There are several types of reflection. As stated by Taylor, All types of reflection are important and a mixture of these enable you to make sense of practise and also to bring changes. Complex Reflection is generally used to check out clinical methods and procedures along with the scientific knowledge. However, prices play no part in this. Practical Reflection on the other hands judges human experience and assumptions. It also develops common prices in-line with organizational principles. Emancipatory (Critical) Representation entails critiques of the assumptions on which our social, political and cultural beliefs are established with the prospect of changing them.
Reflective Practice is concept developed by Donald Schon. There's also several types of reflection used to draw lessons out of encounters. In 1978 Argyris and Schon set up the thought of solitary loop and dual loop learning. Within the former concept the business or the individual follows the existing techniques or strategies even after corrections are made to the current errors. However, the overdue concept involves modification of techniques and strategies. Later in 1984 Schon coined the concepts of Reflection - in - Action (RIA) and Reflection - on - Action (ROA). RIA is an idea when the specialist is faced with an issue he makes a decision predicated on his sense and prior experiences. On the other hand, Reflection - on - Action is an idea where in fact the practitioner analyzes the experience after it is over. Personally, I've experienced both ideas during several situations in life knowingly or unknowingly. Specially, during our ALE1, we were given an opportunity to think about our performance after every activity. This depicted our practical implementation of Reflection - on - Action. By utilizing the training from previous activity in the later process we have also exercised the concept of Reflection - in - Action. To say an example, in the first process we received a sheet of instructions that have been challenging. However, we went to perform the task without analysing the guidelines and we failed to finish the duty within the given time. After the reflection session, whenever we went on to execute the second process, we made it a point to learn and understand the rules carefully.
Kolb's Experiential Learning Routine is another great contribution to this concept. This learning pattern has four stages (Cement Experience, Reflective, Abstract Conceptualization and Dynamic Experimentation Observation) and the representation takes place following the situation has occurred. In the first level the practitioner concentrates on something they have done and later reflects and explores the new suggestions to better perform the duty. In the 3rd stage he sorts new ideas and experiments them in the fourth stage. This loop is persisted from one activity to some other.
is another process where the specialist not only identifies the situation but analyses it. Unlike the other models it also has an action plan level where in fact the reflector mentions the actions that he'd prefer to change if the same situation occurs.
Jhon's model of Reflection on the other side involves posting the experiences with a colleague. It has two levels 'Looking in' on ones thoughts and emotions and 'Looking Away' at the situation experienced.
Initially, when we were given learning logs for our ALE, I didn't know the value and advantages of it unless we began writing the reflective log after every process. After learning that this is among the best and easy ways to change oneself, I've stated using the reflective writing tool each and every time I wanted to develop just how I work and think.
During our ALE we've used several tools to raised understand ourselves. During our opinions program, we were asked to utilize Johari Window to learn our intern-personal human relationships and communication. Though I had been happy about the adjectives talked about in the general public time, the adjectives mentioned in the Blind Places section were quite unusual if you ask me. The blind locations for me personally were 'complex' and 'pleased'. WHENEVER I tried to get the reasons from my colleagues for the same, I was advised that though I am a friendly, work-oriented person, I sometimes get too much into depth in a group task or assignment and it's problematic for them to understand me. This may be because though I am clear about this issue, I sometimes find it hard to explain which confuses the other folks. Also, the responses I generally get from the majority of individuals after couple of days of being with me at night is the fact that "I thought that you are a very proud person when I initially attained you". The reason behind this is, when I meet new people or enter into a fresh environment, I take the time to get acquainted and unless I know them, I don't start a dialogue with people. Though this understanding of them changes at a later stage, it gives a poor vibe to people in the initial stage.
Also, relating to Belbin Self-Perception Inventory, the team functions I've similarity towards are 'completer' and 'specialist'. These two roles echo my working style rightly. I usually try to learn more and focus on the subject section of my interest. Also, because I am proficient at analysing and pay a good attention to details, I am always given the duty of doing the last minute polishing and editing inside our group projects. However, there are also negative sides to these team functions that i am aware of and are part of my development plan. As a 'specialist' though I learn in-depth about the subject of my interest, I disregard other subjects that i am not thinking about. Also, the blind location 'organic' that I've mentioned before can be related to the weakness of the completer. As being a completer thought I try to obtain the every aspect of the report right, I sometimes take the perfectionism to the extremes.
