The reason for this study programme is to ascertain if students from the elementary level of Hin Hua High School (Chinese Independent College) upgraded in their ability to create in British after having examined specifically developed curriculum. The 7-hour remedial programme is usually to be conducted after the academic department releases the final evaluation levels. Fifteen students with the lowest score were selected using the criterion solution to experience the remedial programme. the importance of most six major
aspects of writing assessed in the English Test which comprises mainly punctuation, grammar and use, syntax, strategy, corporation, and style. It really is believed by going to the remedial programme selected students can show the ability to make and articulate judgments by taking position on an issue or problem. Besides sustaining a position by focusing on this issue throughout the writing. They can be alson expected to develop a position by showing support or data using specific details and make inferences based on support or evidence. Most importantly, they should be able to coordinate and present ideas in a reasonable way by logically grouping and sequencing ideas. Hence communicate clearly by using terminology effectively and by observing the conventions of standard written English
As a terminology professor, I often choose writing duties from language books to help students improve their writing potential. Behaviorists, communicative, cognitive, and discourse ideas could effect writing methods in language books. Each theoretical platform has provided us with an improved knowledge of the multiple dimensions and purposes of instructing writing. An assessment of the improvements on paper pedagogy leads us to conclude that people could train writing as a means to improve linguistic, rhetorical and communicative competence or as a finding and cognitive process. The writing tasks that we select from language books and assign to students could reveal one or some of these pedagogical purposes. As professors, we need to question and understand the pedagogical assumptions of textbook writing duties so that we can select duties that will assist our students become self-confident writers and indie thinkers.
Primary students entering the secondary university level (high School) are challenged not and then learn new content in the disciplines but also to communicate this. A significant variety of students will not have adequate academics literacy levels to be able to do this efficiently (Jones and Bonanno, 1995 (1). Atlhough customarily students were expected to develop educational literacy skills without the explicit teaching of the skills, institutions now identify the increasingly diverse backgrounds of the student populations and also have put in place mechanisms for assisting students develop their academics literacy. These have included the establishment of literacy and learning items as well as the requirement for college curricula to address the coaching of writing skills including communication skills.
English Learning Centre of Hin Hua SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL Klang, like other literacy and learning systems, has been involved in a number of collaborative jobs with teachers involved in teaching Junior Someone to integrate the teaching of communication skills in to the curriculum (Webb et al, 1995, Taylor and Drury, 1996). These initiatives have led to the development of new teaching materials and solutions as well as new practices of analysis and feedback. However, as subject area curricula are being adapted to computer-based kinds of learning, additionally it is necessary to consider the way the coaching of communication skills can be built-into these programs or how the teaching of communication skills can be contextualized within the training of subject matter area knowledge. With the existing demand for propheciuency in British Language great importance has been directed at growing programs to instill good writing settings to the primary learners which aspires to help students become successful editors of their own writing.
1. 1 Books REVIEW
Writing skills have been determined as to improve students' thinking. Moffett and a few others are suffering from cognitively sequenced curricula for primary and extra writing, college composition, when it is sequenced by any means, tends to rely on structural or rhetorical arrangements, which can be neither sequential nor cumulative. Progressions from expression to word to paragraph to theme mistake quantitative with qualitative expansion, while rhetorical sequences confront students with cognitive problems of different but equal complexity. In short, from a cognitive point of view, most writing instructions in advanced schooling is consistent start in extra education: what Stephen Judy described as "Advanced Hodgepodge" in high school provides way to "Arrogant Hodgepodge" in college.
A large and growing body of research, however, implies that cognitive development comes after a hierarchical series of stages and suggests that a curriculum can be sequentially prepared to promote cognitive development.
Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Goals provides some essential contacts between your cognitive capabilities we expect of college students and a curriculum that can induce those skills Bloom's Taxonomy is one way to the cognitive hodgepodge of the writing curriculum. It allows us to sequence teaching and assignments in ways that speak right to students' developmental needs.
From least to many organic, For writing teaching the taxonomy offers a flexible style of what happens cognitively in the training process Bloom described a six stage collection: Knowledge, Understanding, Application, Research, Synthesis, and Analysis. (See Physique 1)
Figure 1. 0 The stream chart of Bloom's Taxonomy
At each new level, thought functions build on and encompass prior levels. Implicit in this framework is the assumption of an ascending scale of difficulty and comprehensiveness. Thinking at the understanding level is more demanding than at the data level; cognitive problems necessitating synthesis or evaluation encompass all the preceding levels.
