Competition is common in all human cultures around the world and its source rests concealed in an undetermined recent. Humans come across competition in their lifestyle. From athletics, business to connections, competition has eventually become inserted in people's lives which is undeniable that between competition and education a close website link can be drawn.
It is well-recognized that before 2001, the Mauritian educational system has been trigging a 'rat contest' (Ministry of Education and Scientific Research, 2001) competition because the lower main years. The countrywide position system was the foundation which decided which secondary universities children would be accepted to. Some universities were known as the 'superstar' schools transporting higher prestige and reputation than the 'less-performing' universities which was founded mainly on the laureateship system at Higher University License (HSC) level.
In 2001, the positioning system was abolished and the regionalization together with the grading system was introduced, which meant that pupils would get yourself a university in their locality. Yet, the new practice is far from being dissimilar to the rank system; rather than ranking each pupil, the 'A+' approach operates as a way to admit pupils in to the 'National Universities', many of which were previously considered to be 'star institutions'. Parents whose children are sitting down for the Certificate for Key Education (CPE) tests may choose if they prefer the youngster to compete for an extremely demanded seats in a national college or visit a regional school. Due to the enhanced competition in the educational sector, there may be heavy dependence after private tuitions as from early on classes in order to have success and to be one of the better. At the end of the seven many years of supplementary schooling, the best ranked HSC students earn scholarships to go after their tertiary education.
1. 1 Statement of Problem
There is the general opinion that competition renders learning a significant process, whereby students are permitted to experience emotions of success, discouragement. However, the inclination to compete may breed a tendency towards extreme, poor competition, thus giving by the wayside vital aspects of education like overall physical, mental and emotional development, ingenuity, moral beliefs and the importance of learning how to live as liable citizens.
It has been my observation that in the secondary school where I have been uploaded for School-Based Experience, for most students, competition may signify inspiration or stimulus to learn, but also for others, it may symbolize a causal factor for several problems and conditions. Hence, a key facet of competition in school is how it impacts on the learning procedure for students, for whom and how it leads to positive or harmful results.
1. 2 Target and Research Questions
For what reasons do learners compete with themselves and with the peers?
In what ways will fierce competition to excel or to be the 'elite' become a stress factor and a motivating factor?
What will be the implications of competition on the frame of mind, health and personality of students?
1. 3 Rationale of the Study
One of the key issues in the explanation for this research is the chance to study students in their environment, getting together with their friends and professors. The study can help me in the foreseeable future, to recognize factors influencing school room dynamics, to raised understand the relationships that students talk about and learn how to foster and assist in a conducive class room weather, with specific give attention to enhancing scholar well-being, especially the prone. The analysis would also be useful to me in effectively setting up situations and contexts where they can learn how to incorporate their individual egoistic strivings with the interest of other people, where they can help others and find out empathy.
Chapter 1 is the introductory section which presents a synopsis of the competitive characteristics of Mauritian educational system, the backdrop of the analysis and the research problem.
Chapter 2 summarizes the repeating styles from the books on competition. Different opinions of influential academics on issues regarding competition are elaborated. The chapter also provides an expos on the benefits that competition holds. The demerits and the hindrances that are derived from the notion of competition are also highlighted.
Chapter 3 expounds on the strategy of the research. It provides a detailed account of the different steps undertaken in the inquiry. The restrictions of the review are also one of them chapter.
Chapter 4 endeavors to provide an evaluation on the results of the study conducted.
Chapter 5 spells out the conclusions which have been slow of the results of the study.
Finally, chapter 6 discusses the results as shown in section 5 and sets forwards some suggestions and suggestions.
2. 0 Introduction
This chapter reveals an overview of the arguments supporting competition. The idea of competition is then mentioned in terms of its demerits and the hindrances that are engendered.
2. 1 Support for Competition
Marcus Verrius Flaccus, a Roman freedman, became a famous instructor since he launched the principle of competition among his students as a pedagogical help. He awarded books as prizes. In his "De ordinedocendi et studendi", Battista Guarino (1434-1513), an Italian scholar, has submit appropriate educational techniques, and argued that professors should avoid inflicting physical punishment to pupils. Instead, learners are best motivated by competition, that can be strengthened by permitting them to work in pairs (Verhoeff, 1997).
