This chapter reviews the relevant literature used in this research in a thematic and systematic manner. It commences with reviewing text messages related to the modern day local and global problems. It then talks about the nationwide goals of education in Kenya relating them to the needs of the 21st century. Professor education in Kenya is then examined and finally the machine of education in Kenya is analyzed.
2. 2. 0 The issues of the twenty first century
The 21st Century has been conceived as: The age of 'Globalization', age 'Knowledge Current economic climate', and the 'Information age group'. Globalization identifies the contemporary public certainty, which is characterized by change, doubt, unpredictability, complexity, interdependence and diversity. Corresponding to Giddens (1990) and Albrow (1994), it refers to the process where human relations are ever more being intensified. As a result, economic, political, social and interpersonal distinctions have become less and less inhibitive. Growth, especially in the info and telecommunication sectors has compressed time and space and the earth is gradually learning to be a borderless forum for individual relationship popularly known as the global village.
The educational problems in a globalized world include:
ensuring that learners acquire the scientific skills that enable them to gain access to the global information and telecommunication sites,
transforming learner attitudes and dispositions to allow them adjust to change and uncertainty,
fostering character attributes in learners that produce them useful in a cross-cultural and democratic setting up. Such features include open-mindedness, tolerance and intellectual autonomy,
enhancing learner's capacity and attitude to believe critically and creatively.
Knowledge is becoming the most important factor in financial development in a globalized world, hence the use of the term "Knowledge market" to make reference to the modern-day global economy. Consequently, "the power of a society to produce, select, adjust, commercialise, and use knowledge is crucial for sustained financial growth and advanced living specifications" (World Bank, 2002). Education needs to go beyond simply informing learners. Learners need to be allowed to learn independently, make sense of and apply knowledge innovatively. Learners, therefore, need to take fee with their thinking and immediate it towards dealing with problems as wells as formulating and going after desired goals. Information and telecommunication technology that facilitate and support knowledge-based activities have become extremely useful. Information is becoming easily accessible with the use of the internet hence the utilization of the term "information age" to refer to the 21st century. Basically eating information uncritically is dangerous in a globalized era. Education should therefore allow learners to select, interrogate, evaluate and utilize information successfully.
2. 2. 1 The global challenges
According to Haag (1982) education systems on earth have expanded quantitatively rather than qualitatively making them unable to address current interpersonal problems. Although a lot of resources have been devoted to education, it appears like the systems of education have been ineffective in addressing communal ills like inequality, intolerance, amount of resistance to change, offense and violation of individual rights amongst others. These cultural ills express themselves in rising levels of poverty, cultural and racial conflicts and violation of real human rights in many parts of the planet. Ward and McCotter (2004) dispute that developing thinking skills in educational institutions, though necessary, is inhibited by inappropriate teaching methods used by teachers, ineffective evaluation procedures and rigorous overload of the curriculum. Other negative factors include ineffective educational regulations that emphasize content and framework of education while neglecting quality and process of education. Jelinek (1978) identifies the dominating expository ways of instructions as didacticism in which it is assumed that education can be an action of depositing knowledge into learners who are mere depositories. The procedure of education is lifeless, petrified, motionless, static and compartmentalised and thus strange to the experience of the learners. The approach is irrelevant to reconstruction of the knowledge of the learners being that they are considered to know nothing. Ultimately the approach will convert humans into automatons and therefore negates their dignity and skills as human beings. Without development of thinking skills, graduates from educational establishments are observed to be limited in analytical, creative and progressive abilities that are essential in the present day knowledge based mostly world of work.
Leat (1999) blames inability of education systems to address contemporary problems on faulty educational cultures and practices. For instance, attainment of good levels and certificates using whatever means is appreciated as opposed to transformation of learners into effective real estate agents of change in contemporary society. Bad competition among learners is tolerated rather than expanding the culture of cooperation and shared responsibility. Rigid adherence to existing educational cultures inhibits ability to react to change. Harmful competition among learners promotes antagonism and undermines team soul. According to Perkins (1990) the culture in most educational institutions is seen as a minimal informative responses and emphasis on traditional means of doing things. This diminishes the exercise of specific initiative and choice. Subsequently learners are denied an chance to develop essential characteristic of democratic citizenship. Such characteristics include respect for dialogue, freedom of expression and self-determination through specific choice.
