The concept of sound therapy is a result of a 17-year-old research study, which led to the creation of any "interactive multisensory environment (iMUSE)" which became possible when the sound, tactile and aesthetic elements mixed. This environment was designed to improve the quality of life of older people and children with special needs. As the name indicates the audio is emphasised and the remedy and improvement of the wellbeing is achieved through exploring, expressing, participating in and responding within the environment of iMUSE by the kids or older people who have the therapy.
The research project which started in 1994, targeted at finding a fresh way to encourage older people or children with special needs who've something to say, to discover new ways of saying it. It is known these people tend to be in a position that cannot say what they want and exactly how they feel or these are just not "heard" by the others. The idea of aesthetic resonation was first explained by Philip Ellis in 1995 and became a key factor in the thought of sound therapy. It really is this factor that induces creativeness in people and motivates those people who have something to state to find new means of saying it. It facilitates personal growth, relaxing that leads to externalising certain inner moments. Ellis and his co-workers - Lieselotte Truck Leeuwen and Kenneth Dark brown in this article 'Visible Music Vibrations: Improving upon standard of living for older people and children with special needs' said that the aesthetic resonation results from specific playful, investigative and expressive activities, where playful can be seen as an activity that includes astonishing, spontaneous, powerful, revitalizing and naive actions.
The job was split into three phases. The first period of the research started in 1994 and lasted until 1997/1998 and was concerned in establishing a non-invasive way in a secure environment with sound and music technology. This approach would allow for a response within the medium of reasonable while sonic environment would convert a simple physical movements into a wonderful and stimulating sound with expressive alternatives. For example, during the lectures we were confirmed many videos of individuals who created beautiful music within that sonic environment, by simply using their hands in order to start the physical activity needed. Through this environment, the participant patient would make a activity and that activity would be instantly translated into a audio. This could be achieved by using soundbeam, a technology that I am going to describe further on. It was hoped that would bring about raising awareness, participation, activity and pleasure for the participant. The development of physical control and the behavioural changes were also possible.
The second period of the project commenced in 1997/1998, lasted until 2004 and became known as "VibroAcoustic Sound Therapy". During this phase of the study, emphasis was presented with to the reception of low consistency vibrations to the participant. This is possible through the "Soundbox" and "Soundchair". As Ellis, Leeuwen and Dark brown reveal in their article, some past research contacted by Wigram and Dileo in 1997, Skille and Wigram in 1995 and Williams in 1997 affecting mostly the vibroacoustic techniques showed that the combo of low consistency sine tones with soothing music enhances physical and mental conditions. Consequently, in this part of the research, different tapes of calming and calming music of any content-free mother nature were made. This music was often in 3/4 time, poor, calm and between 30-90 kHz. It is a fact that even although music depends upon the pitch and the timing of the pulse, the environment is focused on the produced impact and not on the systems used to create it nor to the been told effect. The vibrations are related to the sensation therefore the music is actually felt rather than heard.
The third phase of the research were only available in 2004 and proceeds today. With this phase the visible aspect was added, making a multisensory environment, which I have mentioned at the beginning, the iMUSE, as audio, tactile and visible are actually finally all put together. Since 2004, three different approaches to visualisation have been created so far. The first approach uses software which allows colourful visual images to be projected on the screen when a physical motion or vocalisation occurs. The next software allows the participant to control the projection of a sequence of different pictures through physical movements, while the third software uses a camera insight, which is located before the participant on the stand for a specific and steady effect. This creates the static or a kaleidoscopic image produced by the physical appearance and the activity of the participant. The shades of the clothing of the participant and his or her movements are reflected in the pattern projected.
In standard, an iMUSE time would normally have 3 sections: a vocal connection using a mike and a audio processor, with or minus the participation of the facilitator, a physical connections using the Soundbeam alongside with visible effects and finally relaxation and a sense of comfort and delight through the experience of vibro-acoustic music accompanied by visual effects.
To analyse the data to be able to show and illustrate the results of the procedure the technique of "Layered Examination" originated; this is designed "to collect a variety of indicators that time to the multiple qualitative facets of a probably significant concept". This way of analysis concerning video recordings of each session which can be finally processed, the processing occurs in four periods.
The first stage, the "source" tape, functions as an archive of development of each individual as it really is a complete tracking of each procedure. The second stage, named as "master" tape, summarises all the significant examples of an individual's behaviour during the sessions. The third level, the "layers" tape, is an array of particular replies of the average person of every of the three parts of the lessons. Finally, the fourth level is the "summary" tape. It is a 10-minute video that portrays the development of the individual right from the start of the classes. This type of analysis mainly targets the performed actions, like consistency, variability and content of vocalisation or physical movements. These enable audio and visible feedback on the way that each individual prefers and chooses to interact.
The review of the info that resulted from the examination led the experts to the understanding of the consequences of sound remedy with the people who got received it. For instance, it was detected that in older people there have been changes in the feelings and in the level of distress, depression, aggression, anxiety and rest. The following stand was constructed, exhibiting the often movement from the conditions and behavior that are defined in the Depended column for the Responsive and then to the Independed status.
Changes were also observed in children with special needs despite the several conditions like cerebral palsy, severe and serious multiple learning problems, ADHD and autism, which were offered. The results from the evaluation showed that there have been changes in their behaviour and these changes could be seen as an indication of progress. The recorded activities indicated a move in their behaviour, from involuntary to voluntary, from unintentional to planned, from indifference to interest, from restricted to expressive, from gross to fine, from exploratory to preconceived and from solitary to individual.