Tom Verhoeff (1997) is convinced that "the option of good competitions is beneficial for education in almost any discipline. An excellent competition should issue the participants to provide their finest, or ideally more than that. If the regular curriculum is not sufficiently challenging, then good students should be motivated to take part in extracurricular competitions".
Lawrence (2004) introduced a fresh pedagogical strategy which does not involve students working independently but it somewhat allows students to evaluate their code against other students and benchmarks during the assignment. 'The competitive development' is thought to encourage active learning and increase pupil desire. Besides increasing determination, the advantages of the competitive competition reduces procrastination. The competitive atmosphere also increases the connections between students having different learning styles (Felder and Silverman, 1988).
Ismail Fulu (2007) postulates that competition creates the perfect environment for promoting increased learner responsibility which eventually permits effective understanding how to happen. Fulu (2007) identifies several positive final results of competition, for illustration, students gain reputation of these learning, motivation and higher self-esteem. In Fulu's (2007) view, "students have gained many important skills that would not be possible if I had conducted standard classes". Fasli and Michalakopoulos (2005) explain that the notion of competition works as a spur for students to devote more efforts. Moreover, even weaker students persevere and take part in activities.
The chief target of these authors' procedure has gone to show how competition works as a stimulus to learn.
The results from the studies completed by Verhoeff (1997), Lawrence (2004) and Fulu (2007) showed that competition can lead to boosts in the work, dedication and determination levels of students. These data provide valuable and useful insight for my research as I'll investigate on the possible beneficial areas of competition.
The classification of Type A and Type B personality were formerly described in the work of Rosenman and Friedman (1974). Type A individuals have a tendency to be very competitive, self-critical; they have a tendency to be easily aroused to anger or hostility. The type A behavior structure has been defined by Friedman & Rosenman (1974) as: 'an action-emotion organic that can be observed in any person who is aggressively involved in a chronic, incessant battle to achieve more and more in less and less time, if required to do this, against the opposing attempts of other activities or other folks. '
2. 2 Hypercompetitiveness
Horney (1937) talks about that an frame of mind of 'hypercompetitiveness' can be made when competition can take an extreme and bad dimension (Ryckman, Thornton, Butler 1994).
Quite like the 'hypercompetitiveness' of Horney (1937) is the concept of 'Type A personality' put forward by Friedman and Rosenman (1974).
The type-A personality and hypercompetitive folks have a highly ambitious personality, wanting to compete and get at any cost in order to guard their self-esteem.
The foregoing studies put a limelight how competitive behavior can glide into a harmful situation such as hypercompetitivess and aggressiveness. These creators' standpoints allows me to explore and discover the consequences when students are too much into earning.
2. 3 Criticisms of Competition
Some studies, however, have taken a different way by investigating on the drawbacks of competition rather than on the merits of competition.
2. 3. 1 Egoistic Competition
Gandhi argues that egoism, rivalry and competition are characteristics of any person having 'rajasic ego', that is a one who is wanting to dominate, thus resulting in an egoistic competition. Interpersonal and international discord, followed by warfare and violence are brought on when such characteristics are left unchecked or praised. Gandhi advocates that in a non-violent population, competition does not have any place. Instead, it should be characterized by service, shared love and assistance, whereby people forget about their personal gain, do not strive to achieve success and success over others, but instead cooperate and provide for the welfare of others (Parmeshwari Dayal, 2006). It has additionally been pointed out that competition alienates people from one another (Buchanan, 1982). This notion goes in series with Marx's view on the capitalist system which sometimes appears to foster 'competition and egoism in all its members and completely undermines all genuine kinds of community.
Gandhi's arguments about egoistic competition shed light on the importance of aspects of life other than competition.
2. 3. 2 Competition versus Cooperation
What may are worthy of further attention is Kohn's (1987) viewpoints on the detrimental outcomes of competition on the lives, thoughts, behaviour of students.
Kohn (1987) has explored several areas of education and has found that in relation to competition, Americans presented two thoughts. The first judgment being the 'enthusiastic support' presumes that the greater children are engaged in rivalry, the better it is since competition foster figure and breeds excellence.
The second opinion - 'trained support' maintains a right medication dosage competition can be fun and healthy even if the frequent have to be winners and Number 1 1 suggests learners being forced too hard and too fast. After many years of exploration on the problem, Kohn deduced that the statement 'healthy competition' is simply contradictory since competition is essentially harmful.
