any course or academic year. It is often attained by the means of an evaluation or test which is 'designed to distinguish between candidates based on the breadth and depth of these learning. ' (Petty, 2004 pg 466). Summative assessment is also viewed as formal tests of what has been discovered in order to create marks or grades which might be used for records of varied types. Research by the Diagnosis and Learning Research Synthesis Group shows that the emphasis of formative assessment can help students to learn and be determined to learn, whereas the use of summative analysis can have a poor impact on pupils' determination.

Within the learning environment, norm and criterion referencing is also used. Adam (2002) suggests that 'Best practice in grading in higher education involves striking a balance between criterion-referencing and norm-referencing. ' A norm referenced test compares student's successes relative to other student's achievements. This is apparent with the General Certificate in Education (GCSE). Criterion referenced test does not compare learner with student but requires the pupil to meet a certain group of criteria or focuses on to be observed as competent. This is seen in Country wide Vocational Requirements (NVQ). Criterion referencing stresses the achievements of a student against a predetermined group of standards alternatively than comparison to some other student. Criterion referencing can offer a teacher with the information of just what students has learnt; therefore identify the capabilities of that university student. With these details, a student can then complete any spaces of knowledge they could have skipped. Whereas norm referencing can only show a tutor how one scholar has performed against another.

When working with students with learning disabilities, I often count on original/diagnostic diagnosis to ensure I can offer the correct support with the pupil. Using formative diagnosis can also inspire my students, 'Most student's with learning disabilities answer favorably too experiencing their academic improvement charted, and this can becomea very motivational tool. ' Bender, 2002, pg 116).

Another area that we researched, through individual research and peer micro teach lessons were peer and self evaluation. Petty (2008) is convinced that 'Home assessment encourages reflection and purposeful activity towards useful goals, as well as stimulating learners to be accountable for their own learning. ' Kolb (1984) proposed a four stage routine of learning and within one of those periods was observation and representation. This stage allows students to take a step back again from the task in hand and review what they did and the experience of it. Which then moves on to the abstract conceptualisation stage and allows students to plan how they might carry out the duty differently. Whilst working with students with learning disabilities, I often use peer analysis. Behaviourist theory suggests that giving feedback whether positive or negative, will permit students to act in a certain way. Skinner (1974) believed that a learner will do it again a desired behavior if positive encouragement follows. During a time with my students I often allow them to evaluate each others work, students are always almost honest and do not hold back their thoughts and emotions. This often motivates students to work harder or continue that one behaviour due to the fact they get compliment and can encourage self correction. Alternatively, when working with mainstream students, they might not exactly always be genuine when evaluating each others, being concerned in case they upset their peer or being bias because they may have problems with the student these are assessing.

Feedback and questioning can play an important role in assessing our students. You can find multiple reasons why as a tutor we would use questions, but mainly it is to evaluate our student's learning. Questioning we can check understanding and whether learning has occurred. Additionally, it may encourage participation in just a classroom and we can sketch on students activities. Effective questioning is an assessment tool where I use as a tutor of people with learning disabilities, as many students cannot portray their ideas or applying for grants paper due to their lack of literacy skills. Using probing questions, either available or closed down allows differentiation in my class and ensures an inclusive environment. Petty (2008) means that questioning has an essential advantage when considering student determination in the class. 'Nothing at all motivates quite just as much as the glow of satisfaction a scholar gets when he or she right answers a question appropriately. ' (Petty, 2008, pg 183). Providing rewarding feedback following this will encourage learner learning plus they have seen they can succeed.

Feedback is a way of interacting information back to the student. We must ensure that whenever giving feedback to students, it should be done in a good manner which improves, rather than injuries their self-esteem. Negative opinions will most likely demotivate the college student and make sure they are feel as if they have failed. Website Brooks. ac. uk (2009) shows that 'There is a approach that praise of the student's work will lead to under-performance, whereas criticism will spur them on to greater accomplishments. There seems to be very little evidence that such a strategy is prosperous in obtaining its goals. While there are problems in becoming too blas about one's successes, negative criticism can be highly de-motivating. ' However, it is necessary that as a tutor we must point out the shortcomings of an students work to ensure they meet up with the criteria set, it's the manner in which we get it done to ensure progression. We as a teacher should 'support the pupil in finding their own way of fixing problems, and really should not do all the work to them. (Rogers, 2001). When supplying feedback to my own student, it is essential that it's clear and specific and should never focus on too may aspects at the same time as this may confuse or upset the student. We should also ensure that opinions is shipped in a suitable area or environment so never to distress the college student. A feedback procedure also needs to conclude with the university student and teacher agreeing what should be done for the pupil to succeed.

The final area that was to be researched was the types of analysis records that which would be had a need to meet organisational and exterior requirements. It's important that as a teacher we keep information of the learners, both personal and exactly how they are simply progressing. Initial examination records are an important tool as this would notify us of the student's qualifications and where the student desires the course to have her or him. Information received by these procedures needs to be recorded in a way that the student, tutor, organisation and external bodies can access at any time. External bodies may need access for funding reasons. They could be stored in a collection for the pupil for ease of access by all concerned. An awarding body such as City and Guilds will screen the teaching of any course and for that reason educators must keep data of what and how they are educating, as well as formative and summative examination records. This will allow an activity called external or internal verification to adopt destination to ensure quality coaching and learning is occurring. Formative assessment details will also allow teachers to fill in any gaps of knowledge that their students may have. Learning establishments will often be inspected by the Office for Requirements in Education (Ofsted), this is to promote service improvement and ensure an inclusive educational environment for all students.

The points that have been researched, by group work, specific research and through peer micro show trainings are areas that tutors have to be alert to and are vital to successful teaching. As being a tutor we need to be tuned in to a variety of issues to ensure that we meet the needs of most learners and organisations.

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