What Is Learner Autonomy Education Essay


Background of the study

English vocabulary is the hottest language across the world. Crystal (1997) shows that English terms gains its reputation in the world due to political, military and monetary ability. In Cambodia, because of local and international business, international non-governmental organizations, job requirements, consumerism, personal computers and media, young people are strongly prompted and highly advertised to learn English as a foreign language (Narith, 2008). Looking back in time, English words were used once during the Cambodian Republic Routine (1970 - 1975), but thereafter, British was completely forbidden during the Genocidal Routine of Pol Container and the Khmer Rouge; in 1993, for the first National Election in Cambodia, English language emerged again in this country with the introduction of US Transitional Expert in Cambodia (UNTAC) (Narith, 2008). Since that time the reputation of English words has gradually grown among Cambodian people. Further, Igawa (2008) studies about British language and its own education in Cambodia says that communicative competence in British means an improved job and a better purchase Cambodian people.

According to Clayton (2006), most Cambodian academicians and administrators at high establishments such as Royal College or university of Rules and Economic (RULE), Royal College or university of Phnom Penh (RUPP), and Country wide University or college of Management (NUM), have seized every chance to transform the French instruction into English instruction; Cambodian students have preferred to review English alternatively than other languages. Because of this, when RUPP and Guideline have amended their words policies and allowed students to choose their own foreign language options, 80 % of RUPP's students decided on English and 84 % of RULE's students decided to go with English. Additionally after Cambodia became member state of Relationship of South East Asian Countries (ASEAN) in 1999, British has significantly inspired Cambodian students on the language of choice. English also becomes an official and working terminology of ASEAN matching to article 34 ASEAN's charter (ASEAN, 2007). Furthermore, many Cambodian scholars have always thought that English language skills plays an integral role in students' learning, communication, job, and scholarship opportunities in another country, and it has been regarded as the first and leading spanish in the country. English curriculum was presented into secondary classes and high academic institutions by the Cambodian Ministry of Education throughout country in 2000 (Sam, Ahmad & Hazri, 2012).

Concerning the way of learning, Cambodian students culturally seem to be respectful, obedient, and passive towards their professors. This happens due to influence of professor communication style and culture (Ravascol, 2007).

The traditional school room, which is commonly applied and mainly focused on teacher-centered approach offers fewer opportunities to students to activate in their learning, because the professor always plays a role as an understanding transmitter to students. Furthermore, you can find little connection among teachers and students. The professor usually spends a great deal of time speaking and explaining in the class; while students must sit down passively and listen to the instructor attentively (Wang, 2007). In the same way, Ravacol (as cited Truck Lier, 1996) expresses that the educators in traditional class room assume that their main duty and activity is to transfer their knowledge to the students, to allow them to allow discussion in the classrooms to happen only in examinations or quizzes where students just have to answer the specific questions given by them. Inside the context of words teaching, the professors have the initiative to body the question and later give opinions to the students.

The culture also has possessed a great effect on Cambodian students about the way of learning. Ravacol (as cited in Bit, 1991) confirms that because Cambodian population heavily emphasizes on approval of the given order as the road to a satisfying existence, it does not encourage original thought focused on either personal development or creativity in the culture at large. That is why we generally find Cambodian learners in a school environment of conformity rather than in a competitive seek out knowledge and competency. Ponchaud (1977) further brings that the rule of carry out in population always inhibits students from behaving in a different way from others, or driving yourself forward. It also discourages students to take the effort, for concern with finding yourself together, of disgracing yourself before others, being derided for possible inability, and being judged. Furthermore, Bit (1991) confirms that the teachers are respected as market leaders whose jobs are something such as parental jobs. Their proper tasks of leaders are to describe and clarify what exactly are expected of individuals. The market leaders never draw out suggestions or engagement by the followers in looking for alternatives. He further offers that the educators' regards to their students, like so many associations in Cambodian society, are hierarchical or imbalance. The professors are typically regarded as the parents who bestow, transmit, and command line. Whereas, the pupil are usually treated as the kid who receive, admit, and obey. There is no change in the transmitting process, except perhaps the ignorance of the college student. (Little 1991; Chandler 1998)