A review of Bloom's definitions for each taxonomic level advises what such a cognitively-based writing course might entail. Although the focus of each level is cognitive, rhetorical issues of audience and purpose are similarly appropriate and can be specified for any project.
Most of all, the taxonomy allows us to contemplate the worthiness and feasibility of your cognition-based curriculum on paper. Such a curriculum would reflect the hierarchical relations of the various thought procedures and would help to control for cognitive complexity in writing and thinking about distorting natural discourse. On this form, writing or writing-intensive courses would systematically develop students' thinking skills alternatively than leaving those to chance or, worse, blunting the writer's still-developing capability to explore and express ideas. In short, a cognition-based curriculum means that students participate completely in using writing as a function of learning.
2. 0 INTENDED PURPOSE
The remedial programme is targeted for the primary learners who are in the process of improving their writing skills to the pre -intermediate level. A total of 15 students are decided on from this band of 13 yrs. old based on the final semester examination results. The assessment basically structured in accordance to the textbook presently used in the school curriculum, New Opportunities (Pearson Longman-Cambridge). Simply the (Stiggins to highlight achievement dissimilarities between and among students to produce a, 1994). University systems might want to classify students in this manner so that they can be enhance their competency level even further. The major reason for by using a norm-referenced test (NRT) is to classify students. NRTs were created on dependable list order of students across a continuum of achievements from high achievers to low achievers be properly placed in remedial or gifted programs. These kinds of exams are also used to help educators choose students for different capability level reading or mathematics instructional groups. As the preferred students fall under the substandard group in Paper 1(Writing Evaluation) whereby there are two parts that the needed to complete here: SECTION A Records Enlargement and SECTION B Constant Writing (Choose one matter out of five given) From your academic analysis it was discovered that bulk students failed in Section B where it contains 25% of the full total markings of 40% of the Writing newspaper. Thus they are required to sign up for a 7 hour remedial programme to improve their writing skills by at least 85%.
3. 0 PURPOSE OF REMEDIAL WRITING PROGRAMME
The known reasons for the remedial program to be initiated is to raised the learners in their writing skills and fortify it in order that they have all capabilities to be marketed to another level but credited to certain minute factors they fail to abide by the benchmarks of the pre-intermediate level. Thus these students are carefully selected using the criterion solution to go through the 7 hour remedial programme.
In order to drill and motivate these students in the remedial programme an enriching lessons plan is developed to make a positive outcome at the end of the the 7 hour remedial programme. The purposes for emphasizing writing skills are to produce who can comprehend coaching and learning in a good mental attributes. There is a wide body of research recommending that assessing students' written performance is a very important undertaking. Not merely is an trainer in a position to help a student's progress, but also the trainer can facilitate the learning process and the learning outcomes by being aware of university student performance throughout the academics session.
Figure 2. 0: The Purpose for Coaching Writing
Undeniably, 3R skills are important and necessary in everyday living. They are also needed to support the development of a knowledge-based economy.
Recognizing these needs, the school has initiated and implemented programmes to recognize students who have not perfected the 3Rs. These programmes are designed to specifically address and overcome the shortcoming of students to understand the 3Rs. This is based on the essentialism which instills students with educational knowledge and personality development.
Among the programmes which have been executed in schools are the Early Intervention Reading and Writing Category, Basic Skills for Reading, Writing and Counting Programme and the Literacy and Numeracy Program at Level One.
3. 1 Sub-skills of Writing
I Manipulating the script of the words: handwriting, spelling and punctuation.
II Expressing grammatical [syntactic and morphological] associations at the word level
IV Enrichment of Vocabulary
4. 0 Goals of the 7-hour remedial programme
to develop competencies in writing skills among learners
to move from a teacher-centered didactic model to a student-centered constructivist model
to acquire the ability to write in a more clear, concise and appropriate manner
5. 0 Instructional Design : While using the ADDIE Model to Build Writing Competency Among Remedial Learners
Table 2. 0 ADDIE's Model
5. 1 Framework
The common term for the five-phase instructional design model comprising Analysis, Design, Development, Execution, and Analysis. Each step has an final result that feeds in to the next thing in the series. There are probably over 100+ different variants of the common ADDIE model. Instructional design aim for a learner -focused rather than traditional teacher-centered approach to training, so that effective learning may take place. This means that every component of the instruction is governed by the learning outcomes, which have been determined after an intensive research of the learners' needs.
