Theorists' Impact On Teaching And Learning

The government aspires to aid and develop children's learning; included in these are the Plowden Statement (1967), The National Curriculum (1999), a more recent review known as the Rose Review (2009) and THE PRINCIPAL Cambridge Review (2009). These reviews were seriously affected by both Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky.

This project will compare two learning theorists and the impact they have got on coaching and learning. My main concentration will be on Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky however Jerome Bruner may also be mentioned. Firstly, the project will explain and critically analyse Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Secondly, I will summarize and critically analyse the strengths and weaknesses of Lev Vygotsky's theory of socio cognitive development. Both learning theorists will be examined and compared combined with the implications they have on effective teaching practice.

I will then move to evaluate the impact it has on an individual child in terms of coaching and learning, taking their development needs into consideration as well as talking about maturation of the child. The school may also be described throughout this task. The name of both the child and the school will never be disclosed credited to level of privacy.

I will also discover the factors that affect teaching and learning in the four main subject matter, these include: Literacy, Numeracy/Mathematics, Research and ICT.

Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was a biologist who relocated into studying developments of children's understanding by age 21, this was done through observation, speaking and listening to the kids on an activity that he had set.

"Piaget's work on children's intellectual development owed much to his early on studies of drinking water snails" (Satterly 1987, p. 622)

P. E. E - need explanation of above quote

Piaget was a well known French speaking Swiss theorist who presumed that children learn by effective knowledge through hands on experience. To get this done the adult should supply the right materials to allow the kid to work together and develop effectively.

His views on how a child's brain functions and builds up had a great effect especially in education theory. He mainly centered on child maturation to boost the knowledge of their world; children cannot perform certain jobs until they can be psychologically mature enough to take action (Child-Development-Guide, 2010).

Piaget thought that children's thinking does not develop properly throughout child years as there are certain points in which it expands and advances into new goals and capabilities. The transitions took place at about 18 months, 7 years and 11/12 years of age; this recommended that before these age ranges, no subject how bright a child is he/she is unable of understanding things in certain ways.

Piaget used Socratic questioning to get the children to think more in what exactly these are asking or considering, the purpose of this is to get children to see contradictions in their explanations.

Piaget's theory of cognitive development was the central framework to his theory. The acquisition of knowledge in youth which included processes such as understanding, reasoning, considering, problem fixing, learning, conceptualising and keeping in mind, as a whole understanding all the aspects of human brains that are used to make sense of the world. Cognitive development is purely worried about intellectual functions that can be studied separately from socio-economical functions (Atherton, J. 2010)

Cognitive set ups are patterns of physical or mental action which correspond to the periods of child development. Both Piaget and Vygotsky assume that children's cognitive development occurs in stages. However Piaget was the first ever to show that children proceed through different phases of cognitive development. According to Piaget there are four primary development stages, included in these are: sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete businesses and formal operations.

The sensorimotor level amounts from 0 to 24 months; that's where intelligence takes the form of motor activities. By the activities they perform in their environment through sucking, enjoying, biting and lots of other replies they could perform. Matching to a test carried out by Piaget the child will look for an subject that s/he has seen being concealed, this occurs when a child is around 8 months old.

Intelligence in the pre-operation period consists of 2 to 7 year olds. At this age the children are capable of using symbols such as words and images to seem sensible of the world, imaginative play is employed plus they can notify the difference between illusion and reality. The kid can see a situation from someone else's viewpoint, this is known as egocentrism. According to Piaget, the egocentric child feels that others see, listen to and feel a similar as s/he does. REF! bbc article

The cognitive framework through the concrete operational stage involves 7 to 11 time olds. Children desire a volume of mental operations such as classification and conservation to allow them to mentally manipulate symbols in various ways. Transformation is when the kid has to ability to understand that redistributing materials does not influence its mass, number or level. By the age of 7, the kid should understand that when a water is poured into one glass of different form or size the number of water remains the same, only the looks changes REF.

