The reason for using multimedia system learning in colleges is that it includes exciting options for get together the needs of 21stcentury learners. Multi-media learning can be described in a number of ways. For the purposes of this research multimedia learning would be thought as the delivery of instructional content using multiple modes that include aesthetic and auditory information and student use of the information to construct knowledge. To- day our students are in a world in which digital technology is area of the texture of these daily lives. They have never known a world without technology. Technology is their local language and it is likely to use technology in institution.
While some students have higher access to technology than others, personal computers with Internet access are now almost universally available in every schools in Mauritius. Internet-enabled computer systems and cell phones are pervasive beyond school. The use of technology by teens reaches its highest level which is projected to increase. This increased reliance on technology coupled with what we realize about brain control, offers enormous potential for instruction. Corresponding to Betrancourt, M. (2005), research shows that the brain techniques information using two stations: visual and auditory. When information is shown using both stations, the brain can allow for more new information. By taking benefit of this multimodal handling functionality and technology-based tools, we can dramatically enhance student learning through media instruction.
Researchers now assume that there are multiple stations in working memory; Baddeley (1992) proposes an auditory and a visible channel. The auditory channel manages information that is heard, while the visual channel operations information that sometimes appears. Text appears to have unique processing requirements, with words primarily captured by the visual route and then changed into noises in the auditory route (Mayer, 2005).
Home Economics education is referred to as a life-long education and helps students to interpret and understand the world of family and work, to recognize and solve challenges that take place in their daily lives. It significantly contributes to building students' personalities and personas and prepares them for the requisites of the labour market. In fact, Home Economics is a multi- disciplinary subject where the key objectives is to build up skills, knowledge and worth in student in order to improve their quality of life. During the later 1980's Home Economics education embarked on improving the student's personal skills in reasonable thinking, creative and critical procedure, management skills, and problem - solving skills, manifestation, self-directed learning and accountable action among others.
This states that students should be urged to take a more vigorous part in their learning, they need to manage their own learning and analyse problems came across by giving plausible solutions predicated on controlling resources effectively. On this connection, various learning strategies have been submit such as inquiry learning, problem-based learning, cooperative and collaborative learning and discovery learning. With all the growing diversity of students in every classroom, I believe it is becoming necessary to offer alternate alternatives in how to learn and even more techniques can engage learners in ways they learn best. This is achieved only when the coaching strategies chosen foster attention, joy of learning and stimulate the student for even more discovery learning. Hence learning methods should be assorted to simulate learning by considering the multiple brains and learning varieties of different learners in a category.
I am conducting this study considering my students' differences in learning style and ability. The research focuses on promoting far better manipulative skills and creativeness for food studies useful lab tests at Form VI level, where students have to meet certain standard and requirements as per the evaluation criterion. Food studies is an element of the house Economics curriculum, where students are expected to learn about nutrition food preparation both in theory and practical. Based on the Home economics curriculum, one of the objectives of educating Food studies useful is the fact that students should be able to handle food properly and hygienically, demonstrating a number of manipulative skills to a high standard of execution, and the utilization of a range of utensils and gadgets.
(Source: Cambridge International AN EVEN Food Studies Syllabus, Obj 5-Appendix 2)
Manipulative skills as cited by Evans (2001, 13), may be classified as how to use the hands, how to transport, maintain and use tools with emphasis on the basic safety and hygienic aspect. For the sensible test, manipulative skills can also imply the use of using labour saving devices to achieve economy of time and energy, and the goal of it with detail. Subsequently manipulative skills likewise incorporate culinary skills (chopping, dicing, and grating among others), cake making (rub-in, creaming, whisking, kneading, fold- in), ways of cooking food (frying, boiling, steaming) and measurements and terminologies. Thus students are anticipated to learn and understand all these skills with detail and accurately. To attain this aim, students need to understand the correct approach must demonstrate versatility and originality in food preparation. To be able to bring an alteration in my current practice, I chosen the utilization of multimedia to simulate students' interest and better understanding of the skills mentioned above.
Miler (2005), suggests that the visual route deals with less information than the auditory channel. However, when information is presented using both the aesthetic and auditory stations, working memory can handle more info overall. Using multiple channels can raise the amount of information that the mind can process (Sweller, 2005). But, there is still the chance of cognitive overload. Too much information delivered in an inadequate manner can interfere with the brain's potential to successfully integrate information into long-term memory.