This stages sometimes overlap and can be interrelated; nonetheless they provide a powerful, flexible guideline for developing effective and useful instruction.
Figure 3. 0 Instructional Design: Making use of the ADDIE Model
5. 2 ADDIE'S Theory
The ADDIE instructions model because of this desin is discussed by Smith and Ragan(1995) in their book entitiled Instructional design. The emphasis is n 5 tips Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. Out of this theory the evaluation has proved that there was a need to conduct remedial program for the primary low scorers where an opportunty was given to learn and develop basic article writing skills.
6. 0 Remedial Education Programme
In Malaysia, the value of remedial education gained attention in the 1960s. Results of the pilot job in nine universities between 1967 and 1970 confirmed a dependence on remedial education, specifically for pupils in rural areas. This paved the way for remedial education programs in primary academic institutions. The pioneers in the field went to a two-year extensive course on remedial education in britain. Subsequently, a countrywide series of workshops and workshops on remedial teaching were organized. Apart from small academic institutions or under-enrolled academic institutions, every university is allocated one remedial education tutor. At the school level, a Remedial Education Committee is created, composed of the headmaster, remedial education instructor, class teacher, subject matter teacher, resource centre coordinator, and other educators as members.
The benefits of a fresh curriculum for major schools in 1983 implied a return to the fundamentals in education. The ultimate goal was to ensure that no pupil is illiterate by the
year 2000. The implementation of the remedial education program for children in
Primary 1-3 is to ensure that they get good at the 3Rs. Children who've been advised for remedial education must enroll in remedial classes. By 1999, 54, 000 major university children have undergone the intervention programme.
In addition to improving and enhancing educator development, the Malaysian government also works towards enhancing the curriculum at school to meet up with the changing needs of the overall economy. During the Fourth Malaysia Plan, the primary institution curriculum was modified with the aim of providing and building a company education in reading, writing, and arithmetic. This resulted in the introduction of a new curriculum emphasizing the 3Rs. Studies taking a look at the comes back to education in Malaysia have found positive results in those people who have had some type of formal education, in doing so providing support to the government guidelines on the principal curriculum which stresses the acquisition of basic skills. Education in Malaysia, changing very swiftly giving an answer to the emerging concentration of lifelong learning; the growing focus on learning; instead of reaching and the introduction of the new delivery systems
6. 1 The Educational, Philosophical and Psychological foundation
inculcation of spiritual and civic values and the development of a good resident predicated on an abiding beliefs in God and genuine love of country;
training of the young citizen in his protection under the law, duties and obligations in a democratic modern culture for active participation, in a intensifying and beneficial home and community life;
development of basic understanding about Malaysian culture, the attractive tradition and virtues of your people as essential requisites in attaining national awareness and solidarity;
teaching of basic health knowledge and the formation of desirable health behaviors and methods;
development of functional literacy in British as basic tools for further learning; and
acquisition of important knowledge, attitudes, practices, and skills in science, civics, culture, history, geography, mathematics, arts, and home economics and livelihood education and their sensible application in appropriate life situations.
The Elementary Basic Education Curriculum focuses on the tool learning areas for an sufficient development of competencies for learning how to learn.
The goal of Instructional design is to aid the cognitive processes that bring about learning (McGriff). The expected end result of instructional design is to provide knowledge and skills to people. The three major learning theories are Constructivism, Behaviorism, and Cognitive. Instructional Design is dependant on constructivist rules. Instructional design is associated with instructional systems development (Leshin et al, 1992). An Instructional System is the "arrangement of resources and methods to promote learning" (Berger and Kam).
6. 2 Programme Design: ADDIE Model
ADDIE is a general-purpose model, which can be used to generate instructional products and program design. ADDIE is the acronym for Analyze, Design, Develop, Put into practice and Evaluate and summarizes the five steps in the Instructional Design process. The instructional designer makes decisions critical to making sure the potency of the educational experience in each period of the procedure. In accordance with the process improvement model, the five phases are a "loop, " with the improvement of learning outcomes as the target.
Dick and Carey and Kemp (Kemp, et. al, 1998) extended the ADDIE Model into nine elements. The Dick and Carey Model uses a Reductionist strategy in breaking education down into smaller segments concentrating on sub skills. The learner is required to get good at of sub skills, which are aggregated to accomplish overall skill mastery and discovered behavior. It provides a systematic approach to curriculum and program design.