The final stage is the formal procedures which contain 11 to 15 12 months olds. At this age children are capable of mental businesses including abstractions and reasonable reasoning (Schaffer 2004, p. 168). The mind of a kid who's 11 years or older can carry out mathematical computations, be creative, have correct reasoning and consider the results of specific activities REF.

After analysing Piaget's theory, I believe that his four levels of development and the framework of teaching is closely connected. The sensorimotor stage ties in to the first years foundation stage (EYFS) where children mainly learn by participating in and exploring the facilities around them. In the nursery and reception classes of the institution, the children have a number of continuous procedures areas within the class room that relate with real life such as outlets, post office and kitchens. This allows the kids to explore role play and discover true to life situations. Responsibilities are create to allow the kids to explore widely whilst the teacher observes the children's involvement in the experience (EYFS 2010, online). This pertains to the basic principle of 'permitting conditions' in the EYFS designs: 'The environment plays a key role in encouraging and extending children's development and learning (EYFS 2010, online).

The second level links to children who are in key level 1 (KS1). The children develop words that support play with ideas. The institution has a shop area which contains a till, plastic material shopping container with play foods and plastic material money, this enables the children to experiment with within the shop and explore the amount of money. I believe this allows the children to learn as well as play as it's leveled at their ability. It's important to give the children true to life situations and problem resolving as the skills can be employed throughout their learning and help them develop into mature parents.

Providing the kids with practical experience in certain regions of the curriculum such as EYFS, mathematics and literacy has been taken from Piaget's theory. The child is observed throughout a practical activity and his/her proposal and communication skills are noted (Briggs et al 2005, p. 27).

I feel it is important that EYFS, key level one and key level two should be strongly linked and flexible therefore the child has the accurate skills and knowledge throughout the levels to make their confidence and flourish in the future. As part of a Literacy issue the children possessed to do something out Goldilocks and the three bears. These were put in organizations and were given a script. The kids had to read the script and act it out. This provided the educator with home elevators each child's cognitive capability and allowed her to assess and set focuses on for each and every child.

The concrete functional stage ties in with KS2. However, after observing a key stage two there's a change in conditions of instructing style and the actions undertaken in EYFS and KS1. . . The aim of KS2 is to build up the rational process in the training. Every week the children carry out guided reading, this differentiates from fiction to nonfiction with regards to the ability of the child. The kids have to read and seem sensible of the book in order to answer related questions.

Finally, the formal functions level links to KS3 and involves children working independently and building on existing knowledge.

Piaget's theory allows the kid to learn actively and gain knowledge from any errors that they make. However, Personally i think that Piaget's methods are underestimated and could have an enormous impact on learning. When learning the core topics mainly Literacy and Mathematics, Piaget's theory ignored the social aspects of the child which unvalued the value knowledge and culture which led to underestimating the power of the children.

His is widely used in several colleges, however I firmly feel that the coaching should cover a wider range including the external factors and the surroundings especially the interpersonal and emotional areas of learning (Isaacs, 1929). On the other hand Vygotsky believed that a child's learning can't be separated from its interpersonal context.

An exemplory case of the importance sociable context has is Piaget's' three mountain experiment'. Piaget figured children cannot see things from another person's point of view (Schaffer 2004, p. 174). In the test he used 3 mountains of different sizes and children aged from four to twelve years of age. The kids sat using one aspect of the hill and a doll was placed on the other hand. The kids were then shown images of the mountains from different positions and were asked to choose an image the doll can easily see from her position. Piaget found that children under seven years of age could not see things from someone else's perspective therefore were egocentric (Hardwood 1998, p. 66).

However the appropriateness of the 'three pile test' was questioned. Borke areas that children performed inadequately credited to unfamiliarity and not motivating enough for the children to complete efficiently (Smith et al. 1998). When the test was repeated by Hughes (Donaldson 1987, p. 137) utilizing a policeman and a doll. The kids were asked where in fact the doll should hide so the policeman will not find her; he discovered that almost ninety nice percent of children aged five were right. He figured if the child is given a familiar situation he/she will think objectively.

