The occurrence of 'success difference, ' as it is termed by educationalists, has become a big concern in my institution in recent years. Students who have been learning well revealed a good improvement in their successes. However, the slow learners, who are the majority, showed a very low level of achievement. In our management meetings this issue always comes up for talk. But a concrete answer to the situation of closing the achievement difference is not reached. Being the head of the school and the motivation and encouragement I have received while doing my Postgraduate Diploma in school management led me to take on this issue in this program. I have already been seriously considering on why this distance between slow learners and better ones is increasing and instructors are unable to do much about it. Most often teachers try to put blame on the students' area for lower achievements. At the same time, increased pressure from the city, especially parents, for increasing the results of the children led me to look into this issue to lessen this distance and improve success.
In addition to the the transformed educational plan of the new federal government in my own country makes every school to improve its achievements level by way of a certain level from time to year, which will be considered in any kind of assistance for the institution in the foreseeable future. This insurance plan of the government made me, as the main of the institution; think about motivating educators to work better among the low achievers, who are the bulk in the classrooms, to boost their academic accomplishments. For this purpose I really believe professional development is the sole effective tool.
Another factor which leads my fascination with this issue as a primary is that recently we have faced very much competition from the neighbouring universities in our province in increasing the pupil enrolment. Parents are so worried about the school's performance in admitting their children. So the school started to take effective steps in increasing the academic accomplishment of the students. In my introspection of introducing innovative steps I started considering a lot more about increasing the skill and efficiency of the coaching staff and setting up a good attitude among teachers when planning on taking up new instructional strategies. Thus, my fascination with this issue of professional development is in closing the space developed.
Moreover, as a innovator I really believe it is my part to initiate some impact on teachers and other institution communities to interact to close this space. I had taken this as a challenge. I am so keen on learning what skills and attributes a principal must have for taking this responsibility of professional development of teachers for reducing the achievement gap. I'll sincerely look into my capacity and weakness in this subject while writing this dissertation and try to strengthen my expertise. In general, I find myself the main as a head should act as an instructional leader and learner, and be able to develop a learning environment. Moreover, the principal should have direct participation in the look, delivery and content of professional development and assessment of its results. It is because I believe the principal is the main one who clearly knows the needs of the school in terms of instructional strategies and their timely modifications.
In my experience when teachers receive in-service courses in far-away centers, very almost never do they practice it in their daily lessons. It may be mainly, I really believe, because of the reason that in the work place no one may be there to guide and inspire the teachers to adopt the new instructional strategies learned and at the same time, the principal is not so aware about the content of the course and the techniques educated. So those programmes aimed at improving instructors' instructional skills show little super fruit. Therefore for a professional development to be productive and effective, I really believe, the main should take the effort and the role of management.
I have came to the realization that only the principal with a solid leadership quality can lead others in their professional expansion to benefit the institution as whole. I will try to relate my earlier experiences in taking changes to the institution learning environment. These reflections on the level of resistance of the teachers towards changes, I am hoping, will help as a guide in this program and enrich my command qualities. THEREFORE I will be looking into the aspect of the effective jobs of the principal's authority in professional development of educators. Therefore, this dissertation tries to answer the question: What is the role of the main concerning the professional development of instructors to lessen the achievement difference in the institution?
I will be presenting this dissertation in the next manner: Following the introduction, I am going to discuss my reflections upon this issue and then refer to the printed works in this area as a part of the books review. Next I am going to explain the use of questionnaires to collect relevant information from the principals in neighbouring colleges on what their take on professional development is, how they took initiatives in this field and what challenges they have encountered along the way. Next the interpretation of the data will be shown, after which I am discussing the problems. Then this dissertation will be concluded by studying my understanding, restrictions and the starting for further research on this issue.
I plan this dissertation to be useful for just about any school which attempts to close the achievement gap incidentally of professional development of educators through the initiation of the principal. I believe the command quality of your principal is crucial for just about any such initiative to be successful. Thus, the principal's firm along with strong management skills and the understanding of the importance of professional development can become more lucrative. Therefore, I really believe a principal who wishes to do something as a head and a learner will be able to take up this kind of challenge.