All these, as previously mentioned, were and still are achieved by using the several music and reasonable technologies. These systems include the soundbeam which "translates" the physical motion into sounds, the soundchair and soundbox, that permit the participant to feel the reduced frequency vibrations that are produced during the various sections of the consultations, the mike and the several applications that allow for voice opinions and hold off, the G-Force programs that allows the visual effects and undoubtedly the Arkaos which includes the three softwares mentioned above that enable different visual effects. Gleam recent technology, the Wii Painter, that allows the participant to bring on a display screen using a remote controller, producing in once different noises and low consistency vibrations.
However, it's important to say that the advancements in people's behavior are not only achieved with the use of the systems. Intensive conversation has a essential role as well. It had been developed through the 80s by a team of personnel working at Harperbury Hospital Institution Herfordshire, a school for people who've severe learning problems. It can be thought as "a procedure for teaching the pre-speech fundamentals of communication to children and adults who've severe learning problems and/or autism and who remain at an early stage of communication development". When making use of intensive discussion the communication partner adjusts his / her interpersonal behaviour. He or she might change his/her speech and body gestures as this is might be the key to look less threatening and interesting to the eye of the average person.
The key is to react to the other person's actions rather than to lead. In this manner the communication spouse does not create requirements on the individuals that they could not be able to manage. In opposition, in this way they show the other people that they value them plus they enjoy being with them, allowing them in the same time to explore with making things happen and take the business lead. The communicator uses hypersensitive observation to judge how well the relationship is going and always treats the thing the person does as though this is communication giving the opportunity to the person to respond as a communicator also to get to really know what this feels as though and what it involves.
Even although technology and techniques applied are extremely crucial to the outcome and to the betterment of your respective condition, nothing at all would really subject if the recognition of needs is not valid and appropriate. The therapist/facilitator must really know what movement control can be done, the conception and sensory levels, and of course, the motivational and psychological needs. The facilitator is ready to determine about all these through shared information like catalogs and websites related to the several conditions that he / she might be interested in, through interviews of the caretakers and professors and observations made at the special college or service home.
Moreover, at this time it feels right to mention the necessary characteristics of a facilitator. It is crucial that the facilitator should keep tranquil, watch, listen and leave his or her own prejudices at the door. In case the facilitator obeys these four and simple rules and has fortitude, then they're going to have the ability to discover and move on to know the individual that he / she is working with.
Sound therapy is a person centred approach and targets the insight away. Quite simply it focused on the perception of the person, to his or her internal world, instead of the outside and therefore it permits the participant to handle what is needed to be done and what he or she wants to be done. The facilitator will not guide the participant; in opposition, he or she is guided by him or her. Moreover, a sensible therapy session isn't only therapeutic. Additionally it is fun and a pleasure for the participant which really is a crucial factor through the classes as this main factor may define whether or not the therapeutic procedure would achieve success. It really is known that the best way to achieve something is by having a great time and enjoy oneself. Based on that, the facilitator should always focus on what people can do rather on what they can not do. Their primary goal should be the improvement of the grade of life which is achieved by making the person to feel good and revel in him or herself. Another essential requirement about sound therapy is that the outcome is never predicted. Based on the actual fact that the participant decides the content of the period, the facilitator struggles to predict the ultimate result. Even if he or she makes some primary guesses, it is possible that they can be proven wrong.
Having to deal with such vulnerable people it is inevitable to take into account ethics. The facilitators are appreciated to have main values, establish set of standards, value the human rights, promote well-being, show highest professionalism and reliability, be completely trained and of course to do no damage.
In terms of autism, different projects have been completed within the last two decades plus some of these are detailed in the article 'Living Sound: human connection and children with autism' by Phil Ellis and Lieselotte truck Leeuwen. They dispute that the iMUSE environment is very effective for autistic people. The multisensory environment fulfills their needs and makes them to feel safe and secure. Additionally it is able to provide each person with the sensory source that is suitable for their specific needs. Moreover, it provides an enjoyable and predictable environment that provides the opportunity to each individual to relax and reduce the level of anxiety. Finally it offers the opportunity to the participant to learn new skills.
When dealing with autistic people, as I've brought up in a prior chapter, the goals are to develop communication skills controlling at the same time to keep the person laid back. The iMUSE environment complies with the sensory needs of each individual making him or her feel secure and comfortable, allowing her or him n like that to determine and experiment with the basics of communication. Each one of these have because of this better focus and attention.
The North East Autism Modern culture did a job recently, where four young autistic men required part. The four members had some common characteristics. All of them were experiencing high degrees of anxiety, had limited communication skills, confirmed enjoyment when hearing music and possessed sensory differences that had different impacts on the daily life. They all had a half an hour session per week for a month. In that really small time significant changes were determined. Among those changes were the reduced amount of the level of stress and anxiety, the increased focus and emphasis, the decidedness and self-reliance, and vocalisations and self-assurance. However, it was also observed that after the end of the project the four young men were steadily time for their earlier conditions.
The information that sound therapy is beneficial for autistic people is too strong to be ignored. Hence, there are plans for further inspection and for new research in the subject. For example, the North East Autism Population plans to do a project where you will see an initial diagnosis of sensory account and communication skills, then to recognize the "Indicators of Wellbeing" and lastly to record those indicators in order to give options within and outside framework of iMUSE consultations.
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