However, after the communicative language coaching has surfaced in Cambodia over the last a decade, the role of teacher and university student has been gradually modified in modern class room. Quite simply, there's a shift from a teacher-centered method of a learner-centered methodology, which offers students more possibilities to actively take part in their learning process. Since this shift occurs, learners are viewed as the main source of information for learning process, which the practice of learner autonomy commences to expand in dialect learning and teaching (Benson, 2001). Holec (1981) was the first person who coined the term learner autonomy and defined it as the ability to take charge of your respective own learning. Autonomous learning stimulates a very lively role of learners and targets greater students' effort rather teacher-centered direction. (Eyob, 2008).

Tudor (1993) also suggests that learner-centeredness is not a method, nor may it be decreased to a set of rules. It is, however, an approach, which views students to have more productive and participatory roles in the training and teaching process than in traditional approaches. Additionally, this process requires different class activities, the constructions which are chosen by students themselves resulting in boosts in students' involvement and motivation. Gleam parallel change in the teacher's role in learner-centered classrooms. The tutor is less inclined to dominate classroom happenings in contrast to traditional classrooms where the learning environment is teacher-centered and teachers are believed as regulators.

According to, Nunan (1996) there are two complementary seeks of learner-center. One of them focuses on words content, the other targets learning process. To attain these two seeks, learners need to choose what they would like to study and exactly how they would like to study at their own speed, and make a decision regarding their own dialect competence. Thus, it's the teacher's duties to produce such autonomous learning conditions in which students can acquire skills and knowledge while making options about the process and content of the learning. Likewise, Tudor (1993) shows that if educators are to foster autonomous learning conditions, pupil will be able to get more benefit from the teaching and learning process, particularly in the following areas: (a) more relevant goal setting techniques with the contributions of students, (b) more effective learning enriched with students' choices, (c) more benefit from activities, the content of which decided by students, (d) better study program with more student participation.

Learner autonomy is considered as a crucial principle that students actively take care of their learning in and out of the classroom. That's, they are indie in conditions of selecting their own goals and purposes, deciding on materials, choosing means of learning and responsibilities, and opting for conditions for self-evaluation (Eyob, 2008). Besides, autonomous learning may be accomplished by certain conditions such as using cognitive and metacognitive strategies, learner behaviour and determination, self-esteem, and learners' understanding and knowledge about language learning (Thanassoluas, 2007). Similarly, Cotterall (1999) indentifies learning strategies as you of the most important factors in autonomous terminology learning. She also remarks that the learners will have difficulties in classroom promoting autonomous learning without strategies training. Additionally, Chan (2001) areas that increasing of the level of learner control will bring about growth of the amount of self-determination; therefore increasing overall drive in the introduction of learner autonomy. Therefore, learners need to be self-directed and to determine the route of their own words learning process.

In brief, expanding and promoting autonomous learning is vital as the purpose of all education is to help people think, action and learn separately in relevant regions of their lives. In this esteem, a technique for producing and fostering autonomy in language teaching will require improved cognitive and metacognitive skills, self-awareness to boost motivation and determination to take charge of learning.

Problem Statement

With this novel notion, learner autonomy, Cambodian students as well as C university students are expected to consider more responsibilities to demonstrate a great deal of autonomy in their learning process to be able to succeed academically.

However, as a exercising teacher at C institution, the researcher has noticed that many professors of English have become frustrated with committing endless levels of energy in their students and getting very little response. Most teachers have had sets of students who never did their homework, who had been reluctant to make use of the target vocabulary in set or group work, who did not study from their mistakes, who didn't listen to one another, who didn't use opportunities to learn outside the classroom, and so on. These reveal that students aren't making initiatives in their learning. In addition, the majority of them aren't likely to be aware of their functions in their learning process, and especially they lack learning ways of enable these to excel in their dialect performance. Regarding this issue, students make poor improvement in their learning, doing poorly, thereby influencing their ultimate achievements in English words learning. And to the best of our knowledge, there exists little research conducted on evaluating learner autonomy in Cambodian EFL framework. Thus, the aim of today's work is to recognize learners' perspectives about their learning responsibly and their real practice of learner autonomy in C school.