Barrow et al. (2006) reviews that a analysis done in India disclosed that the main challenges facing educator education include achieving children's specific learning needs, respecting students' ethnic and socio-economic context and involving parents and neighborhoods in university activities. The instructors therefore require social and guidance skills that can enable these to empathetically discern the training needs of pupils. The professors also need to have the ability to deal with diversity of learners and forge school-community cooperation. Douglass (2006) perceives prep of employable graduates as the key task of education in the 21st century. According to him, emphasis on employability has resulted in other challenges. For instance, there are distinct divisions between scientific-technological academics disciplines on the one hand and interpersonal knowledge and humanities on the other. He argues that there is an overemphasis on the value of scientific-technological disciplines resulting in bifurcation of knowledge. Regarding to NCCPPE(2008), the main challenges that education must confront in the world today include: conservation of the environment and sustainability of natural resources; the provision of healthcare; renewal of monetary vitality; dealing with change through learning; promoting center human prices like justice, calmness and equity and protecting real human rights.
This study endeavoured to learn the amount to which global challenges mentioned above impact on Kenya. It further sought to establish whether and how the system of PTE in Kenya was responsive to them. The analysis also designed a platform by which the issues can be categorized for effective evaluation. For instance, this particular categories of challenges amongst others were be included in the construction: cognitive, ethnic, political, social, mental, economic, ethical, technological, and spiritual. Cognitive troubles include hurdles that hinder effective thinking. Such road blocks render learners incapable of analytical, evaluative and creative thinking. Such learners just duplicate and reproduce the ideas of other people without being delicate to context. Social difficulties include stereotypes and prejudices that are embodied in traditions and norms of particular communal groups. These traditions are passed on from one generation to some other without critical scrutiny. In addition cultural values and practices have a tendency to be ethnocentric. Therefore they promote issues and misunderstanding among sociable groups. Political troubles include ideologies and procedures that are designed to aid acquisition and maintenance of political ability. Often such ideologies are propagated in a competitive way without regard to sufficient examination, analysis and fair-mindedness.
Social challenges are the need to accommodate diversity in the modern environment that is becoming increasingly multicultural. There may be dependence on tolerance, open-mindedness and humility in interpersonal interactions. Emotional obstacles want to do with inability to understand and package with one's own sense as well as the thoughts of others. This is especially so in a interpersonal framework that is energetic, uncertain and difficult. Economic issues include scarcity of resources and questionable methods of distributing the resources. These troubles are compounded by the increasing needs and needs characterised by the consumerist standards of living. Ethical challenges happen from disagreements on principles of right and wrong leading to moral relativism. Such relativism makes moral ideals difficult to apply across board resulting in ethical misunderstanding.
Technological troubles include inability to regulate and manage the utilization of technology in a manner that benefits culture without endangering wellbeing. Such difficulties include checking misuse of the internet, regulating the media and ensuring that nuclear technology will not enter the hands of terrorists. Religious problems include animosity among different faiths that sometimes expresses itself in overt violent procedures. Religious fanatics often engage in breach of individual rights and criminal activities in the name of God. Each one of these challenges can't be effectively dealt with unless education empowers the learners and society at large to think for themselves, analyse and evaluate issues, question values and cases as well as develop the ability to creatively solve problems.
2. 2. 2 The difficulties in Africa
Assie'-Lumumba (2006) perceives your debt burden, ethnic assault, armed issues and the scourge of HIV and Supports as the most visible obstacles that impact education in Africa. What's needed can be an education system that can enable Africans to take part in the creation and application of knowledge relevant in handling these problems and promote extensive societal progress. In Ghana, the necessity to develop thinking skills among learners has been named a viable way of handling contemporary problems facing Africa. Yet, in practice, the development of such skills is not given adequate attention (Acheampong, 2001; Hill, 2000). There exists a mismatch between your professed value of thinking skills in education and actual efforts to develop such skills in professor training institutions. Relating to Owu-Ewie (2007), classroom environment in many educational companies in Ghana inhibit pondering in students. The professors have been seen to be autocratic and rigid in imposing their views on students. The views of students are disrespected and discarded thus discouraging learner contribution, curiosity and creativeness. Educators make poor use of questioning and drive and use the lecture method predominantly. The training system fosters rote learning, drilling and exam orientation. Such a system does not help a healthy teacher-learner conversation.
