The Educational System In Mauritius Education Essay

Education, whether as knowledge in basic skills, academicals, complex, self-discipline or citizenship is nowadays the most important issue discussed in every societies across the world. Education is not only the build up of facts but also the development of logic and affordable thinking skills that may enable visitors to use their knowledge in a number of application problems. Education prepares a person to become fully-fledged citizen, alert to his protection under the law and conscious of the right behaviour. The forming of an individual into a whole and respectable citizen is a life-long process which takes its main at home and from personal encounters within the educational system and at work. Education also permits social conversation among people of different ages, cultural categories and races. Therefore education supplies the basis for a mutual understanding and approval among differing people. This will likely later help the given individual to adapt himself correctly to the people in society, whether it's work or his neighbourhood. Education also imparts understanding of the communal ills, such as drugs, alcohol and prostitutions. In Mauritius, the Ministry of Education and RECRUITING is aimed at sensitising our kids at a very young age in order to become a good citizen.

The educational system in Mauritius is basically based on the British University system. After the independence of the island Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam marketed free education and therefore allowed everyone to have equal right to education and now schooling is compulsory up to the age of 16. This year the government has allocated Rs 4, 208 million to education. This presents 11% of the National budget.

Our educational system is split into pre-primary, primary, secondary and tertiary education. We must remember that education at the levels are governed by the Education Take action 1996, amended in 2001. It suggests that all children should attend primary university and failing to do so the responsible get together will be prone to pay a fine or could even face imprisonment [4].

The Ministry of Education and Human Resources (officially Ministry of Education and Methodical research) manages and control buttons all actions related to the provision of education in Mauritius. Its main duties are to provide free pre-primary and principal education, to provide admission to all or any children in the Republic of Mauritius to extra education and promote the tertiary sector. The Mauritius Assessment Syndicate (MES) is in charge to conduct all nationwide examinations.

The classes in Mauritius are allocated in four zones; the first zone is Interface Louis/North, secondly we've Top Plaine Wilhems/East, finally we've lower Plaine Wilhems/South and the fouth zone is Quatre Bornes/Western world. Pre-primary education in Mauritius starts off at age 3. Pre-primary education is provided by both federal run academic institutions and private aided institutions. However, more than 75% of the pre-primary academic institutions in Mauritius are privately run [4]. Principal education begins at age six. In order to successfully complete the primary education one must pass a nationwide examination, License of Major Education (CPE). One can start supplementary and prevocational education in Mauritius after transferring the CPE exam [1]. Below is a table showing the developments of results for the past years for the CPE examination in the Republic of Mauritius (Mauritius, Rodrigues and Agalega).

Year

% Passed

Male

Female

Total

2006

62. 0

74. 3

67. 9

2007

60. 1

72. 1

66. 2

2008

62. 1

73. 2

67. 4

2009

62. 29

74. 46

68. 13Table 1. 1 Certificate of Key Education Examination (CPE) results by gender (School individuals only), Republic of Mauritius Time 2006-2010 [2].

After concluding their principal education, students are automatically accepted to the secondary level of education, which continues further for the next seven years. However, at the end of five season, students need to take the institution Certificate examination. In '09 2009, 77. 64% of 17498 individuals handed down the Cambridge University Certificate. THE BIGGER School Certificate persists for another 2 yrs and this tag the finish of extra education. In '09 2009, the amount of students who needed part in the Higher School Certificate evaluation is 9490 students and the forward rate is 78. 77%. Scholarships are awarded to the best students in four fields: Technology, Economics, Art and Complex.

Post-secondary education in Mauritius is promoted by the Tertiary Education institutes. In Mauritius there are two universities in the public sector, specifically the School of Mauritius (UoM) and the School of Technology Mauritius (UTM). Both run undergraduate and postgraduate programs. PhD is also provided in a range of disciplines. Besides there are other two other organisations offering diploma, level and courses, they are the Mauritius Institute of Education (MIE) and Mahatma Gandhi Institute (MGI). The MIE offered training to college instructors in program ranging from license, diploma and the PGCE. There are three Polytechnics, managed by the Technical University Management Trust Finance. They run programmes at the qualification and diploma levels within the public sector. These are the Sir Person Forget Lyce Polytechnique, the Swami Dayanand Institute of Management, and the "Institut Suprieur de Technologie".

