The Country wide Curriculum was unveiled into the British educational system after the Education Reform Function in 1988. The idea of child psychology was addressed and heavily influenced by the task of Jean Piaget. Piaget was the forerunner of the 'constructivist theory of knowing' and submit the first systematic theory of Cognitive Development. His theory state governments there are four consecutive periods of cognitive development that are achieved at different ages within a child's life. Much like all high profile theories, not all experts arranged. Lev Vygotsky thought the ethnic background of children possessed a major effect on cognitive development, 'Any function in the child's ethnic development appears double, or on two planes. First, it appears on the cultural plane, and then on the mental plane. ' (??, 1981, pg 163). The main difference between Piaget and Vygotsky's ideas is Vygotsky believed even if a child did not have got the required skills or knowledge to complete a task, if they were surrounded by somebody who did, these were likely to be successful when steered in the right direction. Whereas Piaget explained a child's cognitive development is bound by what they may be in affect 'ready' to learn. By applying Piaget's theory to the Country wide Curriculum a more 'child-centred' approach can be used within the School System. Piaget once said 'Education, for most people, means wanting to lead the kid to resemble the normal adult of his world. . . . but for me and no-one else, education means making creators. . . . you have to make inventors, innovators rather than conformists' (Bringuier, 1980, pg 132).
Forces and Action form a substantial amount of Physics at all Key Phases in the National Curriculum. Forces have a simple role in the way the Earth is put and how objects are performed on the planet earth. It is vital children are educated where and how Forces and Motion affect us and exactly how they determine day to day living.
Jean Piaget shared the first reasonable theory of cognitive development which when put within an educational context can be used to improve the educational system for many students. Piaget targeted how children learn, adjust to an environment and any changes that may occur. He thought children must have constant connections with the exterior world. Piaget also talked about the theory of moral education and thought children make moral judgements by observing those around them, 'the child is a person who constructs his own moral world view, who forms ideas about right and incorrect, and good and unfair, that are not the direct product of adult teaching and this are often retained in the face of adult desires to the contrary' (Gallagher, 1978, pg 26). He thought education and the way children are educated can have a significant influence on development.
Piaget's theory state governments there are four main regions of Cognitive Development. The first, Sensori-motor, occurs between delivery and age two. Children learn through their senses and actions, however are egocentric. The evidence Piaget gathered exhibited children in this stage connect to their environment by manipulating objects, this is recognized as intelligence in action (Michael W. Eysenck, 2000, Pg 411). Towards the finish of the sensori-motor level children begin to build up subject permanence.
The second of Piaget's periods, pre-operational, is split into two sub-sections, Preconceptual (aged two and four), and Intuitive (aged four and seven). A main characteristic of this level is illogical thinking and centration. During this period it is not possible to change a child's opinion on something they consider to be true. For example if two spectacles with equal amounts of water are proven to a child, the other is transferred into a larger glass, a kid would state it contains less drinking water than the other, even though they totally observed the procedure (Michael W. Eysenck, 2000, Pg 413).
The third level occurs between aged seven until roughly twelve and is known as Concrete Operational. At this time logical thinking advances allowing thoughts to be organised coherently. However children are still struggling to think abstractly and logical thinking is limited to real objects and subjects that may be seen. Children are able to concentrate on several factor, for example when asked to choose similar objects, the second thing chosen will be like the first in space and the third chosen will be similar to the second in colour (Michael W. Eysenck, 2000, Pg 411). The idea process behind the utilization of experiments is known as they comprehend planning, carrying out, showing and concluding the results.
The fourth stage is Formal Operational which occurs from older twelve upwards, where children are able to comprehend abstract ideas allowing topics such as Space and Gravity to be explored. Prior to this children cannot realise intangible ideas and ideas. An important step in formal functional is when children stumbled upon a situation they don't understand, they are able to change the way they think to be able to comprehend it. For example formulate a hypothesis and carry out a systematic test to produce leads to support a remedy.
At Key Level 1, children are aged between five and seven and are in the Intuitive level in Piaget's Theory. Makes and Motion are created to the children in the first 12 months of Key Stage 1 using the component Pushes & Pulls. In this, children can get to learn things such as how objects move and the various types of movements. Children may be asked to go in various ways and then asked to go over which parts of their body move. Dialect skills progress in the intuitive stage however Piaget expresses this is a rsulting consequence basic cognitive advances. Assessments are kept in line with Piaget's theory and can include labelling objects regarding to their activity for example drive or move.
During season two of Key Stage 1, Pushes and Movements are again taught however knowledge is expanded in the module Forces and Movement. The topics covered strengthen knowledge previously trained in order to build up pupil's knowledge. Language and vocabulary is extended by adding words such as twist, squeeze, stretch and grab. Investigational skills begin to build up as children are taught how to suggest a question and forecast exactly what will happen. The 'reasonable test' concept is also prompted and expanded. They are fundamental skills that are developed at a later stage.
Pupils move to Key Stage 2 at the age of seven and continue until older eleven. According to Piaget's these are Concrete Operational, the 3rd stage, meaning reasonable reasoning can be applied to real objects. Forces and Action are trained in Year 4 (aged eight) in the module Friction. Specific topics are re-capped to be able to combine previous facts. Children should use new equipment like a forcemeter to carefully assess a push. New vocabulary and ideas are also created at this stage, for example 'newton' as the machine of force. Investigational skills are advanced by getting pupils to plan an test and abide by it through.