Kohn (1987) contains that "competition is to self-esteem as sugars is to tooth". He supposed that rather than increasing people's sense of worth, competition causes self-doubt and reduces the probability of developing healthy self-esteem.
Competition is also regarded as being "a formula for hostility" (Kohn, 1987) - one individual can win only when others fail, and this may lead to bitter romantic relationship to be developed and others may be thought to be rivals instead of 'potential friends'.
Johnson & Johnson (1989) also share the opinion that competition is a dangerous force and should be eliminated as much as possible from the environments in which children and adolescents grow. Johnson & Johnson (1989) and Kohn (1987) support cooperation and group work have emerged as healthy means of learning. Kohn even stocks the belief that to be able to increase university achievement and enhance the human relationships among students, educational methods that lead to competition should be taken away. Johnson and Johnson (1989) argued that cooperative learning enhance more positive attitudes toward the coaching and learning experiences than competitive processes.
The romance between learners' attitudes and co-operation and competition were reviewed by Johnson and Ahlgren (1976). The study's results confirmed that students' determination to learn was not associated with competitiveness but to cooperativeness.
Humphreys, Johnson, and Johnson (1982) explain that learning experience was rated higher by students learning physical knowledge in a cooperative learning climate than those studying in competitive and individualistic environment.
The picture that Kohn (1987), the Johnsons (1989) and Johnson and Ahlgren (1976) presents, reveals a number of important issues with respect to the negative and detrimental results that competition can give birth to. Looking into this aspect of competition will participate my review.
2. 4 Sociable Comparison
In his theory of communal comparison, Festinger (1954) argues that this is out there in individuals a natural urge to know themselves, get responses regarding their talents thus allowing self-evaluation.
One of the motives behind sociable assessment is self-enhancement. That is when individuals seek more to produce and maintain an optimistic self-image than seeking reviews about themselves. Thus they take part in social contrast, which precisely makes the building blocks of competitive processes. An important component of the procedure is the selection of 'comparative other' (Festinger, 1954).
People with low self-esteem and with a threatened self-view are more likely to take part in downward evaluations (Wills, 1981). This calls for the selection of inferior standards, therefore the protection and augmentation of the self-image. An example of downward comparison is always to compare one's exams results to those who proved helpful less well or to failures' results. Two types of downward comparisons have been recognized.
A unaggressive downward contrast occurs when an individual takes good thing about a preexisting situation and makes a comparison (Wills, 1981).
An effective downward comparability occurs either through derogation or actively causing injury to others (Wills, 1981).
Derogation takes place when an individual attempts to belittle the target of his/her comparability in order to generate distance between her or him and the target. Actively causing harm to others would involve creating situations where others will be more poor than themselves, this provides you with the possibility to make downward comparisons (Wills, 1981).
A second reason to acquire social comparison is ideal for self-improvement (Taylor & Lobel, 1989). To get information and ideas on how to boost, people seek evaluations particularly with upward standards - other people who are better than themselves.
Thirdly, the need to make self-improvement is another justification of experiencing social comparison and this is done through upward contrast. In cases like this, the comparison standard determined would be those who are slightly better than oneself as this might bring about inspiration and provide information how to make progress (Bandura, 1986).
3. 0 Introduction
This chapter outlines the technique that underpins my review and it gives a conclusion of how the analysis has been completed to satisfy its objectives. It offers a framework talking about the number of steps that contain been followed, regarding examination of the whole research process right from the start to the finish. The validity and trustworthiness is explored.
Defining the study Question and Research Objectives
The first step includes formulating the research question that should be explored, and then your research targets must be mentioned. The extensive and general goal of the study is to analyze
Developing the study Plan
Gathering Secondary Information
A good point of departure for research begins with the gathering of extra data. In today's study, the extra data is justified by an intensive literature search undertaken. In addition, previous reports and studies related to this job were used to get an improved picture of this issue.
Internet and digital publications, including Emerald Library, EBSCO
Library - journals, textbooks
Planning Key Data Collection
establishes the focus of the analysis by creating questions about the situation or problem to be examined and determining an objective for the study.
The selection of the group of men and women to be studied is an essential step and that portion of individuals has the gain to be studied intensively. In the analysis at hand, the mark populace was the students of Upper VI in a ladies' Secondary College, which is one of the National Colleges.