Figure 1. 1 Structure of the training system [4].

Pre-Primary Education

The focus of this project is pre-primary education. Pre-primary education (or Early on Childhood Education) identifies the stage of education before most important university for children. It lays an important basic for life-long learning and complete person development. It articulates with principal, supplementary and tertiary education to complete the education system in almost all countries of the world.

The pre-primary level of education is recognized as one of the main and most essential of all phases in the correct development of a kid whether is in the mental, behavioural or cognitive area. Pugh and Rohl declare that the years between three and ten are crucial as it is of the utmost importance in the child's physical, emotional and intellectual development.

According to Henniger, play is the principal opportinity for learning in the early childhood class. Play stimulates creativity, imagination and the determination to participate. Henniger also emphasised that teachers and parents should interact in order to market quality education. Learning as of this young age takes place primarily through sensory experience with real life materials [3].

Many countries like in USA, China, England, and France amongst others have elaborated special frameworks to utilize small children. A curriculum platform is made for teachers to allow them to follow the same steps to keep all children in tempo.

Pre-Primary Education in Mauritius

Pre-primary education in Mauritius plays an essential role in the correct development of the Mauritian child. It really is fundamentally for children from 3 to 5 5 years of age. Early childhood care and education is getting remarkable importance in the united states and most of the government run primary institutions are checking sections for pre-primary education although the majority of the pre-primary institutions are private ones. Children in the age group 4 to 5 yrs. old attending a private pre-school receive a monthly capital grant of Rs 200 from the Government so when from January 2011 children of three years old will also have the grant of Rs 200. From the Rs 4, 208 million (11%) assigned to education sector, Rs 94. 1 million (2%) were for the pre-primary education [4].

The Early Child years Health care and Education (ex Pre-School Trust Fund) was setup in 1984. Its main aim is to provide the kids (three to five 5 years) all means necessary for a lasting education also to provide equal access for all those children to quality pre-schooling, including those vulnerable to postponed development and disabilities, by using a child-centered and play-based methodology, with the engagement of the parents.

Schools

The number of pre-schools has substantially increased inside our country. In March 2009, there were 1, 057 academic institutions providing pre-primary education: 1, 024 in the island of Mauritius and 33 in Rodrigues. Of the classes, 803 (76%) were privately run organizations; 182 (17%), functioning on government principal school premises, were administered by the Early Childhood Treatment and Education Power (Ex lover Pre-School Trust Account) and the remaining 72 (7%) were given by either Roman Catholic (RC), Hindu Education regulators and/or Municipal/Village Councils [5]. Both governmental institutions and private colleges follow the Country wide Curriculum Platform Pre-Primary (3-5 years) that was made by the MIE so that all the children are in same level when they go into primary college.

While investigating about pre-primary education in Mauritius, we've seen some problems which make the teachers unsatisfied. Out of 10 Federal government pre-primary classes, half of these are complaining that the toilet is quite far from the pre-primary unit and therefore the young children have to walk a lot to go there. They also said that they need more space for the children to practice their daily activities. We must note that in federal government pre-primary schools we have 2 pre-primary classes, each comprising of 25 young learners. Additionally they would like to be equipped with a kitchen in order to heat the food of the kids since when they bring food in Tupperware the food is already chilly at that time they will eat it.

As much as ICT can be involved, there is an acute insufficient resources. In a few universities whether private or governmental, almost all of the pcs are out of use. These computer systems were aiding the teacher to get ready work for the children. Sometimes these were used to instruct children how to use the many programs, specially Coloring to allow them to learn and develop some of computer skills. They also want to a particular teacher to teach computer skills to the kids.

