Philosophy is taking a theory on what one feels and just why s/he thinks, and these beliefs are based on ethics. It is also based on how and what one considers something. In a nutshell, viewpoint is ideas that create truth and makes one's view clear. With this paper, in order to handle my philosophy of education in regards to to the Zambian education system, the purpose of education, what learning is, and what coaching is, will be talked about. Thereafter, my educational philosophical assertion shall be discussed to summarize my final newspaper on Professor Education. To begin with, this paper will look at the goal of education for Zambia, at its different levels of development to what it is and will serve at this time.
Purpose of Education:
Education, in the Zambian scenario, has migrated from indigenous, pre - colonial, colonial, post - colonial and after self-reliance to the present times. It has additionally continued to go through the three political republics and monetary phases the country has experienced. In all these periods, the institution system and the training at large have tried out to answer to the demands of the prevailing trends and were personalized to meet the needs of society in those days. This is because political changes determine the purpose of education whenever a particular party is in power or command.
From time immemorial, before formal education came into existence, Africans and Zambians in particular, acquired their indigenous form of education, which often stressed on communal and public areas of life somewhat than on individual and competitive aspect. This is true as everyone in the community took responsibility in making sure that certain values locally were preserved. This was also part of every community members' sociable responsibility for the common good of most. This, therefore, made this type of education important, unifying, alternative, effective, useful and relevant since it was designed to address immediate sociable and communal concerns. In today's education system, these characteristics can still create signifying though with a broader view of handling both immediate and long term problems. The education offered must have got the above mentioned characteristics if it must promote healthy democratic societies of the century. Indeed this kind of education is pertinent as it addresses the whole individual in his/her entirety.
During pre - colonial and colonial times, institutions did not consider various needs of individuals, especially indigenous locals. Colonial experts and settlers provided nominal education to Zambians, which later proved to be a source of financial inequalities and communal stratification, as well as an instrument of imperialism. This sort of education was not simply limited but was also typically irrelevant to the needs of the local people (Kelly, 1999).
On the other hands, missionaries introduced some type of formal education to Zambians. This education condemned the African indigenous ways of teaching and understanding how to the strongest conditions and labeling it as paganism or worship of idols. In their quest to expose some type of western education, missionaries faced difficulties converting older people Africans. This made them focus on young people in order that they could instruct them how to learn to be able to help spread the gospel text messages to the local people. However, this formal education directed at Zambians was also just limited by learning literacy and numeracy, while other missionaries tried to develop locals' skills in the vocational kind of education, that is, Agriculture, Carpentry, African american - smith, and many other skills. This was reported to be a better way of improving the living benchmarks of the African local people. To the contrary, the abilities imparted in young Africans were designed to serve the colonial experts and missionary interests.
With all the initiatives missionaries put in to bring some type of formal education, colonial masters didn't support the idea. Instead, the Northern Rhodesia federal government pursued an education policy designed to foster a rural college system biased toward education of the masses, preparing them to work in a rural environment and consolidating a traditional social order, predicated on tribal authority, in the interest of a settler school (Camody, 1992). This sort of institution system was meant to keep the Zambian local people under - developed even when natural resources, such as Copper, cash flow and taxes were being gathered form Northern Rhodesia. The colonial government made sure that if education was to be provided, it did not go beyond main or elementary level. It had been believed that locals with this kind or level of education would perform clerical and vocational kind of careers for the white settlers and colonial masters with less difficulty.