According to Honey and Mumford's Learning Styles, I am a Reflector. As a reflector I love to learn from activities that i want to think, watch and review. However, I find is difficult to focus on a lecture unless I find it interesting. This can be associated with my weakness as a Specialist.
According to the MBTI my personality type is ISFP (Introversion, Sensing, Being, and Perceiving). This demonstrates I am a people's person who is friendly and dislike conflicts. But, I love to have my own space. The MBTI and IDAP grid show me on folks Caring area of the grid. That is little contradicting. Though I am comfortable working in a team, I favor to work on my very own. I find it hard to convey a message as Personally i think that contradicting with others views may create problems professionally. Within the self-development, I'd like to develop an art to converse a message in a soft way and would like to figure out how to maintain a specialist relationship with other folks in team as almost all of the work in group is team based. Also, wish to develop my networking skills.
According to Reynolds Reflection "is a management tool for problem resolving". Also, the next quote depicts the importance of management in an organization.
"Make your top managers rich and they will make you high".
Robert H. Johnson
A question that lots of people ask is excatly why we ought to we examine management ideas?
Personal traits, principles, beliefs and attitudes are the main personal competencies which may enhance or weaken one's capability to manage others. Also, it's the behaviour and expertise of the individual that has major influence on the performance of the company. Hence, an understanding of managerial theories is very helpful for someone who aspires to be a manager as most rational decisions are based on theories. An considerable review of the ideas available is also very useful for a manager in order to better take care of their team as ideas provide info about how to act and help change the behavior. Theories also provide a common framework and idea about techniques. Over a time period the goal of work and the way the work is conducted is changing in the organization. The management styles have to be changed accordingly.
Minor says that "the more that is well known about organization and their ways of operation, the better the chances of dealing effectively with them. Understanding may be more advanced than prediction, but both provide the opportunity to affect or to deal with the near future. Theory provides a sound basis for action".
Hence, an understanding of management ideas and knowledge about organization are important for a administrator to raised perform their tasks.
Mullin in his publication, Management and Organisational Behavior has followed a body work of four main approaches to make clear the Management Theory.
The Classical Methodology which emphasises on the reason and formal hierarchy of management. The traditional writers concentrated on improving the functional efficient within an company. Brench, a classical article writer also provided a thought of practical approach to organization structure predicated on tried general rules as opposed to the focus on specific conditions.
Evaluation: The traditional authors are criticised for not taking the personality factors into consideration and for creating an company structure in which people exercise a restricted control. Also, providing a set of principles to perform management obligations has been put through criticism.
Scientific Management: This concept originated by Taylor who was a believer in the Rational-economic needs concept of determination. The emphasis of this was on obtaining increased production from individual staff through the complex structuring of the task and providing monetary incentives as a motivator for higher degrees of output. Though this concept has given ways to management thinking and the introduction of organizational behavior, it was widely criticised by personnel.
Bureaucracy: This idea was identified by Weber. He didn't define the idea of Bureaucracy. However, he attemptedto identify the characteristics of the type of organizations. He emphasised on the importance of administration based on expertise and self-control. In this concept, the duties of the organization are allocated as formal duties among the many positions. There can be an implied clear slash department of labour and a higher level of specialization.
Evaluation: Over-emphasis on guidelines and methods becomes more important in its own right than as a means to the finish. Argyris says that bureaucracies limit the psychological growth of the average person and cause sense of failure. The progress of bureaucracy has evolved through the increasing size and complexity of organisations and associated demand for effective supervision. This theory is founded on a formal, obviously identified and hierarchical framework. However, with swift changes in the external environment, empowerment and better attention to get together the needs of customers, there is an increasing need to organise for versatility.
While the key emphasis of traditional authors was on structure and formal organisation, the emphasis was shifted to communal factors at the job and the behaviour of employees at work i. e. human being relations during the 1920s. The turning point in the introduction of the human relations movement came with the famous Hawthorne experiment at the European Electric Company in the us. During the experiment a better work place and a problem for workers' complaints has increased the productivity.
Evaluation: This theory was also subjected to severe criticism. Among the criticisms is having less scientific methodology. The Hawthorne test was criticised on strategy and on failing of the researchers to take sufficient profile of environmental factors.
After all the criticisms, the experiment have generate new ideas related to the value of work groups and leadership, marketing communications, output restrictions, inspiration and job design.
