Counsellor self-awareness has been frequently emphasised as a crucial professional competency for all counsellors (Remley & Herlihy, 2007). To aid this key competency, reflective practice is an important means of assisting self-awareness in students and beginning counsellors. This newspaper will look at some explanations of reflective practice, and exactly how it is a lot more than just thinking about what has occurred.
Reflective practice is an approach used in counselling and other health occupations where models of reflection provide a way to judge applied learning: it is a way of refining skills and knowledge by scrutinizing actions while they are being completed, and then assessing them through talk, writing exercises such as journalling, similar assessments or by professional supervision.
Reflective practice has been developed in a variety of fields over the last few years, most markedly in professions where interpersonal connections are central and a high degree of intuitive judgement and decision-making is necessary. As a result of this, counselling and coaching make great use of reflective practice methods, along with community and young ones personnel, and allied medical researchers.
Professional practice was pioneered by Donald Sch¶n in the 1980's. Several models are present, but fundamentally reflective practice and learning will involve progress and development as a specialist by considering at an event or event, understanding it and learning from it. Different models may emphasise different regions of reflective learning, or broaden the procedure to include a variety of peers, communities and professional or learning colleagues
Reflective practice is a continuous process and consists of the learner considering critical happenings in their life activities. As identified by Sch¶n, reflective practice will involve thoughtfully considering one's own experiences in applying knowledge to apply while being coached by pros in the discipline. It has been described as an unstructured, self-regulated process methodology directing understanding and learning.
Reflective practice as a means of working which involves behaving consciously and intentionally on the basis of critical understanding and understanding. A reflective practitioner needs to develop a knowledge of new ways to look at situations, consider new opportunities and techniques, and sees fresh means to challenge expresses an circumstances. A reflective practioners is a Iifelong learner, as each experience will form their practice and procedure.
A opinion which underpins reflective practice is that counsellors should consolidate or 'body' our understanding. Framing can be an inevitable thing:
There is no chance of perceiving and making sense of simple fact except by way of a frame, for the very task of making sense of complicated, information-rich situations requires an operation of selectivity and company, which is what framing means (Sch¶n, 1994, p29).
To be reflective will not imply disregarding all assumptions and prior opinions. Instead, it is approximately being conscious of what practioners bring around when we meet with others. Reflective professionals "must have the ability to put themselves in the shoes of other actors", but plus they must also "possess the complementary ability to consider how their own frames may contribute to problematic situations" (Sch¶n, 1994, p187).
Reflective practice is as a result something that calls for persistent and frequent time, determination and practice.
To help counsellors, specifically as start counsellors, this is where an good supervisor is so important, motivating the counsellor to grow as a person and a professional, to believe and act beyond the box and prevent slipping into self-deception or pitfalls.
An continuing dedication to education and also an important basic requirement to assist this growth and development.
In reflective practice you'll be able to identify three different stages. Sch¶n (1983) distinguished between reflection-in-action (at the same time as the practice takes place) and reflection-on-action (soon after).
'reflection on practice' that involves stepping back from an event and discovering (a) what happened (b) what can be learned from it and (b) what should be achieved next time. This process is used widely with students in various disciplines who should keep a journal of learning experiences and their practice implications. Kolb's learning circle (experience _reflection _ making sense _ planning for action) is a common tool used by supervisors to help students learn this technique in systematic form.
Secondly, there is certainly 'representation in practice' which involves paying attention and mindful in the here-and-now instant; i. e. during supervision/counselling as it's actually happening. This is, in a few respects, an advanced-level request of 'representation on practice' and essential for those involved in counselling and guidance approaches that entail working primarily with immediacy (e. g. psychotherapy: recognising transference, projection, parallel process etc. ). Additionally it is especially valuable for people working in crisis situations where conditions change quickly and the ability to think regularly on one's feet is critical.
the difference between 'representation on' and 'reflection in' is, essentially, the difference between "What occurred then?" and "What's going on now?".
The practice dimensions reminds us that for learning-through-reflection to become genuinely transformational, it requires to be applied. The role of supervisor, therefore, includes not only aiding the counsellor to learn through reflection but to aid application of this learning to improve his / her counselling practice. When these dimensions are drawn collectively in continual process, the counsellor can be described as a reflective practitioner.
According to Schon (1983), reflection-in-action is a strenuous professional process relating acknowledgement of and representation on uncertainty and complexity in one's practice resulting in 'a respectable form of professional knowing' (p. 69).
Reflection-in-action is defined by Sch¶n as the ability of experts to 'think what they are doing while they can be doing it'.
the only way to control the 'indeterminate zones of (professional) practice' is through the ability to think on your feet, and apply previous experience to new situations. That is essential work of the professional, and requires the capability of reflection-in-action.
Sch¶n offers his thoughts how this kind of professional is 'produced'. He represents lots of key ideas:
The 'Reflective Practicum'. - a term for the educational setting up, or environment: "A practicum is a setting designed for the duty of learning a practice". That's where students learn by doing, with the help of instruction. The practicum is 'reflective' in two senses: "it is supposed to help students become experienced in some sort of reflection-in-action; and, when it works well, it requires a dialogue of mentor and student that takes the proper execution of reciprocal reflection-in-action. "
Tacit knowledge: his originates from the work of Michael Polanyi3. He describes including the remarkable way we are able to pick out a familiar face in a audience. This will not require thinking about, or a organized analysis of features. We cannot verbalise how this is performed, so the knowledge is 'unspoken' or 'tacit'.