ICT in Mauritius

The Government of Mauritius has positively promoted ICT since 1989. They have set up four institutions: the Country wide Computer Board (NCB), the Central Information Bureau, their state Informatics Limited and the State Training Centre Limited. The Ministry of Information and Communication Technology deals with the formulation and execution of government policies in the ICT Sector [6].

According to National Information and Communication Technology Strategic (NICTSP) 2007-2011 plan, Mauritius is on the verge to become a cyber island [7]. Recent reports shows that our country has 29. 6% internet penetration percentage with 380, 000 internet users. Following the Global Information Technology Record 2008-2009, Mauritius ranking 51st position in the use of ICT for development [8].

Since ICT within the recent years is now an extremely obligatory tool in several sectors, research has been done how to introduce Computed Aided learning surroundings in pre-primary, key, secondary and vocational education in Mauritian context as we cannot blindly copy the way it is performed in other places [9].

National Computer Board

The NCB is given by a table of directors under the aegis of the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology. Its perspective is to be the key enabler in transforming Mauritius into a Cyber island and the regional ICT hub and its objective is to e-power people, businesses and the general public sector by developing and promoting ICT and ICT- related services [10]. It provides for General ICT Education Programme for imparting computer effectiveness skills to the populace and the Cyber Caravan which has 10 Computers and Internet Connection to help ICT in the most isolated areas in the island. Besides, every year the NCB organises InfoTech to set-up awareness on rising technologies and offer business opportunities in the ICT sector [11].

Discussion

As said prior, 2% is allocated to pre-primary education but if we analysed it well, it isn't enough for such an important period in the life of a kid. The government should boost the amount assigned to pre-primary education but of course not at the trouble of primary, supplementary and tertiary sector.

Nowadays increasingly more children are familiar with technologies (television, mobile phones, radio, digital camera, computer laptop among others) as soon as they are born. Therefore it would be unrealistic to feel that children between your age group of 3 and 5 will never be in a position to make proper use of computer.

The rest of the task is organised the following. Section 2 backdrop studies will summarize about learning areas for pre-primary education in the Mauritian context and ICT in education in Mauritius. Section 3 namely the literature review provides details how education is done in various countries and impact of ICT in education.

BACKGROUND STUDY

This chapter contains the various skills a young learner should know in order to begin primary school. A major area of the resources in this section result from the National Curriculum Construction for pre-primary education.

The aim of Early Childhood Care and attention and Education (0-8years) is to focus on the holistic development of the kid and to lay a solid basis for lifelong learning. It is to be mentioned that the Ministry of Education and Human Resources, through its Strategic Plan (2008-2010), has proclaimed that children aged three to five 5 years must attend pre-primary institution, followed by a 6-time compulsory principal schooling.

There are 6 regions of learning that pre-primary children should master prior to going to primary institution.

Personal, Social and Emotional Development

Communication Terminology and Literacy

Expressive, Creative and Visual Development

Health and Physical Development

Body and Environmental Awareness

Mathematical and Reasonable Thinking

Children learn these areas by taking part in, doing activities, speaking, listening, doing moves using their hands and by learning from other children. For a child to learn well, the environment should be very attractive and child-centered, for example posters can be put all around the school room to make it more lively and appealing to them.

Personal, Public and Emotional Development (PSED)

Figure 2. 1 Personal, Friendly and Emotional Developments

This region of learning is approximately knowing oneself, creating a positive self-concept and building self-confidence. Children learn how to interact with friends, people and respect others by recognizing their differences. In addition they learn about cultural events and spiritual festivals which can only help them to learn more about different faith in the country [12].

When children have learned this skill, they must be able to reply when discussing their first and last name. They should also dress and undress by themselves and eat skilfully. Different strategies can be used in this field of learning like presentations, testimonies/songs, mimes, group work and dramatization

The children are evaluated by being observed by their instructors. Through observation the teachers assess the behaviours of the children inside the classroom. These observations are reported by means of anecdotal report and these files help the tutor for future planning and plan follow-up activities [12].