According to Barrow et al (2006), studies done in Namibia and Nigeria show additional obstacles facing education in Africa. In Namibia, although educational procedures are strongly predicated on effective learning and learner-centered theoretical base, in practice, these lofty ideas aren't effectively executed. The educational procedures are poorly realized, interpreted and carried out. The study studies support school-based instructor professional development programs, associated with whole-school improvement programs, as very promising means of increasing understanding and effective implementation of active-learning policies. In Nigeria, religious tensions and economical empowerment are the issues that education needs to address. Educators have therefore to be empowered to assist in inter-faith harmony, creative imagination and self-reliance among learners. In Ethiopia, low quality of education, insufficient financing, lack of collateral and poor management will be the key problems facing education (Ethiopian Country wide Company for UNESCO, 2001). Consequently, the ongoing educational reform encompasses every part of the educational system- the curricula, instructor training, educational inputs, educational finance, business and management, structure of education, profession structure of instructors, and analysis. The reform is targeted at total restructuring of the educational system. This research examined the troubles above and related these to those in Kenya and the rest of the world. In addition, it compared the strategies utilized to handle the difficulties with a view to reconstructing a far more responsive approach to the challenges relevant to PTE in Kenya.
2. 2. 3 The problems in Kenya
In Kenya, a few of the 21st century issues are HIV & AIDS, gender understanding, and awareness to human rights (K. I. E. , 2004a and 2004b). Others include poverty, crime, drug abuse, and unemployment. These problems require that education empowers the learner to reveal and respond to them pro-actively. While informing the learners about these problems is important, empowerment of the learner wants a change that transcends the cognitive dimensions to include all the faculties of the individuals person. This study explored these non-cognitive dimensions like the creative, cultural, honest and social amongst others.
According to RCE (2007), ecological development in Kenya (as in virtually any other country) is sophisticated since it includes sociable issues such as calmness and security, individuals protection under the law, gender equality, cultural diversity and intercultural understanding. Other issues include poor governance, problem, increased incidences of diseases, erosion of cultural ideals and morals, amongst others. The economic issues include corporate cultural responsibility and accountability, ethical marketing, increasing levels of poverty and the widening gap between abundant and poor. The other issues include trends of unsustainable creation and consumption leading to inefficiency and wastefulness, poor enforcement of regulations and regulations governing creation and marketing. Environmental issues are the energy, healthy and other domestic needs of any expanding people, unsustainable use of natural resources (drinking water, land), rural/urban migration, environment change, rural development, urbanization, disaster protection and mitigation concerns. This research examines the magnitude to which these concerns are attended to in PTE with specific mention of pedagogical approaches utilized.
Abagi and Odipo (1997) argue that the operation of principal education system in Kenya faces the situation of inefficiency. Low completion rates and countrywide pupil-teacher ratio make inefficiency visible. In addition, teaching-learning time was found not to be utilized effectively in primary schools. The factors which may be in charge of inefficiencies include: ineffective education insurance policies and management processes, misallocation of resources to various educational levels; school structured factors such as instructors' behaviour, time utilization, university environment; and home structured factors such as poverty. The inefficiencies recognized above lead one to question the product quality and relevance of education in Kenya. While Abagi and Odipo (1997) discuss inefficiency from the point of view of mismatch between tool inputs and desired result in terms of experienced graduates able to contribute to nationwide development, this study explored another dimensions of inefficiency which involves discrepancy between pedagogical solutions and the achievements of educational goals and targets. The concentrate therefore was on the procedure of teaching and learning in addition to other materials resources employed to go after the achievement of educational goals and objectives.
2. 3. 0 Global responsiveness to contemporary issues
Shah, (1997) talks about the implications of globalization in the 21st century which include information revolution, strong demand of relevant skills, doubt of a borderless world current economic climate, and strong competition amongst others. He shows that responsiveness to the reality wants a paradigm move in the management of individual relationships in every spheres of life. Although he requires a political perspective and dwells how a shift in settings of governance needs to be effected, this study adapts Shah's suggestions to a globalized educational context. For example the switch from management to leadership in political governance can be equated to the switch from authoritarian teaching to facilitative teaching in education. In both instances, control (of residents/learners by politicians/teachers) is discouraged while involvement, consultation and engagement by all gatherings is prompted. This change is so fundamental that Shah refers to it as a "cultural transformation". He identifies it the following:
The culture of governance is also slowing changing from a bureaucratic to a participatory mode of operation; from command and control to accountability for results; from being internally centered to being competitive and impressive; from being finished and gradual to being open and quick; and from that of intolerance from risk to allowing liberty to fail or succeed (Shah, 1997)
While responsiveness as detailed above is desired and even necessary in the world today, it isn't easy to accomplish. In expanding countries for occasion, the reform of the public sector has been attempted in many countries without visible results. Shah (1997) respect tries to reform the general public sector in many developing countries as an illusion or goal. The control and control orientation is so entrenched that developing a customer orientation that stresses cooperation and service is difficult to attain. Consequently human associations are without a sense of responsibility and mutual esteem. Relating these ideas to primary teacher education, responsiveness means allowing learners to be self-reliant and self-disciplined as well as positively engaging both instructors and learners as lovers in the learning process.