Cognitive structures change through the next processes: version, assimilation and accommodation. Version is situated in all biological organisms to adjust to the requirements of the environment, assimilation involves the individual to incorporate new activities into existing schemas and accommodation is where the person modifies existing schemas to fit the new activities (Schaffer 2004, p. 165).

This pertains to other learning theorists in terms of constructivist perspectives of learning including Jerome Bruner and Lev Vygotsky.

However experts have found it difficult to assess developmental procedures: assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. They found it difficult to recognize processes that are central to Piaget's theory (Meadows 1993, p. 19).

Piaget promises that his periods are universal irrespective of culture, this has also been questioned as a number of studies also show that children have the ability to reach stages previously that Piaget has stated (Bower, 1974). A three month old baby was shown a toy that was covered by a display screen, when the screen was shifted the toy got vanished and in another condition the toy was still there. The newborns heartrate was measured both when the toy was there and when the toy vanished. The results demonstrated that there was higher change in heart rate when the toy vanished. The toy was changed with different things and Bower (1971) found that infants show more 'shock'. Schaffer (2004, p. 184) felt that Piaget under approximated the talents of children.

Applying Piaget's theory requires specific tips for a certain level in the cognitive development. For children who are at the sensorimotor stage, adults should supply them with a abundant and motivating environment and a number of objects to try out with. However a child who's at the concrete operational stage should discover activities in which they can classify problems, order and location of concrete objects.

This allows the adult to see the various explanations the kids at different levels of cognitive development should come up with. The actions or situations given should participate the learners and requires version such as assimilation and accommodation. The training materials given to the kids should be relevant and should entail the right level of motor unit or mental procedures for a child depending on his/her age (McLeod, S. A. 2007).

Another critic of Piaget is the fact that he used his own three children for many of his tests and observations not thinking about the culture they came from (Smith et al 2003, p. 412). Because of this he didn't take children from differing backgrounds into account. A more substantial test with children from various backgrounds must have been used to obtain a more correct and generalised final result.

Piaget's theory received a number of critic's however his work had a major effect in the education sector. He disliked the thought of children being taught sat at tables, being attentive and transmitting information the teacher gives. Piaget believed that children learn through breakthrough, the duty should be establish by the teacher and children should be still left to discover, any mistakes the children make should provide useful home elevators the child's cognitive development. Also for the right answers, the process of how the child worked out the correct answer should be looked into (Smith et al 2003, p. 388).

The curriculum is defined out in a collection, especially in the central topics such as mathematics and research. This is inspired by Piaget's theory. The choice of learning goals, curriculum sequencing, quality placements of matters, the examination of children's intellectual functioning and teaching methodology (Murray 1985, p. 291)

It is important that the course teacher knows at what level of cognitive development each child reaches as it is an important aspect in Piaget's theory. This also has an impact on pedagogy as professors have to improve their coaching style to improve the child's development.

The second theorist i am critically analysing is Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934). He was born in Russia in the same calendar year as Piaget. He studied regulation and graduated at Moscow University. He then proceeded the study a Ph. D in Books and Linguistics.

Vygotsky's started out to work in psychology after the Russian revolution where the Marxism replaced the rule of the czar. The new Marxist viewpoint emphasised socialism and collectivism. Individuals were likely to quit their personal goals and accomplishments to improve the society all together by showing and co procedure. The success of a person was seen as reflecting the success of the culture. Heavy emphasis was placed on history, believing that any culture can only just be grasped through the ideas and events that have made it arise. (Vasta, R. , Haith, M. M. , Miller, S. A. , 1995).

Vygotsky used these elements in his style of human being development; this is known as a sociocultural approach. The development of an individual is a result of culture. The idea primarily applies to mental development like the thought and reasoning process that have been believed to develop through sociable discussion with others mainly parents.