Communications, Terminology and Literacy (CLL)

Figure 2. 2 Communications, Language and Literacy Areas

During years as a child, development effectiveness in the mom tongue is of the utmost importance as terminology is the key to knowledge acquisition. Our mother-tongue is Creole. It is used in pre-primary education but British and French are used more. The Ministry of Education and RECRUITING is likely to introduce Creole as an optional dialect in education. Children who cannot deal with the difficulties of mastering reading, writing and keeping track of will use the mother tongue to understand basics, and they can transfer the essential skills to other classes they follow at institution [14]. Which means pre-school educators can use Creole to help the kids understand mastering basic skills.

Children learn to use language in order to communicate their activities and feelings in several situation. They develop their dental (listening/speaking) and written skills (reading/written) by being involved in different activities such as taking part in interactive games, hearing stories and performing. In this area, assessment of the kid is manufactured by observing him or her. The performance signals can be used to help out the professor to profile the children's dialect potential that is if the child has been able to talk and talk about his/her emotions [12].

Computer may be used to provide some interactive educational game titles to the kids like allowing them to differentiating shapes and providing them with a score by the end. Besides, by using computer, teachers can make the children listen to reports by providing them with images and videos.

Expressive, Creative and Cosmetic Development (ECAD)

Figure 2. 3 ECAD Different Skills

In this area the kids should use their creativeness by discovering different art mass media in their environment. Through artwork, children can share their feelings and emotions and appreciate different things by using media, music, storytelling and activity. Human ideals play a basic part in the all-round development of a child. It has been included in pre-primary education as it is important that the child know about moral beliefs and ethics based on the tremendous improvement of knowledge and technology [12].

Assessment in this area will be expansion oriented. The idea of evaluation should be predicated on a broad comprehensive concept worried about a variety of tools and techniques and everything aspects of the child's progress. The educator's observation will be the main tool for examination and will provide both formative and diagnostic success purposes [12].

Computer can help a whole lot in this area of learning. Children can use paint to be able to draw and color different patterns. Besides, music and rhythms can be played using the computer at the same providing a aesthetic aspect to them.

Health and Physical Development (HPD)

Figure 2. 4 Different Skills in HPD

Young children are energetic learners so they need to develop a healthy standard of living by cultivating good behaviors. By understanding basic health and safety issues, they can protect themselves against many problems. Appropriate training and synchronization of your body and sensory functions plays a vital role in children's learning as it could effectively develop their awareness and observation abilities and thus increase their self-confidence. So the children can practice breathing exercises, take part in lively play such as operating, jumping, going after, and moving to music. They must be able to complete 6 portions puzzle, manage toileting, hold objects, and carefully work out stairs, curbs and uneven surfaces.

The educators will discovered the children's involvement, reactions and manipulation during learning activities. The professors keep documents of the children performance which can only help them to evaluate the children later.

Body and Environmental Recognition (BEA)

Figure 2. 5 BEA different skills

Children are very curious naturally. They would like to learn about their body and the environment. In addition they develop understanding about the five senses that is look, hearing, taste, smell and touch. They also learn about plant life, pets, living things and simple incidents occurring in the surroundings. The main target here is to help the children to build up important technology process skills like observing, classifying, routine seeking, hypothesizing, inferring and predicting [12].

Moreover, since their early years children are surrounded by technology whether television, radio, cell phones and pcs, so they have to know the value of all these technology at a young age.

Assessment of the children's learning in this area would be through observation the kids participation, responses and manipulation during learning activities like drawing and role play.

Mathematical and Logical Thinking (MLT)

Figure 2. 6 MLT different learning skills

Mathematics helps children to seem sensible with their world and develop logical and logical thinking. Mathematics at pre-primary level comprises activities and play. At the young learner can master the names of some typically common shades (red, blue, yellowish, inexperienced. . . ), the names of basic forms (circle, triangle, rectangle and rectangular). They also needs to be able to make comparison between small and big objects, count number 1 to 5 or 6 or 7 or the other figures and estimate the volume required (e. g. in terms of mugs). Besides they must be in a position to use the concept of time like day, nights, morning, afternoon among others [12].