Leithwood et al (1994) assert that modern education systems have to handle broader and sophisticated goals, use a variety of forms of instruction and strategies for learning to cater for diverse clientele instead of the traditional younger learners. In addition, educational institutions will need specialized resources to accomplish self-employed decision making and cooperation with other organizations. Future institutions of education will need better decentralization of expert, empowerment of personnel, and increased accountability to the stake holders they serve. Much work will be employed to review this content of the curriculum and the procedure of instruction in order to improve learning as well as forge useful links between your educational companies and their environment. Specifically the next replies will be needed:
provision of higher order pondering skills like analysis, evaluation and creativity.
use of adaptable client-centred forms of instruction and determination to collaborate with other educational agencies.
Addressing of ethnical, religious and ethnic diversity and tensions and
Increasing respect for the privileges of individual, ability, race, age, sex etc which improves equity as an education goal as well as equal access to knowledge.
Beyer (1997) asserts that the ultimate way to respond to modern day troubles is to enable learners to learn. Therefore facilitation of successful and effective thinking. Such learning involves careful development of learner inclinations as well as their abilities to think skilfully. Barrow et al. (2006) records that a research completed in India suggest that one way of facilitating responsiveness among learners is to make a learning environment where children are motivated to participate positively and should think beyond their own context. This concurs with Beamon's (1997) and Beyer's (1997) view that the class environment should be motivating and provide opportunities for learners to use their cognitive and creative expertise. To be able to develop the thinking skills of learners, the professors need to utilize cognitive instruction techniques and learner-centred strategies which activate thinking. This analysis explored such strategies and strategies and endeavoured to find out whether they were being found in PTE in Kenya.
Kea et al. (2006) recommend multicultural instructor education prep as a practical way of promoting responsiveness to the problems of the 21st century. Professors who have learned culturally reactive pedagogy are believed to be well informed and effective in instructing children from diverse cultural, cultural, spiritual and economic backgrounds. Culturally responsive pedagogy consists of adapting this content of instructions and teaching styles, curriculum, strategy, and instructional materials attentive to students' values and social norms. Thus, the best challenge for teacher educators is to get ready reflective practitioners who is able to hook up, commit, and practice an ethos of good care with diverse students and their families.
According to Douglass (2006), responsiveness to modern challenges requires cross-cultural and individuals rights education. Governments should ensure that their key and supplementary educational systems provide for a balance and integration of national history and personal information formation with knowledge of other ethnicities, religions, and locations. Educational strategies should be suited to transforming the worth of teenagers, their perceptions and understanding of other civilizations, civilizations and peoples across all parts. Critical thinking should be advertised in order to enhance fair-mindedness and objectivity in a global where information has been generated and disseminated at an incredible rate. Critical thinking is essential for analysing, evaluating and making use of information. It is useful in combating misperceptions, prejudices, inaccuracies and outright is placed amongst others. Critical thinking increases the learner's capability to separate simple fact from opinion, to evaluate information for bias, to create and deconstruct so this means logically and relevantly. Such skills are essential for promoting tolerance, mutual respect and responsible citizenship. This research examines the responsive approaches discussed above in the light of the Kenyan framework. It aims at developing and recommending a comprehensive proposal of reactive pedagogies for professor education that are suited to addressing contemporary issues in Kenya.
According to NCPPHE (2008) the most important educational goal is to aid learning by students and the population in general and so make a learning society. In that population, learning is a way of life which is therefore life-long. Optimized learning is that which helps improve democratic and civic companies in the country. This idea of learning extends beyond the education of students in classrooms to include education's impact on societal organizations, businesses, businesses, and ethnicities. This view is also implemented by Partnership for the 21st century (2004), which is a conglomeration of general public and private relationship focusing on increasing education in the 21st century. The collaboration come to out to a huge selection of educators, business market leaders and employers to determine a eye-sight for learning in the 21st century, to attain a consensus on this is of 21st century skills, knowledge and expertise which will permit learners to flourish in modern day world. This work endeavoured to bridge the gap between your knowledge and skills most students learn today in school and the knowledge and skills required in the 21st century neighborhoods and workplaces.