During days gone by four years I have already been educating Food and Nutrition as well as Food studies. I had developed the chance of dealing with both low and high ability students. I've noticed that the students neglect to recall the advanced skills related to preparing food when preparing and serving food. Also, concerning dimension and terminologies, manipulative skills and the use of labour saving equipment, students fail to demonstrate the correct use with accuracy and reliability and precision. Consequently, students are unable to prepare the dish with the right structure and reliability which results in disappointment after the practical category or contribute to low markings for practical examination. This has an adverse impact on students' attitude and low learning interest is shown towards the subject. A damage in students' learning interest impacts the training environment since the students have low self - esteem and do not concentrate on their practical classes.
The HSC ends up with Food studies 're going down drastically. The indegent performance can be accounted by a lack of eagerness and interest from the part of the students. They find the subject too theoretical and boring. Moreover regarding the functional classes, they fail to prepare and provide dishes accurately. Thus too little interest and desire prevent the students to execute all the manipulative skills accurately. Many students feel that cooking is merely following a formula, but there is much more to it than that. The ability to properly prepare a dish, change or season a dish and keep the kitchen safe along the way is some basic culinary skills that students have to apply and master. This is the goal of every practical class. There is a lack of precision, incorrect use of equipment/process and serving skills among students. Even though A- level Practical syllabus lays much emphasis on no repetition of skills and garnishes, students neglect to respect these particular criteria each year. Also probably anticipated to time constraints and stress of working under assessment condition, the students make and serve the five dishes in a rush failing woefully to include their final touch of creative imagination while serving. Therefore, the required specifications is not produced which results in poor performance of students. This is often a very discouraging factor for students as they lose their self applied- self-assurance and involvement in the subject. Eventually not more than ten students opt for Food and Nutrition at O- level and the amount of students taking the topic at A-level is decreasing year by calendar year.
When instructing Food Studies, before the practical classes I take advantage of direct instructions so the students can have an overview and on your day of the sensible, the explanation is backed with a detail by detail demonstration by peers or the teacher herself. The students then embark the hands on activity. It can be an individual work or couple work, depending on the characteristics of the class work. I assume that the chalk and talk method should be left behind and more interactive solution to promote productive learning and development of manipulative skills should be used to arose interest for the topic and also to promote significant learning among students. Creating important learning is a desired goal for most educational institutions in the last decade, as education target has shifted towards experienced and critical students. Hence, providing learning opportunities for students is essential.
Regular forgetting of ingredients
Not concluding the practical work on time
Poor idea of manipulative/culinary skills
Too much of relying on formula for step by step
Lack of practice- lack of confidence
Students rely only on the demonstration of the instructor - no ingenuity.
and also students aren't motivated towards the topic. A lack of motivation prevents the students to provide the best of them.
In addition, a brief and casual enquiry among Home Economics teachers from other classes made me aware that even they face the same issues with the students. But in spite of the instructor doing her better to prepare the scholar after 2 yrs of effort using different coaching strategies specifically group work, led discovery learning, display amongst others the results for the functional test does not change much. A- Level sensible results in most of the colleges across Mauritius range between reasonable to poor. Regardless of an in depth monitoring of my students improvement, appropriate teaching strategies were modified to encourage the students to work and improve their performance, the recent An even Cambridge results was still unsatisfactory, (Appendix 3). Hence the main issues of matter can be the disparity of the examiners expectation in each centre in Mauritius. If the student fails to meet up with the expectation of the examiner evaluating the functional test, the second option might get low marks. There is no transparency about how the functional test is being corrected as no reviews is directed at the instructors on the students work. Thus we educators do not know how our students have been assessed and what travelled wrong for the practical test. As a matter of fact, many students (both low and high expertise) have the class 13 in their sensible paper which means a failure. That is a discouraging factor for both teacher and the university student. From the university student viewpoint, it is just a throw away of time/ money/ resources and as a professor even to-day I do not know very well what the examiners expect from our students and anywhere may be we teachers are failing woefully to make our students for the functional exam anticipated to too little feedback.
1. 2 JUSTIFICATION OF THIS RESEARCH
Throughout this research, I would like to effectively impart the various skills of food preparation, i. e beginning with the very first procedure for weighing to the final process of portion and sensory research in Food studies sensible to my Form VI students while making them enjoy each lesson. For days gone by four years, I have reconciled to the fact that many of my students do not show interest to Food studies practical lessons given that they find it hard to follow the step-by-step procedures with exactness bearing in mind they need to complete five food in three time for the tests. Thus, it could be time- consuming and requires a lot of extra resources.