After self-reliance, Zambia realized the importance of formal education to its locals. This had to be done by building more Primary and Secondary academic institutions. From that time to the present, most locals take a look at colleges as liberators and a stepping natural stone to a brighter and better future life. During pre - colonial and colonial times, local people that received 'good education' also got some 'good jobs'. With good education and good jobs, living benchmarks of some people was seen to be changing for the better as they could find the money for basic needs when they received their pay. With this clear view of what education could do, Zambians noticed the need because of their children to visit institution and get jobs that they could not get before freedom. The school today is seen as a home window toward economic self-reliance for a family group as you member gets a good paying job. It is believed that going to school is best chance Zambian children have to take control of their lives. It is because an educated human population will help handle the overpowering problems of poverty. For any Zambian child today, the possibility to stay in university and obtain a second education can mean depends upon to a young student. That is surely the opportunity to keep learning, producing and dreaming, as the surprise of education is one that really never prevents supplying. As Young (1971) mentioned that, "for children from disadvantaged homes, energetic participation in college can be the only opportunity that they need to acquire powerful knowledge and also move, intellectually at least, beyond their local and the particular circumstances. " Most institutions in Zambia have provided this service to many as they have got rekindled the urge to learn and abilities imbedded in most people who might not have realized their potential without the existing school system or education. The current Zambian government is rolling out an insurance plan of widespread free principal education. It has allowed enrollment around 95% primary school years children with about 20% continuing to secondary school level and 2% of the 20 to 24 generation in tertiary level (www. unicef. org/zambia/children). This demonstrates drop out rate is very high and no more than 1 / 3 of children enrolled at first grade reach the anticipated levels at class six. Without academic institutions, Zambia wouldn't normally have seen the current development and financial growth. The institution system has helped touch skill and skill generally in most young Zambians who've in turn contributed to the financial and public being of your country. For certain the knowledge attained in school may not have been attained at home. So, we see that the goal of education is to be sure that learners gain access to different specialist domains of knowledge, thus uplifting their social economic status in life.
However, the school in Zambia needs to do more as much explanations why it been around in pre - colonial and colonial times remain evident that only a few rich are able to access high and tertiary education. The poor have had complications noticing their dreams as they can not afford the expensive education, which may easily change their cultural economic status very quickly once received. Only a determined few and their own families achieve or attain this goal. The curriculum appears to promote the hobbies of the wealthy and powerful people of your time. Politicians and ministers send their children to good colleges, which can be well funded and with certified teachers while the poor people will send their children to mainly public schools, that are also poorly outfitted and lack instructors. Advanced schooling is equally very expensive rendering it only accessible by the few rich people. It is like a institution is not, truly, simply a place where everyone is special. Therefore, it's important that education is given to all regardless of their interpersonal and economic status. Government must definitely provide equal gain access to and same conditions to all public classes. Boyer, in his publication 'The Basic School' says that, "a school is a place where everyone comes together to market learning. " If everyone is permitted to come to any institution of choice in conditions of niche, then showing of ideas will serve across all parts of life. These ideas come up with would produce nationwide development for the nice of the country. Above all, the goal of education for future years of Zambia should be to create democratic residents. Democracy is brought up and stated in various forums which is documented but is also less used or not put into practice in any way. The effective democratic principles need to be imparted in each and every learner so that the political weather and prices are protected inside our nation. Because the university is a disciplined place, students begin to understand that everyone lives within boundaries, along with liberty, and that the rights of others must be sensitively respected.
Therefore, it is true to say institutions have a distinctive role to reproduce individual societies and in providing the conditions which enable those to innovate and change. Contemporary society must change as times change and try to be ground breaking with new ideas to ease human conditions of success, in order to be at par with latest needs and changes in the training system. Without universities, life could have been as difficult as the world would have been fragmented and underdeveloped. Without academic institutions, each group of men and women would have acquired difficulties to get started doing things, thus making life for each generation difficult. This is because education will there be to make sure coherence or continuity from one generation to the next. Schools are important for each era as we are in an environment of new trends. However, this education can only just be meaningful if the learning that continues on the classes has interpretation. So, what students learn, assist in defining what the goal of education is for a country like Zambia to develop, however the question may be asked as to what really is learning?
What is Learning?