The critical knowledge and skills identified by Partnership for the 21st century (2004) are learning and creativity skills (imagination and creativity, Critical thinking and problem resolving, communication and collaboration), information, mass media and technology skills (information literacy, multimedia literacy and ICT literacy) as well as life and career skills (flexibility and adaptability, initiative and self-direction, communal and cross-cultural skills, efficiency and accountability, management and responsibility). The collaboration also identified interdisciplinary topics which summarises the content that students should learn in the 21st century. These designs include global awareness, civic literacy, health literacy and financial, monetary, business and entrepreneurial literacy. This study used these themes, knowledge and skills to judge the success of teacher education in Kenya in equipping key school teachers to get ready pupils for the requirements of the 21st century.
2. 3. 1 Responsiveness to modern-day issues in Africa
According to Barrow et al. (2006) research completed in Nigeria mentioned that responsive strategies in education in Africa should target at fostering moral values such as persistence, tolerance, friendliness, compassion, empathy and fair-mindedness. In addition teaching methods and strategies should create and sustain a rousing learning environment. Professors need to use a variety of teaching solutions to reach students at different degrees of potential. In Namibia, the study recommended instructors' reflection on their practice to be able to get way of increasing teaching and learning. Learner-centred coaching, variation of teaching methods and strategies and positive tutor capabilities like kindness and courtesy were also argued to donate to responsiveness to modern issues in education.
Ethiopian National Agency for UNESCO (2001) identifies responsive education from the Ethiopian perspective as characterized by usage of basic education for all, production of responsible citizens that can solve problems and cooperate with others in fruitful socio-economic activities. Other characteristics of responsive education include collateral, community contribution in education, and suitability of academic disciplines to the needs of the country. Quality and quantity need to come with one another in educational matters; for instance, new educational establishments should be founded and the existing ones strengthened to be able to produce specialists at a variety and quality levels that match the requirements of the country.
2. 3. 2 Responsiveness to modern issues in Kenya
In Kenya, endeavors at making education attentive to modern issues and challenges is reflected in the many educational reports which may have been made since self-reliance (Republic of Kenya, 1964, 1976, 1981, 1988 and 1999). That is noticeable in the overview of the said reviews below.
The Ominde Statement (Republic of Kenya, 1964) was the first commission of indie Kenya to address issues of education. It made a long lasting contribution by articulating, among other issues, the goals of education in Kenya that happen to be strengthened in the commission payment reports that implemented. Among the tips that the article offered included that: partnership should be forged between federal government and regional and local authorities in the look and supervision of education; educational insurance policy should be consciously aimed towards promoting nationwide unity; religious training should be treated as an educational subject on educational lines dissociated from the sectarian objectives of any spiritual group; main education should provide training in the rudiments of citizenship; education should be attentive to modern day needs and modern educational practice; education should be child-cantered and child review experts should be included as lecturers in instructor training colleges. The Ominde Statement (Republic of Kenya, 1964) identified a number of issues of which the following are relevant to this research and remain highly relevant to the current situation in Kenya:
Education in Kenya should foster as sense of nationhood and promote nationhood. The post 2007 election violence revealed the actual fact that nationhood and nationwide unity have not yet been successfully achieved in Kenya(Republic of Kenya, 2008a) and education, to be relevant must develop among learners and teachers likewise patriotism, tolerance and mutual sociable responsibility.
Education should serve people and the needs of Kenya without discrimination. It should develop in learners the attributes of fair-mindedness, empathy and justice.
Education should enable learners by any means levels to adapt to change. This involves analytical and evaluative skills that allow one to study one's context, identify and establish problems obviously and accurately. It also requires creative skills to allow someone to formulate and put into practice relevant solutions to problems.
The teaching methods prevalent in educational organizations after freedom were faulted by the Ominde Article (Republic of Kenya, 1964) because they neglected learner contribution, creativity and understanding and emphasised drilling and authoritarian coaching. Little try out was made to adapt training to the needs of learners. In educator training universities, few lecturers were well grounded on the key question of how children learn or fail to learn. The report appealed for a paradigm shift in teaching and learning as indicated in the next:
We do not assume that the students will effectively break loose from the old bookish, rote methods until they have got themselves shared in the exhilaration of autonomous learning and have discovered how a lot more complete is their last mastery (Republic of Kenya, 1964, p. 116)
Gachathi Record (Republic of Kenya, 1976) expounded on the implications of the ideology of African Socialism on education in Kenya. The Survey recommended the next issues which remain highly relevant to the modern Kenyan framework: Education needs to continue promoting national unity in order to address cultural and economic troubles facing the united states; education should be considered a tool for removing social and local inequalities and creating international consciousness; education should improve adaptability and management of change; education should foster shared responsibility and co-operation and education should develop positive behaviour and worth that motivate people to serve diligently, actually and proficiently. The Report recommended that all educational corporations should give increasing focus on problem-solving coaching methods which have a bearing on the real life situation of the Kenya environment. This research examines the extent to which PTE has tackled the concerns and recommendation of the Gachathi report.