LINIKG THEORY AND PRACTICE
In this chapter, first, I will present my reflections as a college primary in initiating the professional development programmes, and link these reflections to relevant books. Next, predicated on the literature, I'll discuss the following key areas: the principal's role as an instructional innovator and learner, setting up a learning environment, examining of professional development results, getting the right professional development to close the success distance, following-up of professional development programmes and steps to be studied to improve the frame of mind and class room practice of educators through professional development programs.
Role of institution principal
In the beginning of my job as a primary, I had a concept that the principal's major role is as a manager of the institution and related concerns as is the case with other principals I know. I was pleased with the way I treated my management responsibilities. However, the insurance plan changes at the government level and the competition from neighbouring institutions in academic accomplishments forced me to think about my role more significantly as an instructional head. My first initiations to accomplish higher learning of students were mainly centered on the immediate learning strategies of students. A number of the decisions we made to implement improvements were remedial classes and learning treatment centers where individual students received personal care and attention, parents were encouraged to see their children learning at home and the regularity of class assessments was increased. However, I could bear in mind only very insignificant improvements were caused, especially among the low achieving students. Of course, a small band of high achievers did show impressive improvement under this programme. But it had not been the perfect solution is when browsing from the institution all together. Therefore, I began to check out what should be done effectively to bring a much better change in the students' learning in general to be able to reduce the accomplishment gap. Among the main known reasons for choosing this subject matter because of this dissertation was also inspired by this inquiry. Towards this purpose, I started discussing other ways for improving students' achievements with other principals and educators. At exactly the same time, I aimed my lead instructors to make repeated class room observations of the professors and report with them. This fashion of enquiry resulted in a realization that the situation of achievement of students partially lay down in the professors' classroom methods. Until then we were centering more attention on the college student side to enhance the academic success. Thus I began to think after the improvement of the instructional skills of educators to be able to focus on the needs of specific students in diverse classrooms like ours. As Villegas-Reimers (2003) claims,
Successful professional development activities have a noticeable impact on professors' work, both in and from the classroom, especially due to the fact a significant variety of teachers across the world are under-prepared for his or her profession (p. 17)
So, I started to find research works and journals which talked about professional development and its own various aspects. As Bredeson (1999) state governments, "Professional development identifies learning opportunities that participate teachers' creative and reflective capacities to bolster their practice" (p. 4).
Most of the publicized works on professional development reveal that the institution principal's role is quite significant to make the professional development more effective and functional. This promotes my looking at my potential as a leader to lead the educators as an instructional community. Bredeson and Johansson (2000) discovered four areas where principals have considerable influence on professor learning which include the principal as an instructional head and learner, the creation of any learning environment, immediate involvement in the look, delivery and content of professional development and assessment of professional development final results. To get this view Loucks-Horsley et al (1988) declare that,
The support of leaders - those in positions of specialist such as principals and those with more skills than teachers taking part in the professional development- legitimates changes, provides resources, and creates objectives that changes will arise (p. 199).
Lead me on to the next section
The Main as instructional leader and learner
I was much determined to see these four areas in which a principal has such an important role to play. As an instructional innovator the main has four key assignments to play specifically: stewards, models, experts and instructional market leaders (Bredeson and Johansson, 2000). As both of these authors explained, the principal as steward communicates the importance of professional development, as a fundamental element of school improvement to all stakeholders of the school. He continues the concentrate and goal of professors' professional development as scholar learning. He serves the needs of students and the institution in a fair and unique manner. Next, the principal as a model demonstrates great enthusiasm by exercising what he speaks. He demonstrates his involvement in learning by positively taking part in professional development programs. Then the main as an expert must own 'specialised knowledge and skills in such areas as cognition and learning theory, models of teaching, human expansion and development' (pp. 9-10). Last but not least, the principal, as instructional innovator influences professor professional development. The principal should use varieties of activities to encourage and rejoice learning. Principals should follow-through in the form of modeling, feedback, training and support for professors to be able to bring changes in their school room practices.
Creating a learning environment
Another important role of a principal in professor professional development is the fact that of creating appropriate situations where professors will be willing to undertake changes in their class tactics through learning. In this regard, the main should act as communicator, supporter and director (Bredeson and Johansson, 2000). Like a communicator, the principal can create a solid and a collective view among professors on the potency of professional development in college student learning, through his daily connection with teachers as the
principal is in a unique position to impart announcements through communication with the teachers daily. Talk is an important part of principal's work plus they also have to listen, which empowers others too in this technique of professional development. Principals in their interactions should make an effort to influence professors' thinking and ultimately their practice by posing questions, challenging assumptions and collaborative problem solving.