Learning is a wider term that may well not have one specific meaning. However, it can certainly be defined as the acquisition of knowledge or skills through experience, practice, or research or by being trained. This knowledge obtained is usually new or the changes of existing knowledge, habits, skills, prices, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types. Webster's Dictionary also identifies learning as "the take action or connection with one that learn; knowledge of skill attained by teaching or study; modification of any behavioural propensity by experience. " Fundamentally, from an educator's perspective, learning involves assisting people along the training process, and learning includes all the things that people do to make it happen. As an end result, we realize that learning occurs when people take newfound information and incorporate it to their life. Munsaka (2011) identifies learning as "a comparatively permanent change that occurs to behaviour and/or knowledge anticipated to see. " So, learning must bring some type of change in one to become meaningful and be eligible as learning.
Children learn in lots of ways, as can be proved through the many theories of learning that well known scientists and researcher have devised, such as Humanist, Behaviorism, Community Learning, Cognitive, Critical Representation and/or Constructivism. Humanists think that learners will in a natural way improve toward increased competence, autonomy, flexibility, and fulfillment, while Behaviorism emphasizes on changes in observable habits. Community learning theorists explain that most of what children learn is through observation and interactions with other learners in a sociable context. Cognitive learning is a process developing inside the learner in an attempt to make sense out of the world and present meaning to experience, while Critical Reflection identifies learning that is deeper, more fundamental, relating to ideals, philosophical, and worldview and the nature of knowledge itself. Constructivists check out the importance of active involvement of learners in creating knowledge for themselves. Constructivism, therefore, stresses top-down kind of learning, that is, commence with complex problems and train basic skills while solving these problems. In today's learning, how children learn is just as important as what they learn. They are taught the essential skills in all the essential areas and to be lively seekers of information and constructors of knowledge. That is achieved through learning activities that point out problem resolving, communication, collaboration, seeking links, technology, and engaged learning as children are positively involvement in the training process. "That is opposed to the current system where it is expected that learning goals should be achieved by the certain get older, " (Medina, 2008: 67). So, main things a educator must do when contemplating how children learn is to recognize that all child does not learn in the same way. This implies children develop at different rates even when they may be of the same quality or at the same era. Therefore, understanding the learners before they learn is inescapable. Because of this, some will learn better by modeling others, although some learn better when either positively or negatively strengthened or motivated. Alternatively, many children will learn well when they certainly things for themselves. It has not been the situation in many instances as children are usually considered empty - slates, meaning people who have no idea anything until the educator has imparted something in them. Since learning refers to changes in the learner's knowledge that arise from experience, 'learners should not be viewed as unaggressive receivers of information, but rather as active individuals along the way of making knowledge' (Munsaka, 2011). Learning can, therefore, be looked at from the perspective of the changes that take place in behaviour and/or the changes that happen in knowledge through learners' own effort to produce their own content or information to learn. Our role as professors is to make certain that as children learn; they gain knowledge in the learning process and also put into action the new skills over a long time frame.
For understanding how to happen, learners must be positively mixed up in learning process. Some relationship of some kind between a learner and his/her environment should happen. This means the learner decides the span of learning as s/he tries to solve problems and constructs suggestions to response to the questions accessible. In cases like this, the teacher works as helpful information who aids the learners to seem sensible of the information recorded to be able to create meaning through accurate interpretation. Resnick (1989: 2), claims that, "learning occurs not by documenting information but by interpreting it. " It is very true that learning occurs when the students are met with something new or different from what they already know. Learners learn when they respond by incorporating new ideas, adapting to the new environment or even rejecting what is new. As learners attack or respond to new ideas, it's the obligation of the tutor to help you as learners are not the only real players in the constructivist learning process. Other players, such as tutors, lecturers, and friends are very important if significant learning is to take place.