The Mackay Statement (Republic of Kenya, 1981) was mainly concerned with the establishment of the second college or university in Kenya. It advised the establishment of the 8-4-4 system of education. It reiterated the importance of the next targets of education in Kenya: fostering countrywide unity predicated on the adaptations of the wealthy cultural heritage of the Kenyan people; facilitation of the needs of countrywide development; development of skills, knowledge attitudes, talents and personalities of learners; fostering positive international awareness and advertising of cultural justice and morality. The Article witnessed that formal education possessed tended to focus on imparting knowledge with regard to passing examinations instead of facilitating problem dealing with.
Kamunge Record (Republic of Kenya, 1988) dealt with education and manpower training for the swiftly changing Kenyan population. It advised that education and training should be used to: develop positive attitudes and behaviors towards maintaining a clean and hygienic environment; promote appropriate skills and attitudes forever and employment in rural areas; provide ethical level of sensitivity and promote traditional principles and techniques conducive to national unity; bring about a sense of dignity towards interpersonal service and profitable labour and allow Kenyans to utilise available resources. Suggestion 216 of the Survey suggested that the grade of teachers and professor education needed to be improved. The importance of fostering nationwide unity through education was emphasised. According to the Report, primary education should, among other things, develop self-expression, utilisation of the senses, literacy, numeracy, manipulative skills, rational thinking, critical judgement and consciousness about the surroundings. This analysis observes that the accounts discussed up to now do not provide specific teaching and learning techniques that can accomplish successful implementation of these tips. It therefore examines the potential of the Critical Theory of Knowledge, Learning and Literacy as articulated by Paul (1995) and Paul and Elder (2001) as a practical pedagogical framework which can be used to handle the recommendations reviewed in the information.
The main issues raised by the Koech Report (Republic of Kenya, 1999) included: the necessity for countrywide unity and common social responsibility, the importance of life-long learning and development of technical and industrial skills. Country wide unity suggests harmonious and voluntary coexistence of different cultural communities as you country characterised by justice, integrity and patriotism. Common social responsibility implies a moral responsibility by society and its users to do their very best for one another understanding that contemporary society cannot prosper without the entire cooperation of its people. The Report determined some virtues appreciated in traditional African culture that ought to be fostered in modern-day educational settings. These virtues include capacity to pay attention; openness to dialogue; proper use of reasoning; self-control; honesty and fair-mindedness. The failure of the education system to foster nationwide unity was portrayed as follows: "The payment observed that the existing education system will not foster mutual sociable responsibility as evidenced by rampant violence, devastation of property through arson and selfishness which is characteristic of life in majority of educational establishments" (Republic of Kenya, 1999).
Some of the pressing problems facing education in Kenya that were resolved in the Koech Article (Republic of Kenya, 1999) included: access to educational opportunities; equity in education; relevance and quality of education. The Statement recommended that this content of PTE be modified to include appearing issues such as HIV and Supports; it and computer science; nationhood and issues of nationwide unity; gender mainstreaming and environmental conservation. This review observes that although reports discussed so far provided insightful details about the problems that education in Kenya must address, nothing of the accounts gave a particular pedagogical framework within that your challenges so plainly recognized could be achieved. This study tries to fill up this distance by arguing that a viable platform is one where analytical, evaluative and creative capabilities can be developed while at the same time fostering intellectual and moral virtues among professors and learners.