He says

Every function in the child's social development appears twice: first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the kid (intrapsychological). This is applicable similarly to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of ideas. All of the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 57).

Vygotsky viewed mental capabilities and operations in historical terms using the situations that led to them whereas Piaget assumed that the child's development process follows a similar pattern of levels. Vygotsky observed intellectual abilities to be much more specific to the culture in which the child was reared (Vasta, R. , Haith, M. M. , Miller, S. A. , 1995). Culture contributes to a child's intellectual development in two ways: firstly children obtain knowledge from it and secondly they obtain the tools of intellectual version from the surrounding culture. Therefore culture provides children with the means to what they think and how they think it.

Vygotsky viewed cognitive trends as a distributed problem handling experience with another adult, such as the parent, teacher or sibling, this is also known as the dialectical process. Primarily, the person working together with the child takes nearly all responsibility for guiding the child through problem fixing and steadily hands full responsibility to the child. Every child is different and will react and learn in several ways however Vygotsky strains terms dialogue as people will put it to use as an initial resource to transmit knowledge within their culture. The child's own terminology is of great help as it is a primary tool of intellectual change. Eventually children may use their own speech to direct behaviour usually in the same way as the parent's conversation once aimed. This change relates to Vygotsky's theme of development as a process of internalisation. Knowledge and thought are present outside the child at first in the culture of the surroundings. Development includes gradual internalization, mostly through language, to create cultural version (Rogoff, 1990).

The second facet of Vygotsky's theory is cognitive development which is limited to a period span that is known as 'area of proximal development' (ZPD). ZPD is the difference between just what a child can only achieve, their potential development which depends upon the indie problem handling and what the child can achieve though problem fixing with help and assistance of a grown-up or more ready peers. (Hardwood, D. , Hardwood, H. , 1966).

What children can do independently is recognized as 'level of real development' and it is a typical IQ test strategy. However this measure is important but imperfect as two children may have the same degree of genuine development as it provides the same amount of answers right on a test. With help of a grown-up, again one child may solve a number of problems whereas the other child may only solve several. 'What the kid can do with help of a grown-up is referred to as 'level of potential development'. (Vasta, R. , Haith, M. M. , Miller, S. A. , 1995).

Maximum development of ZPD will depend on full social connection of a grown-up with a kid. The more the child takes benefit of the assistance the broader their understanding of ZPD will be.

Scaffolding was developed in 1976 to spell it out tutorial interaction between a grown-up and a kid. It had been used to explore the help and resources a grown-up provides so a child can perform a complex activity proficiently. This links to Burner's ideas of the spiral curriculum.

A parallel has been attracted between the idea of scaffolding and ZPD ideas of Vygotsky (Hobsbaum, A. , Peters, S. , Sylva, K. , 1996).

Before a grown-up can offer learning opportunities they much evaluate the child's development level at the moment along with the amount of the ZPD. It's important that the child values and makes use of the assistance that is offered. The child must be capable to take advantage of the give-and-take discussions with others (Bruner, 1983).

In Vygotsky's theory vocabulary plays a major part in the training and development process. A kid is encouraged to believe in new ways and gain a fresh cognitive tool to seem sensible of the world. Dialect is used to solve problems, overcome impulsive action and plan a solution prior to trying it to regulate behaviour (Jones, 1995). Additionally it is used for a interpersonal purpose, so children can obtain help of peers and solve problems. In this process of development the child starts to practice the same varieties of behavior that other formerly practices with regards to the child however this behaviour is only understood in a cultural context.

Vygotsky has already established a great effect on Bruner's theory with the benefits of scaffolding and spiral curriculum. Scaffolding is an efficient strategy that accesses the ZPD. Scaffolding involved the tutor providing the children the opportunity to build on the current skills and knowledge. This involves the teacher interesting the children and simplifying instructions so they are easily understood.