A primary, as a supporter in creating a learning environment, is the single most important component in a university system in extending valuable support in various ways - financially by allocating budget and by creating favourable conditions for professional development of teachers. Teachers also turn to the main as a source of professional knowledge and competence.
A principal's role as manager is to establish and maintain a healthy learning environment in the institution. Towards this purpose, a principal must have effective management skills such as the session of teachers who wish to learn within the occupation, coordination of professional development activities, making decisions on university resources and priorities, time management, identification of new resources, and training of the teachers and going to classrooms and evaluations.
Professional development design, delivery and content
The main has a powerful role in design, delivery and content of professional development. Actually, the main is the most important person in the school community to effect others and perform professional development activities in the right path. As Bredeson and Johansson (2000) identify, the main should take the initiative in aligning professional development with college goals and teacher needs, empower professors as decision creators, identify needs, develop ongoing planning techniques, create dialogues on professional development, support a number of learning opportunities for instructors and keep carefully the focus on pupil learning. Collaborative planning, joint work, curriculum design; university established inquiry and profound conversations about coaching and learning represent different delivery approaches for meeting educators' needs.
Assessment of Professional Development Outcomes
Most of the literature studies see for example???as well as sensible approaches of analyzing professional development activities use a study conducted one of the participants. However, the main should develop techniques for the organized collection and evaluation of information on professional development in the institution to choose where they may be in the process of tutor learning and the potency of professional development activities so far conducted (Bredson and Johanasson, 2000).
In my school, I conduct school room observations through lead instructors and often myself. These class room observations, especially following the professional development activities, help evaluate what lengths the professional development has helped the teachers to change their classroom techniques and to redirect them to improve on their weaker areas. Guskey (2000) has developed a five level set of conditions for professional development evaluation. Level one considers members' reactions. It is the most frequent way of evaluating information for professional development programs. However, it is also the least helpful as members' reactions to the professional development have a tendency to be biased and subjective. Level two comprises members' learning from professional development programmes. This analysis needs various methods because the learning may be cognitive, affective or behavioural. The 3rd level consists of organizational support and change. It emphasises the need for support and inspiration from the institution to truly have a long lasting aftereffect of professional development in professors' techniques. The fourth level emphasises the members' use of new knowledge and skills. It is essential to evaluate where in fact the participants' are in fact placing into practice the new knowledge they gained in professional development. The fifth level considers the student outcomes as part of the evaluation of the programmes. It really is one of the most crucial elements of analysis because it assesses the effect on student learning. The principal, as an instructional innovator, should be able to convince the professors of the true benefit for professional development in obtaining the targets through data. As Ruler (2002) observes, 'instructional control is anything leaders do to improve coaching and learning by gathering proof student achievement that demonstrates improvement' (p. 61).
Most often, our evaluation of teacher methods become more summative somewhat than formative. In fact, formative analysis helps instructors to grow appropriately and studies Show formative assessments are more suitable since they motivate teachers to put into action the new ways of teaching they have learned in the professional development programmes. A good formative analysis should be making instructors aware of the evaluation criteria in advance, providing reviews afterward, providing them with the opportunity to discuss their evaluation and offering them support to focus on the areas in which they need improvement (Little, Goe and Bell, 2009).
Getting the right professional development to close the achievements gap
In this area of the literature review, I'd like to go over the effective strategies for professional development of professors to close the achievement space in light of the posted literature. I believe any professional development program, to be effective, should consider various aspects such as personal, cultural and occupational. Bell and Gilbert (1996) identify the personal and social aspects of professional development. The non-public aspect includes educators' beliefs, beliefs and attitudes which are important considerations when building up a suitable professional development programme. Similarly, the communal aspect that supports teachers' learning is the fact the school community, in a collaborative manner, should support professors in learning. Not really a sentencePowerful and socially mediated learning (Falk and Dierking, 2000) with other folks identified to be experienced, for example, facilitators or even more experienced colleagues. The development of the occupational facet of educator learning shown by Clerke and Hollingsworth (2002) points out that there must be a link between theory and practice. The 'professional experimentation' - making sense of useful experiences, especially those positive results can lead to conceptual change and popularity of theory. As well as the professional development activities should be intellectually stimulating and properly relevant. Quite simply it should be transformative professional learning (Sprinthall et al, 1996).