The module Makes in Action is taught in Time 6 (get older ten) and includes gravity and weight. The basis of all subject areas protected have been previously educated, this shows the continuity of this issue throughout both Key Stages. This enables the kids to logically remember these details and grow it. As the children are still in the Concrete Operational stage they are able to apply reasonable thinking however and then real objects. It's important forces are used to describe phenomena in everyday living to show the importance and impact they have. Towards the finish of this unit the concept of Gravity is unveiled, however corresponding to Piaget children at this stage cannot comprehend abstract ideas.
During Key Level 3 children are on the border of the ultimate stage, Formal Operational. Where individuals are in a position to think logically and rationally about potential happenings and abstract concepts. In Calendar year 7 the pupils are educated the module Pushes and their Effects. Children are advanced when you are educated the difference between mass and weight as well as how to relate forces in action to changes in movement. This provides a primary link back again to modules Pushes & Motion and Friction in Key Level 1 and 2. At this stage the pupil's learn why it is vital to repeat measurements and tests to show reproducibility and reliability of results. They are simply introduced to the idea of different variables in a experiment and the value of handling these.
During the final year of Key Level 3, 12 months 9 (years 13) Makes and Movements is covered in three separate modules. The first, Gravity and Space introduces the idea of abstract considering objects and makes. This links back to the module Pushes doing his thing from Key Stage 2. Gravity is recently touched upon in Key Level 2, however corresponding to Piaget's theory they are unable to fully understand abstract concepts. As a lot of new information is trained during this component, the pupils greatly develop their knowledge. Investigational skills are expanded in this module and pupils are made aware that Experts research concepts mutually and interpret the evidence.
The second forces module in 12 months 9 is called Speeding Up which is directly linked to several modules previously trained in Key Level 1 and 2 such as Pushes & Pulls and Causes in Action. It expands earlier subject areas by allowing pupils to consider the partnership between forces by using an object and its own movement. It introduces balanced and unbalances makes and exactly how these make clear the movement of falling things.
The final module is Pressure and Moments. This involves the notion of moments and again builds on earlier information provided to the pupils. That is a significant step for children as the majority of these topics havent previously been taught. However there continues to be continuity as all the previous knowledge about friction and gravity play an important part in understanding these ideas. As with past modules the investigational skills of the pupil's are further developed with anomalous results being released and precision measurements are reiterated.
Due to the separation of specific Sciences at Key Level 4, Forces and Motions as a subject can be found in several things, for example Physics and Additional Science. Areas protected include how to spell it out the way things move and what's momentum, this again demonstrates continuity through the Key Phases. Ideas are also extended, for example when studying momentums, children are anticipated to be able to calculate momentum and how momentum may be used to calculate other beliefs such as Force.
At AS / A-Level, children are no more in compulsory education however Makes and Motion feature within Physics lessons. Mechanics is unveiled as a fresh topic which includes relating drive to waves. The main topic of momentum is widened and establishes circular and oscillatory movement. The course Physics in Framework solidly places physics in a range of contemporary environments. It presents students to new and fascinating regions of physics and produces essential knowledge and understanding. The modules allow pupils to consider how understanding of forces and movement underpins everyday activities such as transportation and record breaking in sport.
The concept of Forces and Movement within the Country wide Curriculum is unveiled at the beginning of Key Level 1 and it is taken throughout compulsory education and post sixteen studies. First knowledge is expanded and consolidated in the beginning of each module and all systems link together. Although the modules aren't carried out in consecutive schooling years, I think that with framework of the Country wide Curriculum, continuity is stored by recapping at the start of each device. It really is clear development within the subject occurs within the machine and there's also areas for gifted and proficient students to stand out. From taking a look at the National Curriculum, Piaget's theory has had a major impact, as the level at which the info is pitched immediately relates to the characteristics detected by him. For example in Key Level 2 pupils are Concrete Operational in support of able to relate to real things and ideas. Therefore Pushes such as speed and movement are mainly covered. In Key Stage 4 pupils are Formal Operational and can comprehend abstract thinking, therefore Gravity, Space and Moments are introduced. However as with all major theories, there are areas that not fully explain the concept, in this case the cognitive development of children. Psychologists such as Bower (1982) challenged Piaget's theory and submit the theory that Piaget got a tendency to underestimate the cognitive capability of children. Bower hid a toy behind a screen so when the display screen was lifted a couple of seconds later, the toy was longer there. The three to four month old children in his research confirmed a 'stunned' response thus suggesting subject permanence can be there much sooner than Piaget publicized (Michael W. Eysenck, 2000, pg 411). Lev Vygotsky's contributions must also be recognized who along with other publications investigated the area of proximal development. This explained that although children may appear to lack certain skills when examined in a handled environment, if analyzed again when bounded by someone with the required knowledge they are more likely to succeed. Although elements of Piaget's Theory have been question and to some degree disproved, as a whole no other theory has come close to explaining, in detail, the way in which children's thinking and learning advances.
Eysenck, M. W. (2000) Psychology; A Students Handbook, East Sussex: Mindset Press LTD, Web publishers.