Scaffolding has been used in every subject to support learning specially when introducing new matters. In Literacy the children had to write a story stopping. Work was place according with their potential, through the spiral curriculum. The child indicated his ideas and the coaching assistant had written them on a dry white plank ready for the kid to duplicate onto paper. The kid was helped by questions directing her to revisit the storyplot and take into account the ending. However this can be a problem as the instructor may offer too much help which might lead to the kid expecting help whenever and not pondering independently.

Also when observing an ICT lessons, the teacher led the kid through the phases of what needs to be done. The kids were then kept to complete the duty independently. The direction given pertains to Vygotsky's approach and the creativity and constructivism is improved by Piaget.

I observed yearly two class in mathematics; they were starting a new topic on 'difference'. The aim of the lessons was to work through the missing number in a total. To clarify this, cubes were used to visually represent quantities so they are often understood. Both the addition and subtraction methods were shown. Many examples were given before child fully grasped and could work on their own initiative. The experience was then extended to using two digit quantities. The teacher adopted Vygotsky's approach to ZPD and discovered that most children experienced understood the word 'difference' as well as how to work it out after lots of illustrations were shown.

Unlike Piaget, who concentrated more on specific learning alternatively than providing men and women with a role to help children learn, whereas Vygotsky assumed that both other people and culture play a major part in the development of a child's cognitive capacity (Schaffer 2004, p. 90). However Vygotsky constantly mentions how children develop with advice and help from other adults but does not state that they independently develop (Schaffer 2004, p. 215). He didn't recognise how children are encouraged to learn separately. Vygotsky focussed more on co-operative learning and little attention was presented with to individual learning.

Vygotsky never needed development changes of a kid into consideration. He viewed the kid just as at the age of two and at age twelve. Also the ZPD has been critically analysed by researchers. They have found that educators have control over a child's thinking as they can ask questions that require certain answer which limits their learning. This kind of questioning is only suitable for children who are obtaining below average. A teacher should be extremely talented to effectively apply the ZPD and guide the children through an activity instead of sharing with them how to proceed. Nevertheless the ZPD can't be put on every child in a category as the professor does not have sufficient timeframe to do so (Schaffer 2004, p. 217).

A final criticism is the fact that Vygotsky didn't take the mental aspects of children into account. He did not recognise what goes on when a child cannot complete a task or gets something wrong. If a kid continuously gets something wrong, does the child lose inspiration or continue with the duty and desire to succeed? A kid undergoes many kinds of feelings when they don't succeed in a task or get something wrong however it has not been mentioned anywhere within Vygotsky's theory. In the same way Piaget also didn't take the feelings of a child into consideration (Schaffer 2004, p. 218).

Vygotsky's behaviour is particularly relevant to those who are concerned with the use of language as it can be crucial and interrelated with the action. Both Vygotsky and Piaget viewed preschool children in problem resolving situations. Piaget believed that the self applied directed behaviour is egocentric and has a minimum relevance to a child's cognitive progress however Vygotsky referred to it as private conversation. Vygotsky believed that private talk grows through interactions with men and women; they begin to use parent's instructions to steer their own behavior (Slrєn B. Kristinsdttir, 2008).

Both Piaget and Vygotsky got a turmoil when detailing that development ideas shouldn't be taught before children are in the right development level. Piaget assumed that the kids are the most important facet of cognitive development which conflicted with Vygotsky's zone of proximal development. However Vygotsky argued that the sociable environment can be of great help as it pertains to cognitive development of the child. The interpersonal environment can help children adjust to new situations with ease. Both theorists experienced the same goal of learning children think of ideas and convert them into conversation.

Piaget uncovered that children like to explore for themselves the way the world works and what it provides however Vygotsky had written in Thought and Vocabulary that human being mental activity is the result of learning. This led to Vygotsky thinking that acquisition of terms gets the biggest influence over a child's life.

Piaget had an enormous emphasis on universal cognitive change and Vygotsky's theory likely to have changing development with respect to the cultural experiences a child has had. Piaget's theory possessed an focus on the natural lines whereas Vygotsky preferred the cultural type of development (Gallagher 1999).

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