The analysis of children's learning must be conducted in a genuine learning environment. The evaluation of children's performance is carried out by observation by seeing if the children are having the ability to do simple mathematics computations and differentiation of patterns.

A website can be of great assist in this skill as simple mathematical calculation and learning of different patterns can be integrated in it and so children can get access to it at home or at college. Professors can get ideas how to instruct the children by taking a look at the materials given in the website.

ICT in Education in Mauritius

All Mauritian main and secondary schools have computers. Key schools are now offering ICT as a new subject and they are prepared with computer lab and special professors are available to instruct ICT to the principal children. For now, ICT is not really a compulsory subject but in the longer term, the government may decide to input it as a primary subject as Mauritius seeks is to become a cyber island.

Almost all the secondary colleges, whether private or governmental schools have computer laboratories. Whenever a student starts off his secondary education, it is compulsory for him/her to execute a subject known as Computer Studies till he/she grows to form 3. Then the student can choose to undertake it for the SC and HSC evaluation. Computer Studies could become a compulsory subject at form IV later as nowadays computer are becoming more and more important.

Universities in Mauritius are all equipped with a number of computer laboratories. They may have LANs (Local Area Network) and broadband internet which is absolve to the students. The universities have websites where possible students can fill out entrance applications and existing students can obtain scholarship details, evaluation results and other information [14].

Till now, no person has put forward the thought of integrating ICT in pre-primary education although a lot has been done at the principal level. It ought to be unveiled at the pre-primary level for children to get a better insight of computer young.

Talking Book

Talking reserve is described as the transformation of word content into sounds. Research has shown that it was frequently used by the blinds. The need for technology offers various benefits to the educational community which generates interaction and cooperation among learners. Talking book offers many perks related to the introduction of young children. One of the great things about talking book is the fact that it improves the communication skills of small children [3].

Talking publication offers several benefits related to the development young children and educational targets as it

 ' Develops affective and cognitive domains

 ' Attracts young pupils with different learning styles

 ' Brings creativity in curriculum

 ' Develop literacy skills

 ' Improves communication skills [3].

The key motivation of talking publication was basically the interest shown by young children in playing computer games and their degree of maturity and understanding viewed by them while participating in. Thus, Maybe it's used as a useful educational tool for discovering as well as learning. This tool can assist in boosting the cognitive development in small children [3].

Prior to the creation of the discussing books, pre-primary schools with IT facilities were discovered from the four different zones. The research was conducted in 22 pre-primary private schools [3].

The research was divided in two parts,

the creation and tests of the communicating literature in the pre-primary

primary institutions and

the sociable networking among the primary actors mixed up in teaching and learning process using Moodle e-learning platform [3]

Educational websites for pre-primary education

Internet is now an increasing vital tool inside our modern society. The use of internet as tool for learning established fact as many folks opt for distance learning and there are some e-learning tools provided to help students to learn their lessons better giving them online exercises to do and instantaneously getting the response.

There a wide range of websites that may be utilized by young learners in order to help them develop well and understand some aspects of their learning skills but most of the websites were developed by outside developers for his or her respective countries. These are

Kinderweb educational children's Game titles (http://kinderwebgames. com)

This website is a free website and an extremely interesting one. It offers various exercises or educational video games that young learners can do by making use of an adult. The exercises include words game, color game, addition game, subtraction game, comparison game among others. Besides, professors or parents can print the section on colouring and then supply the children to color it.

The Kinderweb websites is not that attractive, they could have use color for the background to appeal to more young learners. Aside from the user needs to scroll a great deal, they may have classified the video games in horizontal.

IXL (http://www. ixl. com/math/grade/pre-k/)

The IXL website provides a variety of exercises for different types of learners and divides the web page in section consequently. The web site is not a free one, we should register in order to gain access to all its resources but it does let us get an overview of it by giving a free of charge trial. The pre-K skills are meant for pre-primary education and it provides them with a great deal of activities that are labeled in a variety of learning areas. The IXL keep tabs on the rating when responding to the question and also the questions upsurge in difficulty as the young learner enhances.