Since learners are allowed to build their own understanding from various options and make this learning an extremely personal construct, I really believe constructivism is the ideal solution if learning should be relevant to learners. For example, in my teaching of Art and Design, learners are at liberty to determine what they want to know and how they would like to learn, especially with their sensible learning, which requires them to create artifacts. At this time, the students use sketch books to pull and come up with artworks of their choice and ideas. However, to design effective conditions, one requires a very good understanding of what learners know when they come to the class. Constructivism views learning as a process in which the learner positively constructs or creates new ideas or principles based upon current and earlier knowledge or experience. Quite simply, "learning involves constructing one's own knowledge from one's own experiences. " (Devries & Zan, 2003) Constructivist learning, therefore, is a very personal undertaking, whereby internalized concepts, rules, and general principles may as a result be employed in a functional lesson. Regardless of the variety of content, constructivism encourages a student's free exploration within a given framework or structure. Learners have to create and do what they want to learn since Constructivism calls for that learning be an active, contextualized process of constructing knowledge alternatively than acquiring it. This knowledge is constructed based on personal experiences and hypotheses of the environment and learners consistently test these hypotheses through communal negotiation. Each learner has some other interpretation and structure of knowledge process. The learner therefore is not really a empty slate (tabula rasa) as other theories might suggest but brings past experiences and cultural factors to a situation. The teacher serves as a facilitator who motivates students to discover guidelines for themselves and develop knowledge by attempting to solve practical problems. Areas of constructivism are available in self-directed learning, transformational learning, and experiential learning.
I strongly believe that learning makes sense when learners know what they would like to learn. Learning also brings interpretation when learners discover for themselves and can study from even unexpected resources. If all educators can provide room for learners to choose what and exactly how they would like to learn, then learning can make meaning, be thrilling and also highly relevant to the learners. This, however, does not rule out the value of coaching. A teacher remains important in the learning process, thus the necessity to take a look at what teaching really is and what it does to complete the complete process of learning. Though learning may take place without a teacher, information is cardinal to become systematic in the learning process of students. What then is coaching and what role does it play in the education of students?
What is Teaching?
Teaching is a term that one may well not be so clear if in its classification learners aren't mentioned anywhere. Most importantly, the two cannot be separated as they go together. Teaching, in my view, is learning, challenging, seeking in great ways, which is caring for the learners as it involves aiding them. Anderson and Melts away (1989) defines instructing as "an interpersonal, interactive activity, typically including verbal communication, which is undertaken for the purpose of helping a number of students learn or change the ways in which they can or will behave. " So, we see that teaching is an activity which was created and performed to produce change in behavior of students. It is however important to understand that the reason is never to coach students how to memorize information, or how to learn all the correct answers, but it is based on getting students to truly understand the ideas being put across because of their gain. If well dealt with, teaching is an occupation that can produce something amazing when the right ideas and values are executed in the classroom. Therefore, teaching identifies the teacher's development of environments for the students that are designed to foster changes in the learner's knowledge and behavior. (Gagne, 1974)
As a solid supporter and believer of constructivist theory, I always acknowledge that nobody learner learns the same manner as the other. Each learner learns in his/her own way and knows things diversely. Hence, careful selection of styles or ways of teaching would be of help for better comprehension in learners. This means if a tutor chooses just one style of coaching, the students will not be making the most of their learning probable. However, in my style of teaching, I've in often thought that students can build their own learning and that all students have something to donate to the classroom environment. By connecting student's understanding how to something they know, they get involved in their works with the seriousness it deserves and are determined more than ever before. My job entirely remains as a facilitator, where I evidently guide and assist the students through their duties and their own discoveries. As helpful information, I provide access to information alternatively than behaving as a primary way to obtain information. This enables students to search for knowledge through the artifacts they make, thus answering to the questions on their thoughts. So, for students to construct knowledge, they want the possibility to discover for themselves and practice skills in real situations. Providing students usage of hands - on activities and allowing adequate time and space to work with materials that reinforce the topic being analyzed creates a chance for individual discovery and construction of knowledge to occur. I take learning in a course highly relevant to students' interest by asking them to come up with their own functional projects. In this manner, students create ideas and place goals that make for much richer activities than I possibly could have created or imagined myself. Therefore, I view teaching as a process of stimulating students to make links between their real life experiences and the subject being analyzed. In Art and Design, it's important to provide students with hands - on activities since it makes students have ownership in the task or activity. They are really encouraged to work hard and master the skills essential to reach their potential and/or goals. Being clear, however, about my anticipations and communicating them plainly helps my students for more information and perform better.