Teaching is actually a philosophical endeavor and for that reason educational activity can be conceived within the context of a school of thought or worldview. The curricukum refelects the art work and craft of coaching. Educational technology can provide diversity of pondering regarding curriculum and education which would be curriculum theorizing.
6. 2. 1 Analysis
Basically the type of the students whom the remedial program to be conducted are students who learn English Language as another language. They can be originally from Chinese speaking people with the very least exposure to British Language. Due to the expectation of the institution and the educational needs in adhering British among the core subjects in university these students are required to have comprehensive knowledge and skill in it. Most of them have been informed in the Chinese language primary institution education system.
Based on the final semester exam results 15 students are chosen to endure remedial program as they show up in the boundary line situations. The students acquire poor writing skills, while having the ability to construct sentences pretty well, they seem to possess great difficulty in organizing and expanding their ideas in to the form of any essay that comes with an introduction, body and summary.
In order to promote these students to the next level this is the pre-intermediate phase from their origin elementary level the British Language Office found it vital to allow them to sign up for a 7-hour remedial program in order to find solution to the situation. All of them need to help expand develop their writing skills in term of cohesion and coherence; time and practice.
6. 2. 2 Design
The main design goal for our programme would be on the cognitive strategies of being in a position to develop a concept for writing since all of them com e from an extremely similar background and also have basic sentence writing skills. Aside from the development of language in the mechanics of sentence construction such as syntax, sentence structure, composition, etc given top priority.
R. Gagne(1965) divided learning into 5 categories: Verbal or declarative knowledge, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, attitudes and psychomotor skills. The training goals are also in link with these categories to try to put educational value behind our goals. At the same time the goal also reflects competences outlines by Benjamin Bloom (Bloom, 1956). These include: Knowledge, Conprehension, Software, Analysis, Synthesis an assessment. These give our goals validity whereby competencies are incorporated in bringing about concrete task for learners that people assign in order to achieve their goals. Hence in the analysis phase, we can use this aspect to learn the validity and the accomplishment of the learners in utilizing the programme.
Learning Goals and Type of Learning
Learners will identify an article subject matter and 3 sub-topics
Criteria founded by Hin Hua SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, English Words Department
Learners will be able to write a 3 paragraph essay with an launch, 2 sub matters to add their opinions, ideas and conclusion
Criteria established by Hin Hua SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, English Language Department
Learners can use the library and Handouts to research printed information on their topics
Criteria proven by Hin Hua SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, English Words Department
Procedural knowledge (declaration knowledge)
Learners can use proper technicians of sentence structure syntax
Criteria proven by Hin Hua High School, English Terminology Department
Learners will be able to present their issues in class
Criteria set up by Hin Hua High School, English Dialect Department
Table 3. 0 Learning Goals and Kind of Learning
6. 2. 3 Development
In order to determine a approachable remedial programme for the elementary learners, we British teachers have developed a remedial programme which will undertake a 7 hour learning process. The educators from the same level have brainstormed and think of a course content for the 7-hour teaching and learning program.
The teachers from the same teaching level are the best person to create the lesson as they deal with the same competency degree of students on a regular basis and are believed experts in their area. Besides this, they'll be able to make he printed and computer materials and added step to getting the right content for the particular level. In addition since they have been completely teaching in the same scope so they'll be undoubtedly familiar in the process of coaching and guiding the learners to make the remedial programme a success.
6. 2. 3. (1) Procedure
The remedial programme would be in the British medium since the primary objective is to boost writing skills among primary learners.
The programme contains 6 regular consultations and followed by a review and a test day. Each hour is planned to be conducted for 60 minutes
***Details overall programme given on Part D
6. 2. 4 Implementation
Further to the development to the development the teachers would be prepared with intact course content for he programme. The component would prepare yourself in balance with enough time body allotted for the programme. Any teacher who is selected because of this task should be ready to undertake the teaching process predicated on the scheme that has been prepared.
Table 4. 0 Learning Process Implementation
6. 2. 5 Evaluation
The evaluation stage consists of two parts: formative and summative. Formative analysis is present in each stage of the ADDIE process. Summative analysis consists of checks designed for area specific criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for opinions from the users.
Primarily the evaluation is done in two parts. The first phase would be the evaluation of college student work based on the aims in the "Learning goals and kind of learning" in the above list. Students will be scored by their educator based on the A, B, C, F standards established by the English Section. An A is excellent work, B is average, and C will mean learner needs improvement. An F would mean that pupil failed the writing examination with below 60% of tag. Students will be assessed at each stage of the course. The team use this evaluation to be able to learn how they might need to change the programme in the future.