MOEST (1986) and K. I. E. (2002, 2004a, and 2004b) outline the eight goals of education in Kenya. All of the goals are relevant to this review but emphasis will be on the methods that have to do with enhancement of learners' capacity to adapt to change, think critically and imaginatively, work and contribute to individual and nationwide development. Specifically these goals are number 2 2, 7 and 8 which K. I. E. (2004a, p. vi-vii) amplifies the following:
"Education in Kenya must prepare children for the changes in behaviour and human relationships which are essential for the smooth procedure for a rapidly developing modern market. There will be considered a silent sociable revolution pursuing in the wake of fast modernization. Education should assist our children to adjust to this change. "
"Education in Kenya should provide the learners with the required skills and behaviour for professional development. Kenya recognizes the rapid commercial and technological changes occurring especially in the developed world. We are able to only participate the development if our education system is intentionally focused on knowledge, skills and behaviour that will prepare the youngsters for these changing global fads. "
"Promote international consciousness and foster positive attitudes towards other countries" (K. I. E. , 2004a, p. vi-vii)
The countrywide goals of education in Kenya anticipate the contemporary difficulties namely, national unity, change, cross-cultural conversation, personal development and fulfilment, industrialization and technological advancement among others. To be able to achieve the goals above, MOEST (1986) and Republic of Kenya (2005a) outline the following aims of principal education. Major education in Kenya should allow the pupil to:
"develop self-expression, self-discipline, self-reliance, full utilization of a child's senses"
"develop capability for clear logical thought and critical judgement"
"experience a important course of research that will lead to enjoyment and successful learning and a desire to continue learning"
"create a constructive and adaptive attitude to life"
"grow towards maturity and self-fulfilment as useful and well-adjusted member of society. "
The literature evaluated indicate that achievements of goals of education Kenya have been elusive regardless of the many reforms in the machine of education. This review sought to identify a few of the obstacles that have hindered the achievements of the goals of education. It further attempted to make recommendations that can make primary tutor of education attentive to the troubles of the 21st century.
2. 4 Main professor education in Kenya
Primary instructor education can be an important opportinity for achieving the nationwide goals of education. Matching to Republic of Kenya (1988), teacher education is regarded as crucial in making sure the maintenance of quality and relevant education. This point of view is distributed by K. I. E: (2004a: ix) which states that the targets of PTE are among others:
"to build up the basic theoretical and sensible understanding of the teaching occupation so that the teacher's attitude and skills can be converted towards professional commitment and competence"
"to get ready teachers who can form the child's capability in critical and imaginative thinking, problem fixing and self-expression"
"to develop in the tutor the capability to adjust to change or new situations"
Eshiwani (1993) claims: "At independence, Kenya inherited an education system with an undeveloped teaching profession. It was lacking in both quality and quantity". However, efforts were designed to establish and provide teacher-training schools. Republic of Kenya (1988) studies that instructor education was regarded as central to ensuring that quality and relevant education was provided in Kenya to ensure that social and economic change was achieved. Educator education was therefore a vital means of preparing learners for life in an easy changing world. The revised PTE curriculum has integrated into the syllabus current issues such as HIV & Products pandemic, medication and substance abuse, environmental education, human being rights, gender understanding and ICT. This is an important step in increasing recognition and informing the learner about current issues and challenges.
Despite the efforts to review the PTE curriculum culminating in the new syllabus (K. I. E, 2004a and K. I. E, 2004b), prolonged issues are reported in recent literature. Republic of Kenya (2005a) discerns the necessity for PTE curriculum to be altered to improve quality and relevance as well as hold the changing needs of the modern culture. KNCHR (2007) advocates for restructuring of PTE to be able to improve teaching methods, content and tool allocation. Republic of Kenya (2007) regards the current PTE curriculum as insufficient for ensuring creation, adoption, adaptation and consumption of knowledge. Furthermore PTE hasn't dealt with the mismatch between skills developed and modern-day market demands. Wegulo (2007) sees PTE to be lacking in flexibility thus adversely impacting on the quantity and quality of major school educators. Republic of Kenya (2008b) admits that PTE is inadequate in in-servicing of key school teachers to adopt alternative ways of curriculum delivery. Gakuu et al (2009) discovers the ICT element insufficiently infused and integrated into the PTE curriculum. ARSRC (2007) respect the infusion of HIV and Products into PTE syllabus to be inadequate for professor trainees' development of meaningful knowledge, skills and behaviour towards sexuality.
In view of the consistent difficulties facing PTE as mentioned above, this research investigates whether PTE is properly attentive to the contemporary obstacles. The study thought we would investigate PTE as a result of vital place principal education plays in individual and national development as Bogonko (1992) observes:
Primary education is the essential basis for literacy and the acquisition of other basic skills as well as positive public attitudes and prices which will make life useful in modern society. Principal education is also the foundation upon which are built the other higher constructions of modern educational and training systems.
Though Kenya has spent heavily in educator education, it's been argued that more must be done to promote the quality of teachers and teaching. Getao (1996), for illustration, cases: "It can be safely mentioned that teacher education has reached a level where the situation isn't that of number but that of quality". Fredriksson, (2004) elaborates the concept of quality education as relating to the following:
Fostering of problem fixing and decision making skills that assist in management of change and interacting with challenges confronting mankind
Enhancement of reading, writing and arithmetic skills as well as the capability to apply these skills in diverse contexts
Cultivation of ideals such as democracy and individuals rights as basics for quality education. Educators must train about values not only through the substantive content with their coaching, but also by using teaching methods, that will integrate democracy, conversation, equality, admiration and co-operation as elements of the work in colleges/institutions. In these areas instructors must be role models.