Teaching is not simply telling and delivering students with facts and information in much the same way an empty glass is packed or an ordinary paper is filled with writings or even as though they were bare slates, as persuaded by the majority of the behaviorists. These educational tactics have prevailed at producing skills in the lower order skills assessed on many checks, but have generally attained with little success in developing the sort of knowledge and skills that students need in real - life situations (Country wide Assessment of Education Progress, 1981). Newer knowledge of how people learn present a creation of teaching that targets developing 'thinking' students who understand and can use what they learn. This notion is what is termed as constructivist since it views learning as an active internal process where learners positively create knowledge by linking new information from what they know, somewhat than as a process where learners are unaggressive recipients of information transferred to them from exterior sources. Teaching in this manner emphasizes on developing students' capacities for evaluation and problem - fixing, somewhat than on having them cover the curriculum in the most efficient manner possible. It is rooted in the assumption that all humans have a deep drive to make sense of the world (Carini, 1987).
Constructivist classrooms function on the basis that learning in institution should not be different from the countless rich natural varieties of learning that students have experienced before they have got ever entered the school. Real - life situations form the foundation for learning and teaching is based on the assurance that throughout trying to solve practical problems, students have continual opportunities to arrange and reorganize their understandings and also to develop various access routes to their knowledge. In my coaching, students are permitted to do practical activities, that are mainly hands - on kind of artworks. My coaching style, predicated on the constructivist theory of learning, allows students to work with their own imaginations and personal experiences to come up with artifacts. As students interact socially, their learning is supported by multiple exposures since they bring into one place various experience. In this way, they determine their span of learning. Also, they are allowed to copy and learn from other prominent music artists and craftspeople in the community. This gives them an possibility to learn from other folks apart from the teacher or lecturer and peers. This sort of learning remains natural as it does not alter the usual form of learning, which the community has always embraced. Although in most cases the choice of your teaching strategy depends upon the topic being protected and the option of teaching resources, the use of materials and tools is certainly inevitable in order to encourage the learners to build up their manipulative skills also to be creative students. Lessons led by constructivist understandings provide opportunities for the students to positively explore, ask, discover, and test out the materials provided. The learning and coaching materials, which can be so essential in the coaching of Art work and Design, provide students with insights and practical realities of ideas and theories they can be learning. On the other hand, some students learn well through observation and curiosity. They are able to reproduce artworks of others after learning by observation. In my own teaching, I point out on the use of a crucial eye, requesting students to exceed just looking at things but to see things with an extra eyeball. Some students learn faster while some learn slower, but the fact is they are able to use their curiosity to learn and prosper on what they see. Like a teacher who's always there to help coaching and learning, I give additional time to the students in order to perfect their attention. Above all, I will know how to employ the most effective teaching and learning ways of enable students make improvement. The whole procedure for educating using the constructivist ideas, as a tutor, is to help the students learn approximately their potential permits (Travers et. al, 1993). Using the four functional starting items in Artwork and design, the professor makes sure that performance - structured educating provides opportunities for real life experiences in which the college student can apply preceding knowledge, create new understandings and lengthen their skill in practical ways. Perkinson in Muzumara (2011) also emphasizes that "as instructors we need to require our pupils in the lessons we instruct through practical work where they can use their knowledge, manipulative skills and apply their different senses to learn new ideas and develop knowledge and understand. " A lot of the fine art lessons are sensible, where students usually learn by doing, which helps to enhance and promote the development of processes, manipulative skills, attitudes, as well as the acquisition of knowledge.