The poor performance of the students in Food Studies and the decrease in the number of students taking on the subject cannot be dissociated with just how it has been educated actually. Today still, despite wanting to put into practice some new coaching strategies, the teacher-centered strategy is much "en vogue". Due to time constraints, concluding the syllabus becomes important with educators. Group work, activity based mostly methods, inquiry learning and role play show up too time consuming for students and instructors. The more traditional "teacher discussions and students listen closely" seems more likely to match the syllabus seeks and goals.
Since form III level, in the practical classes students should serve dishes attractively. However for O-level, the display need to be neat and clean, though its simple However for A- level, the methodology itself differs. Students need to have mastery of the various techniques and skill involved in the useful classes and most importantly, the presentation of the dish should be highly attractive and attractive. However, through year's observation, I have pointed out that students lack accuracy in accomplishing the manipulative skills effectively and creativeness, thus failing woefully to bring along progressive serving skills. For the practical, students often have some distress about certain ideas, for example, by using a bed of lettuce and shredded lettuce, using coating whipped cream over a cake and using piped cream on cheesecake, doing stuffed pancakes and doing lasagna, using tomato rose and using tomato slices. It should be noted that each dish have to have at least three different garnishes/decor items without the repetition. Also neatness and quality are extremely important. Failing woefully to accomplish these criteria can prove to be deterrent and has a negative impact on the performance of students. Thus, professors should think of a wealthy variety of learning opportunities which would enable to build on existing experience and personal advantages predicated on their learning styles.
Kalyuga, S(2005) found out that when teachers and students take part positively towards goal oriented operations, better learning is achieved. Not only the students would benefit from it but also the tutor would be able to foster a more robust teacher- student relationship. Involving students positively in various processes by using audio visual aids and auditory support creates a new channel for the learning process. The interest of the students is retained for long and this helps to decreases boredom among learners. Through this research I want to find out whether I would have the ability to improve the coaching and learning of Food Studies manipulative skills using multimedia system.
The use of multimedia holds much prospect of the effective teaching and learning process. Eventually; teachers would be compelled to follow the pattern, lest they want to become obsolete. As the students love the internet and the equipment, it might be expected that they will be more stimulated to learn Food Studies with the help of technology. There exists little books about the utilization of multimedia to build up students' performance in Food Studies Practical, thus it will be interesting to probe deeper to provide an improved quality of education to my students and make the desired and expected effects in my school.
1. 3 RESEARCH AIM
The goal of my research is to research the utilization of Multi-media to foster students' performance and ability in learning of manipulative skills in Food Studies Practical at Form VI level.
MAIN RESEARCH QUESTIONS
How can the use of multimedia help to create effective learning?
How far does indeed multimedia learning succeed in offering the user an interesting learning experience?
Can the utilization of multi-media i. e. - aesthetic and auditory medium help encourage students (intrinsic and extrinsic) and contribute to better performance in the sensible paper?
Can the use of media help the students to utilize precision, brings flexibility in meals chosen and provide dishes attractively?
How far the utilization of multimedia would be effective to produce better results in Food studies useful exams?
These questions can help me to conduct the case study and to research the potency of using multimedia system in the teaching and learning of manipulative skills in Food studies Practical at Form VI level. I have two classes with 10 pupils. They will be exposed to multi-media learning that is various resources of tape recordings on food preparation including basic culinary skills, wedding cake design, pastry making, sauces, prep of garnishes and accessories where by the proper manipulative skills will be demonstrated. Four research tools will be used to accumulate data specifically, observation list of guidelines, informal interview, scholar questionnaire and success test.
1. 4 AIMS OF THIS STUDY
The overall reason for this research is to find out whether the use of multi-media can foster students' performance and capacity besides promoting effective and interest founded learning of Food Studies functional responsibilities at Form VI level.
1. 5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES WITH THE STUDY
To change from the traditional method of teaching to a far more modern and active approach using media.
Promote interest driven learning and engage student in the training process.
To develop students' visible memory space and intrinsic motivation
To enable students to get ready the laundry with accuracy and uniformity
Develop students' creativity and improve mastery of the basic concepts necessary for the practical paper.
Evaluate the effectiveness of media in the coaching and learning of manipulative skills
Reflect after my teaching and improve after my coaching skills.
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