Facebook is a communal networking site, which co-founded by students in Harvard University or college, Make Elliot Zuckerberg, providing tools like communities, games, images, videos and position for social discussion among people. At the start, it only functions for students in Colleges and High Institutions. After opening to the public in 2006, the number of Facebook Users boosts rapidly. Actually, based on the doc that Facebook provided to list, there already provide 845 million users surrounding the world.
There is not any denying that in Hong Kong, Facebook has become one of the important parts in our daily life. In fact, in line with the Facebook statistics conducted by Socialbakers, which is a global social media and digital analytics company, until 16, November 2012, there already are 4, 057, 680 Facebook users in Hong Kong, meaning there are in least 5 Facebook users per 10 Hong Kong citizens and at least 8 Facebook users per 10 Hong Kong netizens. It is non-questionable of the recognition of the most famous cultural network- Facebook in Hong Kong.
However, because of the interactive functions and the cultural games, there are studies showing the probability of getting addicted becomes higher. Additionally, there's a survey conducted by comScore, Inc. , which really is a leader in calculating the digital world, demonstrating that Hong Kong citizens spending 8% of the online time on the public networking sites like Facebook in 2009 2009. Since spending a longer period on Facebook may have an effect on the efficiency and performance of employees, more companies ban employees using Facebook when they will work. Additionally, parents also start to concern the effect of using Facebook on the academics performance of the kids, especially when they are studying in Secondary School.
This matter isn't built-in a day. In fact, there already are lots of studies trying to find the partnership of using Facebook and the academic performance or how Facebook may be used to improve the academic performance. However, their researches tend to be one-side based, and always conclude that the longer time they use Facebook, the worse their educational performance.
After reading researches, statistics and information, we plan to execute a research about the effects of Facebook on educational performance of Extra Institution Students in Hong Kong since it is an alarming concern in the modern culture. Additionally, two main constructs are built to estimate the consequences of Facebook on the educational performance, which can be 'Balance of time' and 'Uses of Facebook'
For 'Balance of time', it simply means the effects of the relationship of your time that secondary university students spend to visit Facebook and analysis to educational performance. It is one of the non-negligible factors that have an impact on the academic performance and lots of researches already explain that the longer time using Facebook will definitely bring worse educational performance as less time is employed for study. However, in this research, an additional hypothesis is made, which is discussed later in the project.
For 'Uses of Facebook', it symbolizes how secondary school students use Facebook, since different kinds of activities can be carried out in the Facebook, for example, playing games, sending email, developing a report group or an organization to discuss about the job. Different sorts of uses can direct result in different sorts of academic performance. For example, there is absolutely no denying that students can have a much better academics performance when they use Facebook to learn with their group mates or classmates. 'Uses of Facebook' is necessary to consider it as a factor as it includes different types of effects on the academic performance.
Moreover, the hypothesis isn't manufactured from one of the constructs. In such a task, there are 4 hypothesis made up by three constructs as 2 main results of each construct make a difference the final academic performance. Because of this, 4 hypotheses are made based on the combo of the results of the constructs.
Details of constructs and hypotheses will be examined on the next chapter.
Constructs and Hypotheses
Determining how supplementary school learner using Facebook is important, different uses result in different ramifications of educational performance.
The initial purpose of Facebook was to permit university students to build and maintain sociable relationship between college and university or college students in different home halls (Tajana and Marina). Following a long-term development, it becomes so multifunctional that people can generally classify the user's purposes into interpersonal uses, academics uses and recreational uses.
Chit-chatting, responding others' new position or positioning activities or happenings are grouped as social use and used to maintain relationship. Academics uses includes communicating with professors, doing group job together, requesting friends academic-related questions, and learning about new things such as the extra knowledge related to current review or own interest. Recreational uses include doing offers, enjoying others' pictures and viewing videos or pursuing stars' status.
