Vak Learning Style Theory

VAK learning style theory was created to describe how unique type of learners process information. The VAK learning style was pioneered in 1987 by Neil Fleming. VAK stands for aesthetic, auditory, and kinesthetic (Tactile). The idea is one prefers to learn through one of these sense stations.

Visual learners process and comprehend information more speedily when the information is presented in front of them. A visual learner learns best from charts, graphs, pictures, videos, or even live presentations rather than listening to someone lecturing the complete time. Lecturing without visible aids will not help these learners as they preserve less information.

Auditory Learner

They learn best through verbal lessons, discussions, discussing things through and listening to what others have to say. Auditory learners interpret the actual meanings of talk through listening tone of voice, pitch, and swiftness. These learners learn best through listening to information on videos.

Kinaesthetic Learner

These learners learn through moving, doing, and touching. Kinaesthetic learners learn best by having a hands-on approach, positively exploring the physical world around them. These learners are easily distracted thus the professor really needs activities to actively employ these students to maintain and keep them focused.

Implications for the learner

It could cause learners to give attention to developing poor areas and might not work on ways to build up their abilities to fully rounded learners,

It is merely used as ways to apply straight to the learner, somewhat than develop an appreciation of the fun selection of factors that impact their capacity to learn.

It may lead to boredom of the learner if the instructor doesn't adequately prepare the lessons to meet up with the needs of the students.

Kolb's Learning Cycle


Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) theory revolves around the idea of a learning routine in which he advises four stages that practices on from one another to complete the routine of learning. The training pattern shows how experience is translated through reflection into concepts, which are being used as guides for energetic experimentation and the choice of new experience. The first stage is concrete experience (CE), in which a student has dynamic experience of learning something first palm. The second level is reflective observation (RO) when the learner consciously demonstrates again on that experience. The next thing of the cycle, abstract conceptualization (AC), concentrates on how the experience is put on known theory and how it can then be altered for future active experimentation (AE), which is the fourth stage in the training pattern. Concrete experience and abstract conceptualization are intended for grasping experience while reflective observation and dynamic experimentation are towards changing experience.

Kolb recognized four learning styles which correspond to the phases: Assimilating, Diverging, Converging and Accommodating. Assimilators learn best with sound logical ideas; they rely on enjoying and thinking. Diverging learners learn better through feeling and seeing or observation and collection of a wide range of information. Converging learners are worried with doing and considering and learns better with useful applications of ideas and ideas. Accommodating learners give attention to doing and sense and learns better with "practical" experience and depends on intuition alternatively than logics.

Implications for Learning

Knowledge of Kolb Learning Styles assists with identifying their implications in different regions of life. The training style preference is in fact the product of two pair of variables: the Handling Continuum, which handles one's method of an activity and the Understanding Continuum, which talks about psychological response or how we think or experience a task. Persons who know their learning style have a tendency to find out more effectively if learning is intended for their inclination. Experience is translated through reflection into concepts, which in turn are being used as courses for productive experimentation and the decision of new experiences.

Accommodating Learners

People that have an accommodating learning style are definitely more interesting and would use experience and experimentation to be able to study and learn. They prefer working in teams to complete tasks and roles that requires actively employed in the field and using effort to achieve targets.

Diverging Learners

Divergers on the other hand, are geared towards concrete experience and observation. They can easily see or assess a situation in several perspectives. They perform better in situations that require generating ideas and choose to watch somewhat than do, they like to gather information and use their creativeness to resolve problems.

Assimilating Learners

Assimilators use inductive reasoning to address problems and are razor-sharp in abstract conceptualization; hence they may have little difficulty in producing models. Assimilators require good clear reason rather than practical opportunity. They master understanding wide-ranging information and organizing it in a clear reasonable format. They like readings, lectures, discovering analytical models, and having time to think things through.

Converging Learning

Convergers are good in deductive reasoning and could easily apply ideas in almost. They prefer technical jobs, and are best at finding practical uses for ideas and theories. These are more attracted to technical responsibilities and problems than public or interpersonal issues. They like to test out new ideas, simulate and use functional applications.

The four periods help a person to develop complete comprehension and affective learning. The ideal learning process engages all of these settings in response to situational requirements. Each learning style has its characters and durability that could lead to more functional way of problem solving.

Honey and Mumford


Peter Honey and Alan Mumford have identified four main learning style personal preferences.






Activists prefer to be engaged in new encounters and are enthusiastic about new ideas. They enjoy doing things and have a tendency to work first and consider the implications later on. They are improbable to prepare for the training experience or review their learning later.

Activists learn best when:

involved in new experiences, problems and opportunities

working with others in team tasks or role-playing

being thrown in the profound end with a hard task

chairing conferences, leading discussions

Activists learn less when:

listening to lectures or long explanations

reading, writing or thinking on the own

absorbing and understanding data

following precise instruction to the letter


Reflectors like to view situation from different perspectives. They prefer to accumulate data, review and be cautious before approaching to any conclusions. They enjoy observing others and will pay attention to their views before offering their own.

Reflectors learn best when:

observing individuals or organizations at work

reviewing what has occurred and considering what they have learned

producing analyses and reports doing jobs without limited deadlines

Reflectors learn less when:

acting as innovator or role-playing before others

doing things without time for you to prepare

being thrown in at the deep end

being rushed or bothered by deadlines


Theorists prefer to adapt and incorporate observations into sophisticated and logically sound theories. They think problems through step- by-step. They tend to be perfectionists who prefer to fit things into a rational scheme.

Theorists learn best when:

put in complex situations where they need to use their skills and knowledge

they are in organized situations with clear purpose

they can be found interesting ideas or ideas even though they aren't immediately relevant

they have the opportunity to question and probe ideas

Theorists learn less when:

they have to take part in situations which emphasise emotion and feelings

the activity is unstructured or briefing is poor

they have to do things without knowing the key points or principles involved

they feel they're out of tune with the other participants, for example people who have different learning styles


Pragmatists are wanting to try things out. They like ideas that can be applied to their job. They have a tendency to be impatient with lengthy discussions and are functional and right down to earth.

Pragmatists learn best when:

there is a link between the topic and job

they have the opportunity to try techniques

they are shown techniques with evident advantages such as conserving time

they are shown a model they can copy

Pragmatists learn less when:

there is not a evident or immediate advantage that they can recognise

there is no practice or suggestions how to do it

there is not a apparent profit to the learning

the event or learning is 'all theory'

Implication for Learning

Using the Honey and Mumford learning styles, help identify how best students will learn. It's important for teachers to know just how students learn; hence this knowledge will establish the level when the facilitator is arranging his or her lessons. Importantly, choosing the group with a mix of different learning styles will make a more cohesive device.

Activities that the students will be doing will need into account the Activists learning style. Since an activist learns best by taking action, experiential learning will be the best approach for this type of learner. The learner can learn from immediate experience.

The reflectors learners are usually good auditory learners. As such, some educating techniques that can be used in the classroom because of this kind of learners included lecture and the use of audiotapes whenever possible.

The professor should assess the training varieties of their students and modify their classroom method to fit the student's learning styles. The tutor should use activities that permits the theorists learners to benefit from the lesson.

The pragmatist's learners enjoy activities that are interesting; thus the professor must have different activities in their lessons that will charm to this type of learner. A constructivist teaching will best charm to these kind of students. Learning will be filtered through former knowledge.

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