As a part of producing effective professional development strategies, I really believe there must be proper planning beforehand. In this regard, the model developed by O'Sullivan (2002) - INSET (In-Service Education and Training) Strategies Model - is of great use. They have six stages. They are simply needs assessment, company, persistence of content, training process, follow up and evaluation. In my seek out other models, I came across a number of modelssuch as?. Virtually all agree with most of these phases of planning and execution approach to professional development activities.
Figure 1. INSET strategies model for the professional development (Source: O"Sullivan, p. 183)
In my university, I follow primarily classroom observation by using lead teachers to determine the needs of professors to form the strategy for professional development. I really believe, because so many of the teachers in my university are undertrained or unqualified, they lack some basic skills and ideas of instruction, especially the present day classroom practices. So I feel observation is the most likely method that can be implemented to formulate the needs of instructors to be tackled in professional development. Moreover, since my search in this dissertation is to find answers to reduce the achievement distance through professional development, I want to find data from the learner learning outcomes to show there's a wide achievement space among the list of studentsI thought you knew that - this diss is to handle the issue, not to decide if it exists??. It is clear research that the professors lack proper skills to handle a diverse class room effectively. As Hawley and Valli (1990) point out, 'the content of professional development focuses on what students are to learn and exactly how to address the several problems students may have in learning the materials' (p. 65). It emphasises two aspects of professional development such as the 'pedagogical content knowledge' (Shulman, 1986page group needed) and the instructional ways of be used to teach the content.
It is so very important to professors to be experienced in this content understanding of their discipline to teach effectively and improve college student outcomes. It really is noticeable from the books that the successful educators will be the ones with deep content knowledge. Shulman (1986) argues that successful teaching requires teachers to understand their discipline so that they are able to predict common misconceptions that student bring to the analysis of that subject matter and provides different representation of the material for students who have difficulty in learning it. Agreeing with this view, Diana Rigden (2000) points out that,
You are expecting me to work through what she says - this price is too long - you need to provide me the key items of her argument, not ask me to work it outResearch demonstrates that there is a strong reliable romance between educators' content knowledge and quality of the instruction. Teachers with a profound conceptual knowledge of their subject ask a lot of advanced questions, encourage students to use and transfer knowledge, help students see and understand relationships between and among ideas and principles and make other alternatives in their instructions that engage students and concern them to learn (p. 1).
At the same time as what/ the utilization of effective instructional skills is also evenly important to attain higher scholar learning outcomes and also to cater to the needs of specific students in the school for shutting the achievement gap. As Spark (2002) observes, the 'most powerful form of professional development engages professors in the constant improvement of these teaching and expands the repertoire of instructional techniques they used to instruct that content', (p. 3). So an effective professional development plan should arrange for bringing out modern and effective methods of instruction. One of the effective methods to improve teaching as pointed out by Spark (2002) is the fact 'teachers continuously use colleagues to increase the quality with their lesson and examining college student work to start to see the effectiveness. One particular technique is the Japanese technique of "lesson review" (Stingluar and Hiebert, 1997). Other than that instructional improvement may appear through training, training, study communities and other reflective operations (Spark, 2002).