Systems Approach: With this theory attention has been centered on the business as systems with a number of interrelated sub-systems. This approach tries to bring together both classical and human strategies. Attention is targeted on the total work group; inter relationships of composition and selection of variables within the organization. This stimulates the managers to see the business as independent parts and as a whole company within the large environment.
The Contingency Procedure: As opposed to both classical and human relations approach, this process showed renewed concern with the importance of framework as a substantial affect on organizational performance. The Contingency Way that can be seen as the extension of system approach highlights possible means of differentiating among alternative kinds of organizational set ups and systems of management.
This approach means that organisation theory should not seek to suggest one easiest way to structure or take care of organisations but should provide insights in to the situational and contextual factors which effect the management decisions.
DUCAMUS Command Development - was setup by Chris Rigby in June 2007 to plug gaps discovered in many authority development programmes during his research. Within this Leadership Treatment, they use Downstream 9+1 model to support the critical representation skills.
John adair's action-centred authority model
Generally represented by three overlapping cycles, Adair's three group model is approximately balancing and managing Team, Task and Specific. Three core tasks in this model are: Achieving the task, Taking care of the team and Taking care of individuals. It can help to enhance the quality of work, morale and production.
Theory U is another change management method concentrating on leadership as process of internal knowing and sociable innovation produced by Otto Scharmer and at first based on a process known as the U-Process. It provides both theoretical point of view and Practical technology. As the theoretical view, it shows that how we focus on a situation decides how a situation unfolds. Basically, it provides a set of principles and procedures for collectively creating the future that desires to emerge. It includes sensing and occurrence. You will discover seven periods in this theory and they are Suspending, Redirecting, Allowing Go, Allowing Come, Crystallizing, Prototyping and Institutionalizing.
Moving down the left-hand side of the U is about opening up and coping with the resistance of thought, feelings, and will; moving up the right-hand side is approximately intentionally reintegrating the cleverness of the head, the center, and the submit the framework of functional applications.
An knowledge of these theories not only helped me understand how the management theory is made and transformed over a period of time, it also helped me understand the consequences of the changes on organizational working styles. Also, an understanding what happened in the past prepares me for changes that might occur in the foreseeable future. It also provided me an idea about the skills that I need to develop to better control others. I lack skills like imagination and inter-personal performance which are extremely important to control others.
Career Development Model
Career management involves the matching of individual career programs with firm needs and the implementation of activities to perform these joint aims.
Individual Job Development is another constructive model that helps in planning the career through self-analysis. It has several periods such as Life Planning, Career Interests, Goal Planning and Development of talents and skills. Though I usually realized which field I wish to get into and what I want to do in future, I never really had a logical reason for my selection. This tool has helped me to analyze my interests, talents and weaknesses and opt for career arrange for myself.
This development plan contains several questionnaires about my Profession Planning Principles, My pursuits, skills, knowledge and important Grid to prioritize my selections. After analyzing my inputs, I have decided a career of my interest. I usually aspired to be a HR practitioner. After analysing my skills, I came to the realization that I love Strategic Orientation and Team Orientation skills that must be considered a HR Practitioner. I am going to refer to a development plan at a later stage combined with the action plan that I am going to follow these skills.
In a team environment, I can also utilize this model to learn more about my team members career alternatives.
* A better understanding of myself
* Knowledge of several tools to know myself and people around me
* A straightforward but effective Profession Planning Model that I could use to know me and folks around me
Skill | Action Plan |
Effective communication | I have already started out a lot articles about effective communication skills and started out self practicing once i am along. However, in future I'l make an effort to speak in public areas whenever I get a chance. |
Adaptability | I am going to make an effort to be little available and go introduce myself to other folks without thinking about what they could think as that is the thought that puts a stop to me from talking with strangers. |
Inter-personal effectiveness | I have already advanced a lot upon this skill. However, I am not perfect yet. In future I am likely to take advice from tutors about how to build up this skill as it is vital for me in my own desired job. |
Team Orientation | Though I favor to work exclusively, these days I have started participating actively in the team activities and have already received positive opinions a comparable from my friends. However, I am still putting in efforts to raised perform. |
Strategic Orientation | I am using the technique of writing an idea over a sheet of paper and think of several ways of about it to develop my strategic skills. However, I am not being quite successful upon this activity. However, my attempts are still to develop this skill |
Creativity | This is one skill I lack completely. I could think logically and make appropriate decisions. However, lack of creativity continues to be my negative and I am quite not sure about expanding this skill. |
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