A summative evaluation will be conducted as outlined by Smith and Ragan(1999, p. 352). Those authors explain that in order to judge the effectiveness, appeal, and efficiency of teaching, a collection, evaluation and synopsis of data on students ia essential.
Student able to choose a subject n sub-topics
Student able to use handouts information
Student in a position to complete the essay
Score dated from 1 to 5
1 : poor
2 : Able to understand the writing theory with some guidance
3 : In a position to complete the duty with help and support
4 : Able to understand the concept and complete the duty individually
A pre-test and post-test can assess how well learners achieved the
learning objectives. However, it usually takes additional time and work to measure
things such as whether the learners will use their training. This analysis phase
can extend for a few months.
Were you satisfied with the content of this course?
Were you able to understand the teacher's justification?
Were you able to apply elements that you learned?
Did you fond the course interesting?
On a range of 1 1 to 5, what is your general sense about the course?
7. 0 REVIEWER'S COMMENTS
Below is the summation of the opinions received from two of the Senior Teachers from the British Language Team of Hin Hua SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL regarding the 7hour remedial programme on writing skills.
Reviewer 1: Mdm Annaletchumy Reviewer 2: Ms Sastina
The talents and weaknesses of the newly developed Remedial Program for Elementary Students
1. Learning by positively participating in group discussion
2. Pushing students to create their own ideas and understanding of the topic
3. Student-centered somewhat than teacher or subject-centered
4. Teaching aid contributed to student's visualization on this issue given
5. Appropriate to student's development level
6. Group work permits students to self - exhibit, to be self-confident and self-
7. Encourage tutor to develop student's creative thinking abilities
8. Emphasizing the idea of group work and peer evaluation where no student
Is remaining behind
9. Encouraging the co-operation among students and instructor positively
10. Enables university student to truly have a positive attitude in creative writing
1. Unsuitability of activities for packed room
2. Insufficient materials used as aid for pre-writing task
3. Lack of teacher's analysis on the first stage of writing
4. Certain activity may take additional time than the organized time
5. Peer evaluation on writing unacceptable approach for elementary learners
8. 0 Overview of Review
8. 1 Strengths
8. 1. 1 Advanced students attitude and motivation
Students are psychologically prepared to participate in the program because students consent to a particular tempo, workload, and learning environment right from the start.
Classes function as teach areas both professor and their students advantage - in both interpersonal and academics areas - from working with each other on the entire programme.
The idea group work and peer evaluation removed the stigma of being too dependent on the tutor Writing materials.
8. 2 Weaknesses
8. 2. 1 Students participation
Some learners will not contribute in because of the insufficient interest or proficiency
8. 2. 2 Stipulated Time
The period allotted may not be sufficient for certain task. Thus this will
delay or sometimes interrupt the complete programme composition.
8. 2. 3 Really in peer marking
Some learners won't adhere by the rules occur peer marking as it pertains to
assessment. Favoritisms and home -centered will influence the observation
9. 0 Conclusion
It is expected that by participating this style of English remedial instruction it will be good for low British achievers. Students will gain substantially in sentence structure and vocabulary and they will also steadily improve in their overall English competence. Predicated on the remarks from the reviewers it could be concluded that learners will be effectively enhance their British writing skills through the well prepared course module for the remedial programme. A well-designed course will definitely give them encouragement and support to elevate their English proficiency and be well prepared for the next level, pre=intermediate.
10. 0 PART D
7 HOUR LESSON PLAN REMEDIAL PROGRAMME - British LANGUAGE
LEVEL: ELEMENTARY Size:420m LESSON TYPE: WRITING SKILLS
Aim: by the end of my lesson, students can write a full-length article on Endangered Species and improve their procedure of writing strategies.
Subsidiary target: students will be able to improve their use of linking words in controlled and less managed writing activities on Endangered Species
Evidence: (How will I know I have achieved desire to?)
Students will be able to complete gist and short writing strategy duties: Quizzes, Test
Students can complete their group display and write a complete length article on Endangered Types.
Course Content made by Elementary teachers from the English Department of Hin Hua SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, Klang.