Moreover, a greatly discussed means for increasing the instructional and learning procedures in the school room is integrating ICT in the teaching and learning process. Successful technology integration in universities requires ICT as an integral part of teacher preparation programs (Duffield, 2005; Vrasidas and Goblet, 2005). So integrating ICT in the professional development helps in two ways. First, it helps to keep professional development and helps professors to boost their classroom practices. A mixture of face-to-face workshops along with online connections can offer a lasting model for ongoing educator development (Clark, 2000). Moreover, use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) contributes to the introduction of community of practice (Vrasidas and Zembylas, 2004). This means sites of mutual learning are essential contributors to the success of knowledge-dependent organizations. It provides formal and casual learning opportunities to educators. Some of these sites are Promoting Educators with Anywhere/Anytime Resources (STAR)-online and Virtual Coaching and Learning Community (VTLC). Alternatively, the abilities in ICT help educators to teach effectively in a diverse class where all think it is easy to learn leading to reduced amount of the achievement distance. As Blackmore et al (2003) describes,
ICT can improve learning when educators are intensively trained to make professional judgments about the appropriateness of particular ICT and the needs with their students. Therefore, there is a need for a substantial shift in approaches to ICT professional development (p. 17-18). This font is different
However, I find the use of ICT in professional development has its limitations and obstacles, one which is enough time required to train the professors in ICT. Regarding to Donnlley and Fellow workers (2002) studies have shown that educators need three to six many years of sustained practice to combine ICT fully in to the class room. In this respect, Adelman and acquaintances (2002) discovered that teachers identified that time as the utmost significant hurdle to integrate ICT in classroom - time to learn how to utilize ICT, how to develop educational activities and how to implement them in the class room. Another difficulty regarding the implementation of ICT is that it becomes obsolete (Vrasidas and Wine glass (2005) with new developments so instructors need to keep the tempo up for upgrading their knowledge in ICT and its own tools which often become problematic for teachers mainly due to lack of financial support as well as resources. Additionally, release of ICT has certain inner and external obstructions. Ertmer (1998) observes some extrinsic factors as first order obstacles to ICT integration which includes having less usage of hardware and software, insufficient time for teachers to plan education and familiarize themselves with ICT, limited technological training and administrative support. Corresponding to Dede (1998) the second-order barriers which are more interior, may be more difficult to beat as they are more personal, psychologically connected and for that reason, deeper ingrained. This barrier includes professors' obvious unwillingness or reluctance to embrace ICT as a means towards improving coaching and learning.
So are you for this or against it?
In the INSET strategies model for professional development by O'Sullivan (2002), follow-up is a very important part of an efficient and continuing professional development program. There are several empirical studies in the books which strongly support follow-up as an effective strategy to implement the new ideas and styles in school room tactics. Studies have proved limited implementation of training in class in the industrialized countries (Yoger, 1997). As Beeby (1980) observes, 'without continuing encouragement and support (upon conclusion of workshops and programs), the common teacher has a amazing capacity for regressing back to old procedures under a fresh name', (p. 466). When professors receive training accompanied by class observations and opinions, you will see more encouragement to allow them to take the new strategies of instructions and use them effectively in their classes. Harvey's (1999) analysis showed that 'instructors who received instruction made substantive changes (in their class coaching), whereas most professors who received workshops only remained similar to the controlled group (who received no training)', (p. 191). So the experts who plan professional development have an considerable role of follow-up to bring a real change in the old tactics of educators in their class room. Spark's study (1981) found that, 'unless those who plan in-services training visit the professors in the classroom following the in-service training, little transfer of knowledge needs place' (p. 192). So there should be a organized and regular follow-up programme followed by any professional development procedure. O'Sullivan (2002) advises follow-up strategies by the trainer such as lesson observation, learner examination, progress meetings, list of guidelines, trainer role and demo lessons. He also provides educator follow-up strategies such as workshop handouts, diaries, and self analysis forms and peer instruction.
Change in teachers' attitude
Another aspect of professional development that i would like to analyse in light of the literature is how teachers' attitudes and values towards professional development will be transformed. As Guskey (2002) areas, 'professional development programmes are systematic initiatives to bring about change in the classroom practices of educators, in their attitudes and beliefs, and in the training outcomes of students' (p. 2). Personally i think it's important to understand this because in my school a few of the initiatives which I submit in professional development, to a extent didn't see much berry because of the negative attitude of some of the experienced teachers. I think it can be that they consider their existing methods are sufficient and there is no strong evidence for them to change. In my search for books in this area, I could only find a restricted number of publicized works. Among the works was publicized by Guskey (2002). He firmly argues that it is crucial for a specialist development programme to bring change in the attitude and values of professors for effective changes to be brought in their classroom practices. He denotes two vital factors for the failing of professional development programs which do not consider particularly: what motivates instructors to activate in professional development and the process where change in professors typically occurswhy italics? (Guskey, 1986any offer?).
The desire of educators to take up professional development originates from their belief that it'll grow their knowledge, contribute their progress and improve their efficiency with students (Guskey, 2002). This notion and attitude of educators is subsequently inspired by the university student learning results through innovation in classroom tactics by educators who obtain professional development. It is explained in the 'model of educator change' produced by Guskey (2002). The three major goals of a professional development programme are changing class practices of educators, changing their attitudes and values and changing the training effects of students. According to the model significant change in educators' attitudes and values acquire primarily once they gain proof improvements in college student learning (Guskey, 2002). To get this view, Bolster (1983, p. 298) says that 'new ideas and principles about teaching are thought to be true by professors when they provide rise to actions that work. ' So that it is clear that providing professional development activities exclusively will not help, but successful implementation changes the attitudes and beliefs of teachers and such change will lead to specific changes in their school room behaviours and tactics which will result in the improvement of university student outcome. The tests by Crandall (1983) and Huberman (1981) also show that instructors' attitudes and beliefs change only after some change in student learning has been evidenced.