To ensure a much better understanding of the subject matter, efforts were designed to acquire the views of professors regarding the negative and positive sizes of competition, as well as the foreseeable issues that lie forward.
a qualitative explanatory research was conducted at first with two instructors working in the same university. Through unstructured interviews, attempts were designed to acquire their views on the
I followed a qualitative way for my research as it is commensurate with my research questions and goal of understanding the effects of competition on attitudes of learners. The subject I selected to review required an usage of students' perceptions and meanings and motives attached to patterns. Since my research is a small-scale one, specific to 1 subject at one point in time and in one setting, the fundamental technique I decided to use is research study. I believed this process would allow an in depth, in-depth and detailed knowledge of the group under review that is students, with regards to a particular trend which is competition.
The basic methods I used in my research are questionnaires, target group interviews with students, interviews with instructors and observation in classrooms.
I thought that questionnaires would provide valid data because the risk of interviewer bias was minimised, whereby my presence would make respondents feel uncomfortable, ill relaxed and this would have influenced in one way or another the responses.
Moreover, being of unstructured format, the open-ended questions allowed students expressing the intensity of the views, present their personal feelings in their own words. I thought this would allow me to unlock students' subjective mind-set with regards to specific given issues related to the central point of analysis. Please note a backup of the questionnaire are available in Appendix A.
The questionnaires were administered to students and gathered afterwards. This technique was regarded as the most appropriate as it could allow the respondents to complete the questionnaire at a time convenient to them and this would add to the quality and validity of replies.
As a second data-gathering tool, I made use of concentration group interview which. By firstly developing a rapport with my respondents, I was able to gain their trust so that they sensed safe to start and promote their experience and emotions which in turn allowed me to gain a knowledge of how competition impacts on the lives.
As the concentrate group interview went in unforeseen directions to uncover unforeseen circumstances, I observed down the arguments as they were presented and then I organised these into repeating themes.
I also noticed that observation would be an appropriate research method in a naturalistic environment, as it provides
I also conducted semi-structured interviews with 5 professors in the institution. I used a check-list to steer interviewers through the interview process so that uniformity and uniformity could be preserved in the data, that could include valuable views and surprising insights.
In the present study, an example of 6 students has been taken for the supervision of questionnaires. I assumed this number could assist in to meet the objectives of the study. Additionally, given the limited timeframe for the completion of the task, a larger test size was considered difficult to be examined.
The quota and the non-probability snowballing sampling techniques were used. In connection with the handing-out of questionnaires, students were chosen at random to participate in the survey.
(i) Some wordings were sophisticated, ambiguous and incompatible with the respondents' degree of vocabulary.
(ii) Some questions were too much time, hence were left unattempt by students.
Eventually, predicated on the replies of the pilot analysis, the questionnaire was fine-tuned. A whole lot of questions were rephrased or lowered because they didn't revolve around the study problem. Others were put into simpler words so that they could be obviously comprehended by the respondents.
Practical principles of research ethics have been considered throughout the study in order to reduce the risk of harm by eliminating the options whereby members could be harmed or devote a position of discomfort. Individuals were given the right to withdraw from my research at any time.
One of the foundations of research ethics is the thought of informed consent. Students took part in the study only after their parents have stuffed consent varieties to approve their contribution. The two gatherings were given explicit information like the purpose of the research, the techniques used. Another element of educated consent is usually that the members were volunteers and took part willingly without being coerced or pressurized.
However, the use of observational research methods managed to get impossible to obtain prepared consent from members to take part and it had not been possible to let students who have been being observed really know what I was watching or recording.
Another important honest issue maintained throughout the research is the safety of anonymity and confidentiality. AS I reassured to carry all information in self confidence, only then individuals volunteered to talk about information of the delicate and 'disturbing' characteristics.
In an attempt to ensure confidentiality, I did not use the students' labels or those of teachers
Validity and Reliability
allowed me to form a romance with the individuals but at exactly the same time stay detached from the analysis in order never to let my very own judgements contaminate the data
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Critics of the research study method assume that the study of a tiny number of instances may offer no grounds for building stability or generality of studies.
Since the quota and snowballing are non-probability and judgmental sampling techniques, the selection of the respondents was therefore subjective rather than objective since it is based on personal judgments.
The collection of data was carried out during the period of HSc examinations. As a result, to get in contact and persuade the students to participate in the review and fill in the questionnaire with precise and relevant data was no easy subject.
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