Although, several studies have illustrated that students with an increase of proposal in Facebook are more likely to academics success (Morrow, 1999; Steinfield et al. , 2008), but only using Facebook with educational uses can immediately and only advantage academic performance and the other uses will have negative impact on academic performance. Also, as Hwang et al. (2004) stated that cultural network act as a platform for students, peers and professors to talk or explain in more detail in what students have learned on class. Requesting questions for the study will not only consolidate their knowledge but also broaden their horizons from book's knowledge to added knowledge, thus, giving them better educational performance.
Hypothesis A1: Facebook with academic uses, secondary college students are benefit on the academe.
Social proposes or recreational purposes are varieties of relaxation. So, for those purposes, there is absolutely no direct regards to the academics performance. However, it unintentionally brings about results that adversely affect academics performance. After working all of the exhausted college works, students possibly devote a lot of time to Facebook on price of learning for rest only and intensively. (Tajana and Marina)
Hypothesis A2: Facebook with public uses or recreational uses, supplementary college students are distracted and adversely afflicted on the academe.
Balance of time
According to 'Too much face rather than enough literature: The partnership between multiple indices of Facebook use and academics performance', the amount of time students spend on Facebook will have an effect on their academic performance. Lay and Schouwenburg (1993) Lay, C. , & Schouwenburg, H. (1993). 'Characteristic procrastination, time management and academics habit. Journal of Sociable Action and Personality', 84, 647-662. discovered that good time management skills to regulate the time to review and using Facebook are tips to academics success.
Everyone has a day per day and since the key responsibility of students is studying. If students spend too much time Facebook, they have less time spend on studying that may directly badly influence their academic performance. For instance, if students spend too much time on Facebook, they could have not enough a chance to revise quiz or do research. Therefore, how students use their time highly affect their academic performance.
This has also being demonstrated in a research, 'Facebook followers do worse in tests' which ultimately shows that some college or university students only use one hour to study weekly since they use too much Facebook which badly impact their academics performance a lot. 'Effect of online interpersonal networking on college student academic performance', a study which is based on an online survey has showed that point spend on Facebook shows negative correlation with educational performance. 'The influence of time spent by students engaged in' has shown that longer time students employed in the communal network, the low their GPAs.
Even mature students as college or university students cannot take care of their time well, whether extra institution students can is more questionable. Because of this, studying how extra institution students use their time is one of the constructs of our research theme. Someone may claim that Facebook can also help to improve academic performance in different aspects and has been brought up in the construct 'Uses'. However, even Facebook can help educational performance in lots of ways, spending too much time on it is bad since the time used for normal studying still decreases. Because of this, we conclude that
Hypothesis B1: Students can't take care of their time well and then finally lead to spending too much time on Facebook, Facebook will have negative impact on their academics performance.
Although those researches mentioned previously always conclude that students using Facebook for too much time will ultimately influence their educational performance. However, there are students with good time management skills in Hong Kong, so that truly if they can balance the time well, using Facebook won't have a big effect on their academics performance. As a result, we conclude that
Hypothesis B2: With good time management skills which means students can balance their time using Facebook and research well, Facebook will not have negative effect on their educational performance.
In this research, we do not only concentrate on learning the hypothesis of any one of the constructs, we also study the combination of the hypotheses of the constructs and their final effects on the academics performance. Actually, we conclude that there are four main varieties of effects and illustrate them in the stand below.
Academic-related Uses (A1)
Recreational uses (A2)
Longer time on learning and shorter time on Facebook (B1)
A good bring about academic performance
A greater scope of analysis (H1)
A good bring about academic performance
The knowledge may only limited to the books (H2)
Shorter time on learning and longer time on Facebook (B2)
Worse result in academic performance
A greater range of study (H3)
Bad influence on academic performance (H4)
H1: Obviously, if students know how to balance the time using Facebook and the time of studying and only use Facebook for academic-related uses, this will definitely lead to the best effect on academics performance and has a greater scope of analysis since matching to a case study from a study 'Academic Use of a Group on Facebook Initial Conclusions and Perceptions', it is available that using Facebook as educational tools like signing up for the Facebook educational review group, students are prepared to apply course principles to modern-day phenomena and made insightful contributions, for example, inside the analysis group stated by the study, a student begin to share his ideas into the future role of Amazon's Kindle and finally there is in-depth discourse on this issue. Through lots of writing of ideas, students usually have an interest to find out more info related to this issue, thus widen their opportunity of study.