The second factor, according to Guskey (2002), to be looked at in professional development for educators to bring change, is the process of putting into action professional development by which changes in educators may appear. Towards this goal, I believe it is important for instructors to be positively engaged in using new ideas in their classrooms to allow them to become committed and also to see changes (Crandall (1983) in their students' final result. In this respect, teachers should be involved in planning classes and carry out needs surveys to ensure that new practices and strategies are well-aligned with what educators want (Joyce et al, 1976).
In addition, regular feedback on college student learning improvement also helps new methods to be sustained and changes to be endured. This is because tactics that are new and unfamiliar will be accepted and maintained when they are regarded as increasing one's competence and effectiveness (Guskey, 2002). So the model shows that change occurs in educators mainly after execution occurs and there is proof improved college student learning, persisted follow-up, support and pressure following a original training that is even more important.
The role of institution management in instructor change through their support, pressure and follow-up are also important. The support and affect of college management is crucial for promoting professor development and change. If school professionals are empowered, they'll be in a position to play their interpersonal and technical functions better (Blas and Blas, 1999). The power of college management depends after the individual and physical resources available, managerial knowledge, skill of the head teacher and the institution culture. A university management with motivating culture induces teachers to activate in professional development programs at the institution level. 'There should be considered a university culture of affecting all in planning process and collegiality within the school which gives room for those to learn from each other" (Gallabawa and Agu, 2001, p. 6).
In this regard, the role of the institution head is so critical that the entire effectiveness of the school is directly inspired by the school head educator. Because she or he should be considered a facilitator, broker, specialist of resources, encouragement, commander, coach and cheerleader for the institution (Dillon and Peterson, 1986). Rowland and Adams (1999) suggest that the head tutor should be committed to develop teachers and for that reason have the ability to design professional development activities. THEREFORE I believe the head of a institution has a strong impact on its professors to improve their frame of mind and beliefs through effective execution of professional development.
In the process of instructors' professional development, their desire is most important of most factors. As Komba and Nkumbi (2008) call it as educators' "intrinsic drive" towards improvement cannot be matched up with any amount of pressure from educational professionals because of their change as for a real educator professional development, the instructor herself/himself must perceive it favorably also to see and recognize the necessity to grow appropriately.
To summarise my review of literature on the role of the principal in professional development to close the achievement gap, the following aspects are believed. As an instructional innovator, a primary should be a model to all or any professors in learning and educating. The principal should be a leader as well as a learner of new strategies and influence others to learn. As Dufour and Berkey (1995) see 'principals help create conditions which enable teachers to build up so the school can achieve its goal more effectively (p. 2). Additionally, a main should create an environment for learning. Towards this goal he must have a direct engagement in assessing the instructors' need, employ teachers collaboratively in making and preparing suited PDs and employing and of assessing the final results of professional development. In the analysis of Michael Garet and co-workers (2001) discovered that 'teachers were much more likely to improve their instructional methods and gain higher subject knowledge and improve teaching skills when their professional development links right to their daily encounters and is also aligned with standards and assessments' (p. 915).
There should be a proper strategy for setting the right professional development which really helps to close the achievement gap. A properly organized professional development should enable teachers to become more skilled in content knowledge and improve the instructional strategies including ICT which helps students in a diverse classroom to boost their learning results. In the study of Thomas Carpenter and co-workers (1989, p. 499) it states that student achievement was consistently higher and progress in students' basic and advanced reasoning and problem solving skills was best when their professors' professional development concentrated on how students learn and how to evaluate that learning effectively'.
A follow-up program should be put in place to motivate instructors to continue in their professional learning process. Last but not least, for a professional development program to be important and make sufficient change in teachers' attitudes and beliefs, the leader can provide sufficient evidences on students' learning effects consequently of professional development activities.
In Chapter Three, I'll explain the methods of data collection which form the foundation of our study and methodological issues experienced. Line spacing incorrect here
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