The available literature, however, reveals that there is not any theory of coaching whatsoever. There are only models or paradigms of coaching. Teaching theory takes a wider point of view. Thus, educators and students are the major parameters of educating theory. It is based after learning theory, learning conditions and learning mechanisms. Constructivists, therefore, provide students with flexible schedules and lots of time and energy to explore a variety of issues and topics. Thus giving them the opportunity to temporarily transfer their attention, if indeed they want, and their work to focus on other studies also to returning, at later schedules, to previously unfinished projects or interests. Regardless of whether this theory is integrated around a style and generally involves more active projects than written tasks, the ideas in it are developed and planned by someone other than the learner, who in this case, is the lecturer or tutor of Art. In contrast, curricula developed through constructivist teaching are not only motivated by students' pursuits of their own questions but also are created to include opportunities for students themselves for connecting, organize, and assimilate their understandings from the information they encounter throughout their various experiences. As a educator or lecturer, I become helpful information, a coach, and an advisor, building bridges between my students' specific hobbies and understandings and the normal skills and knowledge society expects them to acquire. Falk (1994) affirms to this reality "constructivist instructors help students understand that there's a place for everybody in the school room and the institution. "
My idea of Education
In order to identify the purpose of education, what learning is, and even what teaching is, it is important also to state my beliefs of my participation in education, thus my idea of education. In my teaching of Skill and Design to the students, I have come to believe that my students have something to provide in my skill classes. In order to foster critical thinking in my own students, my teaching philosophy is to ensure students learn by finding, do things using their own imagination and own ingenuity. I believe this kind of teaching and learning brings true meaning of what education must end up like or is similar to. By doing things for themselves and directing their learning, students truly understand the concepts for each subject matter under - research.
Art and design is a functional subject matter. In its practicability, it allows me as a lecturer to give assistance and facilitate students' learning as they discover relevant information. The functional nature of the subject I instruct allows every learner, slower or faster, to provide in their best abilities even while I give guidance. Through encouraging students in what they certainly practically, students are linked to the real world as they produce things they see in the environment through hands - on activities.
I also believe as a guide so when an educator, I must accord a fertile surface for my students to meet their fullest probable in their structure of knowledge through the artworks they make. I really do this well by providing access to relevant knowledge that will assist them develop emotionally, socially, actually, and intellectually.
The use of a variety of strategies anticipated to a number of matters which require variety in teaching will be/is considered but students do more of discoveries and build their own knowledge, thus constructivist theory. A variety of material used in Art work and design accords my students a chance to enhance their manipulative skills and creativeness. WHEN I provide these materials, the students take this chance to experiment and discover answers to the questions that puzzle their imagination. Using the materials provided, students discover information relevant and of interest to their lives, thus self - determination in their own span of study. This also creates ownership of the artifacts for the students.
As an educator, my role is to instill the desire to determine more by students as they discover and re - discover new information and knowledge through their various artworks. My role as lecturer is to give students the tools with which to cultivate their own gardens of knowledge. To do this goal, I will coach to the needs of each student so that all can feel able, competent and successful. I'll present the curriculum which involves the hobbies of the students and makes learning relevant to life. That is easily done when students are directly in hands - on learning to make them effective learners. This ensures learning is tied into the world community to help students become caring and active participants of the contemporary society, who will also function effectively in a dynamic world. The acquisition of knowledge for long - life skills is developed, thus the introduction of problem - handling strategies. This surely fosters critical thinking in the students.
The purpose of education, what learning and teaching are, and my teaching philosophy identifies what education should be like in any educational learning institution. This, linking well with the educational ideas that a professor or a lecturer selects to use, create the kind of education that can bring about development to a country, such as Zambia. If students are permitted to be considered a major contributor with their learning process, more meaningful development can be accomplished. This development is not merely economical or political but also social and intellectual to a person learner. If development begins with an individual, then it can easily spread to benefit society and the city at large. Thus, Zambia as a country benefits greatly from the training system that is meaningful and developmental.
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