The main problem with this site is that it's not free and children will not be able to utilize it for long as the trial finished. The website might have been free for children and paid for instructors or parents who wish to download and access some other data.

Internet4Classrooms (http://www. internet4classrooms. com/month2month. htm)

The internet4Classrooms website is a free web portal made to assist anyone who wants to find high-quality, free internet resources for classrooms. The website site is employed by teachers, parents and students. It really is divided in several portions such as Kindergarten skills, 1st class skills among others. In the Kindergarten section actives on mathematics, languages and art can be found.

The problem with this excellent website is that way too many information is compact in one complete page which can be very confusing for all types of users. Besides, before being able to access any exercises, we have to click on a link that will bring us to another site and then click on another link to finally access the exercise. You will discover way too many steps to be achieved before actually reached the exercises.

To have the ability to make the website more interactive, first we have to remove all the unneeded information. Moreover, when clicking on an exercise instead of giving some links, we're able to gain access to the exercise straight and then as doing the exercise the level raises as well as the issue.

Starfall. com (http://www. starfall. com/)

This website is very interesting and attractive one. It really is a free website that will permit anyone whether instructors, parents and young learners to utilize it without much difficulty. It provides guidelines and curriculums for the teachers. Besides, the website includes animated pictures and the font size is not that small which can only help the user to use it very well. It provides for activities for learning ABC and reading. This website is great but it might have put some numerical skills for young learners and some condition differentiation (whether circle, square, rectangle or triangle).

Julia's Rainbow Part (http://www. juliasrainbowcorner. com/)

This website is a free and available to children, parents, educators and grandparents. It is very attractive with different coloring variations. Being a front site, it has a rainbow which instantly can get a kid attention. The web site has a section "fun and game titles" which provides different games in several learning area like amount, language among others. The games are provided with noises and information for small children to use it. In addition, it has a section particularly "Goodies 4 Kids" which give a set of items for kids such as clothes, calendars, playthings amongst others. People can purchase these things online. In all, this site is good and interactive which can help children a great deal.

e-Learning for kids (www. e-learningforkids. org)

This website is a private non-profit institution based in US and Netherlands. It offers free interactive tools for kids in several learning areas particularly Maths, Dialects, Arts, Technology, Computer Skills, Environmental skills, Health training, life skills and British language. Most of the courses can be purchased in English plus some in Spanish, People from france, Portuguese and Thai [8]. Good combos of colors are being used in the website to make it more appealing and possible for the kids to follow. Sunhaloo et al proven how this site can be modified in the Mauritian framework for pre-primary education as well as primary education [13].

LITERATURE REVIEW

This section is about pre-primary education far away like Nigeria, Hong Kong, UK, Australia and USA and also how technology have help in early years as a child education and what are the potential clients of ICT in pre-primary education We have taken country from each one of the five continents that people can have an over-all view of pre-primary education about the world.

Modern Societies show serious matter for education of the young children for most important reasons but it should be noted that not all are decided on the need and performance of such early childhood programs. Some early on writers on this issue contain the view that small children are not mature enough to learn intricate skills fostering of children's emotional security are usually more vital than any form of educational programme [15]. Furthermore, some leading scholars in early on years as a child education have doubted the knowledge in exposing small children very early to formal education [16].

Early Childhood Education

Nigeria

In the existing National Insurance policy on Education in Nigeria, early on childhood education is labelled as pre-primary education. It is given to children aged from three to five plus before the entering in the primary school. The Policy aims at providing a clean transition from the home to the institution; preparing the kid for primary institution; inculcating in the child the heart of creativeness through various means like using toys; educating them numbers, characters, colours, patterns and also inculcate sociable norms in the kids. Besides, appropriate actions are taken to make teachers trained in pre-primary education [16].

Nearly all the pre-primary education in Nigeria is provided by the private proprietors. Although the National Plan on Education prescribes that the child in the pre-primary establishment should be involved in lively learning, the document detailing guidelines on provision and management of pre-primary education in silent on the curriculum articles of such an institution (Federal Ministry of Education, 1987). In the lack of such guiding process and copies of the curriculum for pre-primary education, proprietors and professors vacation resort to curricular of their choice [16].