Research Questions:

The research on the current practice of learner autonomy is targeted at answering the two main questions and the two sub questions below to be able to meet up with the objectives

1. How do the level 7 students at C college perceive their own and their professors' responsibilities in learning British?

-Are there any variations in the learners' perceptions of their own and their professors' responsibilities in learning English regarding their gender?

2. To what extent, will be the Autonomous learning strategies (outside and inside the school room) found in learning British by ESL learners at C institution?

-Are there any dissimilarities in the training strategies according to their gender?

Significance of the study

As mentioned previously, there may be little books reviews about terminology autonomous learning in Cambodia context. Therefore, this research will be likely to provide empirical support for the identification of factors considered to be significant for the advertising of autonomy in spanish classrooms and examines the boasts made in terminology learning literature about each one of these factors. By checking out them, professors will also create a shared understanding of the essential groundwork of learner autonomy and obtain significant insights into what roles they have to play in order to accomplish learner autonomy. Furthermore, it'll be in a position to increase learners' knowing of how to be in demand of their own learning and inform the learners which learning strategies that they need to find out more and apply in their learning process. Likewise, it can help learners change their patterns by encouraging these to take responsibility because of their own dialect learning, to improve their attitudes towards English class, also to deal with their foreign language learning problems. And lastly, it may serve as a preliminary idea for just about any interested experts in the region.

Chapter Two

Literature Review

The Literature in this review was found from the Hun Sen Library of the Royal University of Phnom Penh (RUPP), and utilizing the websites of Asian EFL Journal, Cambridge, Google Scholar, Oxford and Zunia to identify relevant books, publications and articles focusing on Autonomy in British langue learning. Other reviews was obtained from numerous articles and the list of recommendations by several well-known scholars such as, Beson, , Gardner, Holec, Lee, Little, Tudor and Wenden. These scholars are long proven freelance writers in this field and have written and conducted many researches about this area. The main element words used to recognize the articles are Lerner Autonomy, Learner Responsibility, Self-regulated Learner Self-access Learner, and Lerner Motivation.

This chapter will package with the definition of concepts and terms related to learner autonomy in foreign language teaching and learning. It will also refer to the previous clinical tests conducted overseas on promoting learner autonomy in language classrooms.

What is learner autonomy?

The meaning of learner autonomy appears to be interpreted in many different ways. Holec (1981) was the individual who first coined the word learner autonomy and described the term as "the ability to take charge of one's own immediate learning" ( p. 3). Dickinson (1995) characterized autonomous learners as those people who have the capacity for being active and 3rd party in the training process. whereas, Higgs (1988) seen as a process, "in which the learner works on a learning process or activity and generally independent of the teacher who acts as manager of the training programme so that source person" (p. 41). Actually, learners attain autonomy is determined by a variety of factors, including learners' capacity to adopt responsibility, personal constructs, tutor support, peer support, availableness and overall flexibility in learning environment (Little, 1990; McDevitt, 1997; Lee, 1998). Despite the fact that there's a marginally different interpretation of learner autonomy, those meanings may contribute to the understanding deeply of the term.

According to Benson and Voller (1997) there are five types of the word learner autonomy, including situations in which learners study totally independently, a couple of skills which can be discovered and applied in self-directed learning, an inborn capacity which is suppressed by institutional education, the exercise of learners' responsibility because of their own learning, and the right of learners to look for the route of their own learning.

However, gleam great deal of misconceptions about the definition of autonomous terms learning. Esch (1996) feels that autonomy is not self-instruction or learning without a teacher, does not mean that treatment or initiative for a teacher is prohibited, is not at all something instructors do to learners, is not a single easily identifiable tendencies, and is not really a steady state achieved by learners once and for all.