H2: This is one of the possible outcomes, we hypotheses that students who use Facebook for a short time with recreational purpose but analyze a lot probably lead to a good educational performance. It is because in that case, students spend relatively additional time on mastering and use Facebook in an effort to relive stress rather than put it to use as an instrument to study so that they most likely skip the chance of widen their scope, although they can benefit from the good academic result from a relatively higher study time.
H3: That is another possible outcome, we hypotheses that using Facebook for a long time but if you use it for academic goal. There is a worse normal academic result however the students can reap the benefits of a greater opportunity of study. For the previous, associated with that although students using it for academic analysis, using Facebook too long still affect the normal revision, and cause a worse educational end result. For the latter, as stated before, using Facebook as academics goal encourages students to share and response other people's idea and thus encourage them to gather addition information to talk about/answer, through this technique, students are able to have a wider scope of analysis although he/she still has a comparatively worse academic end result than the students achieve hypothesis H1.
H4: Needless to say, focusing on using Facebook for some time and only make use of it for recreational uses will definitely lead to an awful effect on academics performance
We will have two main research methods - questionnaire and using research done before. Using questionnaire is one of the easy-to-manage methods to get first palm data and it is reliable. However, because of the limitation of your time and resources, we will also use other research to support our hypothesis.
The questionnaire is principally made up of four parts - balance of their time, uses of Facebook and academics performance. The facts of the questions establish, the reason of using these questions and way of measuring size used will be discussed in the later part of the chapter.
We planned to make the questionnaire by using the tools of Yahoo Drive and then send out questionnaire to 80 supplementary school students learning in Hong Kong through internet by using Facebook and well-known forum. After getting the info, we prepared to compare them with the other studies to learn when there is any difference. However, as a result of limitation of their time, this part has been ignored in this research.
Balance of time
Do you have Facebook bank account?
This question is to check if the respondent is a Facebook individual. two options 'yes' or 'no' are given.
How enough time you spend on Facebook per day?
This question is utilized to discover the quantity of time students used in Facebook. They'll be given a blank brand to write enough time in minutes or time. The result will be changed into hours to help in the computation. We will compute the mean and standard deviation of the effect. This question has been found in several studies including 'Modeling educational use of Facebook', 'The relationship between regularity of Facebook use, participation in Facebook', 'Facebook And Academic Performance', 'Students' and Instructors' uses of Facebook'.
How enough time you spend on study weekly?
This question is used to learn the amount of they use in studying. We use weekly as the parameter because students may not analyze every day. Therefore, using per week will make the result more accurate. We will give a blank line to create their analysis in time. We can do analysis on the info by rounding off them. This question has been used in several researches including 'The romance between multiple indices of Facebook use and educational performance', 'Facebook and Academics Performance' and 'Students' and Professors' uses of Facebook'.
We will see the correlation between question two and question three to know whether using more time in Facebook will decrease the time they use in studying. We will also compare the time spend on studying of Facebook users and non-Facebook users to check whether using Facebook reduces time for studying.
Uses of Facebook
Referring to "FACEBOOK, ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE, MULTITASKING AND
SELF-ESTEEM" (Tajana and Marina), a five-point Likert scale was arranged to gauge the Facebook purposes. However, because the most interviewees are likely to choose the center one (3) when a five-point scale was applied, to make the result become more appropriate, in present research, a four-point size are employed.
Since Hwang et al. (2004) mentioned that college students' sociable networking with peers and professors can be considered a vehicle for getting information and knowledge. As a result, communicating with teacher, Asking/Answering questions to peers or instructors, Doing task and Held activities are taking as good examples for the positive relationship between the academics uses and the educational proficiency.
According to "Impact of Facebook use on students' academic achievement: jobs of self-regulation and trust", there is a distraction result - users lose control over their main activity in favor of chatting or looking at new changes or relaxing. So, chatting, seeing someone's post, following star's status and doing offers are taking as examples for the negative romance between the academics uses and the academic proficiency.
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