Pre-primary education in this country has a long way to move; it is still in the commencement phase. In order for the aims of pre-primary education to happen, the government there should show more involvement in the education of small children by providing appropriate funds and facilities and by making sure that the methods in the plan are implemented. As far as ICT is concerned, they have not yet considered including it in the pre-primary education.

Hong Kong

Pre-primary Services in Hong Kong refers to provision of education and good care to small children by kindergartens and child health care centres. Kindergartens, signed up with the training Bureau, provide services for children from three to six yrs. old. Early years as a child education is not area of the widespread and compulsory education system in Hong Kong [17]. Child care centres, on the other palm, are listed with the Community Welfare Department and include nurseries, providing for children aged two to three, and crЁches, looking after infants from beginning to two. The purpose of pre-primary education in Hong Kong is to provide children with a soothing and enjoyable learning environment to promote a balanced development of different facets essential to a child's development such as the physical, intellectual, terms, social, mental and cosmetic aspects [18].

ICT is becoming an important area of the curriculum in Hong Kong's early childhood settings. Over 70% of the childhood settings are equipped with computer either in the school options or in the computer centre. Researches took two kindergartens as examples to see how ICT in the establishment will enhance the learning process. One of the schools was the brand new Territories Kindergarten; its classrooms were outfitted with LCD projector, and a portable computers. Teachers there well prepared digital teaching plus they were satisfied and pleased to see the children enjoying seeing the large photographs on the projector. Similarly parents also were happy; some parents have chosen this school as a result of ICT facilities as they do not have personal computers at home [19].

United Kingdom

Children in Britain, Wales, and Scotland may go to, at the parents' choice, different pre-compulsory institutions until the age of five. In Ireland, pre-compulsory education is offered through era four. Variously, these academic institutions are known as nursery institutions or, in Great britain and Wales, reception classes, which can be held in principal colleges [20].

The government in UK more and more has gotten involved with working to enhance the variety and quality of pre-primary universities. Many pre-primary schools are run with no charge in Great britain and Wales. Attendance is nearly universal in Great britain, with 94% of most students attending in 1995, matching to authorities data [20]. There are six regions of learning for the small children. They are Personal, Sociable and Emotional Development; Communication, Terminology and Literacy; Mathematical Development; Knowledge and Knowledge of the World; Physical Development and lastly Creative development. When a young child left the nursery, he/she can excel at all the six areas of learning.

During current years, teachers in Great britain and Wales have been urged to increase the amount of whole class relationship of young children by using interactive whiteboard. Desire to was to improve basic skills such as numeracy and literacy. Research shows that the inclusion of interactive whiteboard in classes have an optimistic impact on your children. The size of interactive whiteboard motivates group collaboration and facilitates lively learning as is not just passive reception of information [21].

It is expected that by the end of the foundation stage children can "Learn about and identify the uses of day-to-day technology and use of information and communication technology and programmable gadgets to aid learning". The building blocks stage begins at the age of three and surface finishes with the reception season [20].

Australia

Pre-school in Australia is not compulsory, but government seeks to encourage it. There will vary areas in Australia and they are New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. These three claims tend to be more aligned to model 2 which means that most pre-schools in these claims are non-government. The pre-schools are usually funded by the Commonwealth (through the Child Care Profit and Child Care and attention Tax Rebate) and by parents' fees, while the other areas and territories (European Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the North Place, and Australian Capital Territory) are more aligned with Model 1, which is the federal government model where in fact the vast majority of pre-schools are administration possessed and run. [22].

The goals of pre-school instructors in Australia are to improve the child literacy and numeracy performance; supervising children's development and learning with a view to recommend their suitability for a college environment; facilitating cognitive, cultural, mental and physical developmental results through involvement in formal / casual learning programs [22]. So far as ICT is concerned, research is being made how to bring in it in the pre-schools environment.