Knowing-in-action - derives from the idea of tacit knowledge. It identifies the types of knowledge unveiled in the manner we carry out tasks and approach problems. "The knowing is in the action. It really is revealed by the skilful execution of the performance - we are characteristically unable to make it verbally explicit. " This tacit knowledge is derived from research, and also from the practitioner's own reflections and experience.
Reflection-in-action: reflection that occurs whilst issues is being resolved, in what Schon calling the 'action-present'. It really is a response to a shock - where the expected result is beyond our knowing-in-action. The reflective process reaches least to some degree conscious, but might not be verbalised. Reflection-in-action is about challenging our assumptions (because knowing-in-action sorts the foundation of assumption). It really is about considering again, in a new way, about a problem we've encountered.
Reflection-on-action: reflection following the event. Consciously undertaken, and often recorded.
Willing suspension of disbelief: explains the procedure of entering into an event, without judgment, in order to learn from it. Sch¶n uses the term with regards to the thought of learning by doing. One cannot will oneself to 'consider' until one understands. But understanding often will only happen from experience. So it is necessary first to permit the experience to occur.
Operative attention: tuning in and absorbing information, in a state of readiness to apply and experiment with the new information. An everyday example would be when we listen to guidelines about how to find an obscure address. This participation is important in the learning process - a learner needs to be already engaged in activity for more info to have meaning. Therefore is partly derived from Wittgenstein's5 contention that this is of an operation can only just be learned through its performance. Hence mechanical or imperfect performance of an activity prepares the learner for new information (opinions) on that activity, in order to develop understanding.
The ladder of representation: Sch¶n speaks of a vertical dimensions of evaluation that can happen in the dialogue between learner and instructor. To go up a rung on the ladder will involve reflecting on a task. To go down a rung is to go from representation to experimentation. This ladder has more than two rungs - additionally it is possible to think about the procedure of reflection. The need for this concept is in its prospect of supporting out with 'trapped' situations in learning. Being able to move to another level may assist instructor and learner to attain collectively what Sch¶n identifies as 'convergence of interpretation'.
Professional reflective practice is an elaborate and challenging activity. It takes time, dedication and support, ongoing professional development and guidance to mature. It should leads to new action and a confirmation of existing actions.
Reflective practice must be more than simply thoughtful practice, it needs to be always a continual process of turning practice into educational opportunities.
Also very helpful in expressing an approach to reflective practice is Kolb's experiential learning theory. Kolb (1984), a innovator in the modern experiential education motion, described experiential learning as "the procedure whereby knowledge is established through the change of experience" (p. 38). His model of experiential learning was based on the works of developmental theorists John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, and Jean Piaget. Ultimately there is a learning circuit or spiral where in fact the learner handed through a four level learning cycle: first a routine of experiencing, then of reflecting, thirdly thinking, and finally behaving. Immediate or concrete activities lead to observations and reflections. These reflections are then assimilated (assimilated and translated) into abstract concepts with implications to use it, which the person can positively test and try out, which in turn enable the creation of new experience.
As learners continue steadily to have new concrete experiences, by reflecting and thinking about them, we can plan, test hypotheses, and also have a positive impact on new activities.
Kolb's learning group (experience, representation, making sense, then planning action) is a functional tool to help students learn (Wright, 202). (a) concrete experience, (b) reflective observation, (c) abstract conceptualization, and (d) working experimentation.
The process of experiential education and learning begins with the concrete experience itself (e. g. , engaging as a member in a small group) and proceeds with intentional and led reflection on or debriefing of that experience. Abstract conceptualization presents both integration of learning encounters and the generation of new ideas. This may include figuring out and understanding the monopolizing behavior on the part of a group member and brainstorming ways to handle it in the next group treatment. Through energetic experimentation, these new ideas can be examined and explored.
the process of representation is one of the required levels of learning (Kolb 1984; Bennett-Levy 2006) and therefore
Part of scientific wisdom is representation on practice. Supervision supplies the reflective space where to consider the difficulties and particulars of counselling, in a supportive relationship. Supervision provides the opportunity to develop skills and
understanding, and an avenue for checking different methods to controlling and conceptualising customer problems.
Supervision can provided the reflective space to help the supervisee learn about their own thoughts and thoughts, and the result of personal on clients.
As a newbie counsellor, there a variety of excellent refection strategies to assist in personal and professional progress and development, to help improve counselling skills, also to prevent burn up and being confused by problems and concerns of clients.
Appropriate and effective guidance (as well as group and peer guidance), journalling, responses from clients and supervisors, methods of client improvement, and prolonged education.
Padesky (1996: 273-4) wrote: 'The art work and skill of therapy are best developed in a therapist who consistently analyses and learns from both positive and negative client responses and outcome. '
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