1. New Opportunities Students Publication (Component 7- Endangered Kinds)
2. Multi-media devices
3. Cultural awareness
Context: Endangered Species
(e. g. Subject, the Dialect, Management, Activities, Learning, Styles)
1. Students haven't any knowledge of Endangered Species
Encourage them to check out the photos
2. Students are not able to make connection with the topic
Encourage them to work in groups
3. Students find writing within enough time framework very demanding
Set and keep rigorous time limits
4. Students might not understand the right vocabulary consumption for the task
Pre-teach the vocabulary before students do the tasks
5. Students may well not produce much about Endangered Species
Get them to work in teams and share ideas.
1. Some students have knowledge of Endangered Species and also have read about them
2. Students have knowledge of the extinction of pets or animals.
3. Some students have had visibility through the press and internet on the Endangered Kinds development.
4. Students have sufficient vocabulary to start the writing.
5. Students understand and use some linking words and series connectors trained.
Teacher sticks up various sorts of pet pictures on the whiteboard and asks students to produce a guesses on family pets of endangered kinds.
T discusses the pictures and T monitors activity.
T gets responses on activity and creates a few guesses on WB
To warm-up the class and also to set up a game- like atmosphere
To explore throughout the category, to be presented to this issue of endangered species, gradually
To exchange views because of their choices with reasons given
T - S
S - S
T - S
S - S
After opinions, T gives a demonstration on several species of endangered pets or animals and their personas and living habits using PPT
(Giant Pandas, North China Tiger, African Elephant, Dolphin and Gorillas)
T prepares a clip of training video "ICE Time" in order to steer the students to go over on the reason why of people killing animals
To establish context and use learner's schematic understanding of the animals overall to combine it with the lesson's topic
T - S
T - S
i. After opinions, T provides each group a set of pictures of animals and asks them to recognize the endangered types.
ii. After feedback, T advises learners to look at it complete which time, to determine why are these animals in peril and the reason why for this.
To promote group work to recognize the pictures, to work through context in groups and to stimulate bottom-up reading skills
To workout in context purpose and audience, in teams and activate top-down reading skills
S - S
T - S
S - S
T - S
Pre- Coaching Vocabulary
After feedback, T holds the interest of Ss to the unidentified phrase in the framework;
T elicits their interpretation in context, using mini- dictionary from the New Opportunities Students Booklet,
To pre-teach unknown vocabulary, to work out its interpretation in context, using the dictionary and also to practice stress, intonation and rhythm
T - S
T - S
S - S
Pre - Writing (c)
After responses, T assigns two paragraphs for every single group to work on, and hands out a wh-comprehension process to complete for his or her paragraphs
Ss are to come to the w/b and put the strips of newspaper one under the other
To practice reading skills, such as scanning and reading for detail
To reorder the pieces of newspaper on the w/b, to present it as a whole, and to put it to use as a springboard for the brainstorming session
T - S
S - S
T asks Ss to believe why some animals are endangered and ways of helping the endangered animals
T prepares a clip of video "ICE Era" to be able to steer the students to go over on the reason why of people killing animals
During the activity, T encircles, monitors and provides help where necessary.
To switch on their schematic knowledge of the endangered pets, to incorporate their schemata to culturally targeted topics
All ideas should be brainstorm in their group for producing drafts
S - S
T - S
S - S
While - Writing (Tough Draft)
T informs them that they will have to write their own ideas down, to be able they like on a bit of paper, -one group member will write the draft and others gives help and information.
During the activity, T encircles monitors and provides assistance
Ss exchange documents with the other team and present reviews on each other's work
To write a abrasive draft, to choose ideas and also to establish a viewpoint
To promote collaboration amongst group participants, to peer-evaluate, to provide support and guidance with written work
S - S
S - S
While - Writing (First Draft)
T advises S to rewrite the article as well as select which ideas goes to each paragraph, in their teams
T tells them that one of these will write and others can help out
After writing, T instructs Ss to swap paperwork and give them to the other group to comments
To arrange information, to structure the text(White and Arndt 1991)
To work collaboratively to accomplish an aim
To promote co-operation to achieve an objective, to peer evaluate, to respond to the first draft and to give reviews on this content (Raimes cited in Gaith 2002)
T - S
T - S
T - S
While - Writing (Second Draft)
T advises S to rewrite the drafts, much better, now, they have got the feedback from other groups
After writing, T instructs Ss to read out what they've written
To improve the skill of writing (Charles 1990)
To edit, to proof-read content
S - S
T - S
Post - Writing (Finished Draft)
T advises Ss to start their individual writing on the foolscap newspaper provided
T offers Ss assessment grades based the writing produced
To present their pieces of complete writing
S - S
T - S
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