USA

In USA, early on childhood education includes kindergarten education. There they have got programs for different types of children such as programme for normal children, for impaired children, for children vulnerable to education failure, for children from low income family members. The program for early childhood education in USA is approximately literacy. It can help the kids to a sense of personality to the American culture [23]. The chief executive of America Mr Obama is dedicated to provide the support to the youngest children who have to be prepared to be successful later in school. The President helps a perfect and comprehensive group of services and support for children, from beginning through age 5. He is also dedicated to help all children succeed - no matter where they spend their day - he is urging claims to impose high standards across all publicly funded early learning configurations, develop new programs to boost opportunities and results, indulge parents in their child's early learning and development, and improve the early education labor force [24].

ICT in Pre-primary Education

Computers have pervaded every aspect of our life: cell phones, ATMs, digital Tv sets, in cars, washers among others. In this modern society the utilization of ICT (Information and Communication Solutions) is now more and more ubiquitous. Their use has been founded in primary, extra and tertiary levels for several years and their advantages have been well noted in terms of activity management, improved drive, and subject matter knowledge amongst others.

At present, ICT is not trusted in early youth education practices. Because the role of technology in early on years as a child education is very questionable, parents and teachers are extremely concern about the huge benefits or harm it can have on the young children. Critics state that the utilization of technology in schools wastes time, money and years as a child itself by speeding up the procedure and cutting down on essential learning encounters [25] while proponents suggest that children must have the probability to use those new systems [26].

Computers already are in homes and classrooms and young children are using them [26]. So, the main factor is how to healthy technology in learning. The usage of technology shouldn't replace the original way of learning but instead it will supplement the conventional learning strategies by making it are more interesting.

ICT in Pre-Primary Curriculum

The use of ICT in the curriculum is based on the needs of the kids, the emphasis of the curriculum, and whether ICT will increase children's educational opportunities and experiences.

The years of the kid and his developmental stage must be taken into account when contemplating computer use. Children's activities and experiences with computer systems will evolve over time as they grow and develop. Very young children use pcs with help from a grown-up or other child. Therefore the teacher's role steps from instruction towards monitoring and active facilitation [26]. For this age the worthiness of computer is at its open-ended use, not in creating a product [28].

Studies by studies on technology in pre-primary education

Many experts have made different studies in early years as a child education. Some have even used different kinds of technologies to support their studies. A group of researchers had analysed the benefits that tabletop technologies can have on young children. They have seen that children had accepted the technology without much difficult plus they were having fun in using it [29]. Besides, the kids could actually manipulate items on the tabletop and react to it quickly.

Deidre Crook acquired made studies on ICT in UK. He has seen that young children have the ability to use paint programs and they were showing to their peers how to utilize it. Furthermore, he had identified how ICT can be utilized for the introduction of terminology and literacy by using programs which develop reading and writing skills [30].

Impact of ICT on Pre-primary education

Children from labor and birth to age of eight learn through play and exploration. Recent studies have shown that technology in the school room enhances learning in amount of ways. They are

Computers motivate small children and donate to cognitive and public development.

Computer improves children self-concept and their attitudes towards learning.

Children show increased degrees of spoken communication and co-operation during computer use. Besides computer play induces more complex speech and the introduction of fluency

Children interact more often with their peers by engaging in turn taking that is a child will use computer in his/her move.

Children tend to narrate what they are doing as they bring pictures or move things and characters surrounding the screen [27].

Young children are effective learners, for computer or technology to have a positive effect on them; they need to use it for no more than a quarter-hour as children get bored to death easily and like to do new activities [26].

Summary

Every country has its way to teach young learners but almost all of them agree that technology can be used to improve the traditional way of learning. Technology is an instrument that provides alternative way for children to learn and seem sensible of these world but it will never replace the use of concrete materials and manipulative. Children must be permitted to use book, pull in writing using pencils and crayons jointly will all the original experiences that a kindergarten provides.

Over recent years many reports have signified that there are actual and quantifiable benefits in deploying it with young children [19], [21], [25], [26], [27], [29], [30]. These benefits cover content in many curriculum areas as well as personal development.

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