Quality education shouldn't be seen as a process of use, but as an activity of connection between professors and students. Education must purpose at giving students the opportunities for personal development and assurance to adjust to new situations as well as to change these when they find it necessary. This review adopts the extensive conception of quality education detailed above. While quality education is universally regarded as desired and promoting thinking skills in learners has enticed the interest of educators, little attention is directed at how educators should learn to promote it in classes. Educational organizers in Ghana for case, have given little consideration to how teacher training companies should prepare educators to improve the teaching of thinking (Acheampong, 2001; Hill, 2000, GES/TED/ODA, 1993). This study focuses about how PTE in Kenya can be enabled to foster thinking skills that are relevant in dealing with contemporary obstacles.
2. 5 Modern day issues facing main education in Kenya
The Kenyan system of Education aspires to prepare the learners to operate effectively in a complex and active local and international context. This, if achieved, would lead to specific fulfilment as well as national development. Towards this noble goal, the instructors in primary classes are expected to experiment with a respected role in permitting the learners to determine a firm base upon which further acquisition of relevant knowledge, skills and behaviour can be based. As Barbara Elliot observes, "Supporting research implies that the grade of education and treatment invested in the early years can ensure that children are more socially and cognitively prepared to meet their future" (Elliot, 2002)
The countrywide goals of education can't be achieved unless the opportinity for their achievement are adequate. One such means is proper PTE carried out in instructor training schools. This programme ought to concentrate not only on imparting relevant content but also on boosting the instructor trainee's instructional methods to make teacher-learner connection achieve the next amongst others: enhancement of understanding, discovery of one's potential, activation of the desire to keep learning, respect for human being dignity and protection under the law, and the readiness and willingness to enhance one's own as well as the well-being of others. Educators who've been ready effectively would in turn assist learners to identify their abilities, pursuits, inclinations and ambitions in an environment seen as a intense change, complexity, doubt and dangers.
Republic of Kenya (1999) and Wambari (1999, 2002) lament the failure of Kenyan education system to attain totally its preferred educational goals. These sources claim that many graduates from Kenya's educational companies are inadequately prepared to function appropriately in contemporary sociable and monetary situations. A number of the criticisms levelled against the system of education in Kenya are that its graduates lack the determination and intellectual autonomy that is required for productive and impressive work. They work best under guidance and they lack operacy- this is the ability for taking charge with their work and lives. This research discerns in these resources evidence to support the declare that learners aren't adequately prepared to face contemporary challenges. It therefore assumes that instructor education (which is accountable for preparing instructors) is itself inadequately attentive to contemporary difficulties as well. Wambari (2001) cites a few of the alleged shortcomings of Kenya's system of education as:
Learners cannot think and operate independently
Learners rarely ask questions. They mainly learn passively.
Learners are merely concerned about moving examinations and acquiring certificates.
Learners are lost immediately they enter in unfamiliar grounds as they lack imagination and ingenuity.
Republic of Kenya (1999) reported similar misgivings thus:
The fee was up to date that the current curriculum has not totally achieved the goals of education as it includes failed to provide sufficient knowledge and skills for the learners to be self-reliant and employable whatsoever levels. The curriculum has also didn't inculcate ideals and ethics, and the capacity for critical thinking and development. It has additionally not succeeded in fully dealing with the developmental needs of the united states.
This study wanted to find out the degree to that your adequacy of principal instructor education's responsiveness to modern challenges may account for the shortcomings outlined above.
In conclusion, the foregoing review of books indicates the next:
The need for responsiveness to modern day problems is well documented and reflected in the goals of education in general and aims of PTE in particular. Quarrels have been increased regarding the extent to which these goals have been achieved. However the literature reviewed scarcely provides clear signals that can be used to evaluate responsiveness of PTE to modern challenges. This analysis sought to address this space.
The literature evaluated shows that certain difficulties persist despite the various PTE curriculum reviews. However the researcher is unaware of any work made to take into account the persistence. This study analysed the challenges and attempted to account for their persistence.
There is scarcity of books related to analysis of the responsiveness of PTE in Kenya to the needs of the 21st century. The researcher dreams to make contribution in this field.
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