Why learner autonomy?

In reality, the cultivation of learner autonomy is an extended process. Professor should help students develop slowly but surely from tutor dependence to autonomy. As an old Chinese saying runs if you give a man a fish, you give food to him every day; if you teach him how to fish, you give food to him for a life time. Moreover, the saying "you may bring the horses to water, nevertheless, you cannot make him drink" by Betty (2003. p. 117) can obviously illustrate why we need learner autonomy in teaching learning process. In words learning, a tutor can provide all the required tools and type, but learning can only just arise if learners are prepared to become involved and take part (Scharle & Szabo, 2000). Further, Scharle and Szabo (2000) point out that learners can be successful in learning when they have a dependable attitude. Therefore, we can recognize that learners need a great deal of responsibility and productive involvement in conducting learning activities in order to accomplish tremendous achievement in terms learning. Eyob (2008) also found that learners recognize responsibility for their learning, they constantly reflect on what they are learning, why they are learning, and using what amount of success; and their learning is fully integrated with the rest of what they are.

Characteristics of Autonomous Learners

We recognize that autonomous learners have to be in charge of all decisions that they have to make in their own learning. Quite simply, they are really self-directed in the sense that they act independently of the educator without remaining passive or ready to be told what to do from teachers.

According to Hedge (2000) characterized autonomous learners as those who

are alert to their needs and work effectively with the instructor towards the success of their aims.

study both outside and inside the school room.

are able take class room based material and manage to build onto it.

know how to employ resources autonomously.

learn by pondering actively.

adjust and conform their learning strategies when necessary to better learning.

manage and split the time in learning properly.

do not consider the professor as is a god who can offer them ability to master the dialect.

Further, Wenden (1991) also characterized autonomous learners as those who

are prepared and possess the capacity to control or supervise learning.

are determined to learn.

are good guessers.

select materials, methods and jobs.

exercise choice and goal in arranging and undertaking the chosen job.

chose the requirements for analysis.

take an active approach to the task.

form and reject hypothesis.

pay attention to both form and content.

are willing to take risks.

The Role of Professors and Students to Promote Learner Autonomy

Holden and Usuki (1999) who questioned Japanese students' perceptions of learner autonomy figured it was not the learners who were innately passive, but it was the teachers that created an environment which discouraged learner autonomy. In addition, it also concluded that the vast majority of students view their trainer as playing a major role in the introduction of their terms skills. However, it stresses that learner autonomy, is not at all something that instructors do to learners, or another teaching method that can be taught (Little, 1990; Benson, 2001). Also, Dickinson (1987) suggests that the learner is totally responsible for every one of the decision worried about his learning and the execution of those decisions. In a full learner autonomy there is absolutely no involvement of a teacher or an organization. And learners are also independent of specially well prepared materials. For instance, the first research on language learning strategies carried out by such research workers as Rubin (1975) indicated that good learners have an active involvement with dialect learning, that they have clear ideas about the best ways to allow them to go about vocabulary learning, and they setup their own learning targets. However, this research has no strong reason to support that autonomous learning requires professors or institutions, will not imply that it must be proceeded separately.

Even there is a contradiction between your role of the teacher and the learner in promoting learner autonomy, McCarthy (2000) and Scharer (2000) argued that, in producing learner autonomy, the teacher-student relationship is crucial. The trust and assistance between the tutor and the students makes the students feel safe and secure in the class. Only then can the students have confidence to adventure in words learning. Benson and Vollers (1997) analysis also discovered that teachers have a significant role to learn in releasing learners into self-access and in assisting them to stay afloat. On this research, it was discovered that there's a great change for both instructors and learners. Educators are no more in their dominating position as audio speakers in course while learners are not passive receivers any more. However, it generally does not necessarily mean educators are less important. On the contrary, the teachers' job is more demanding and challenging in assisting students grow up as creative and independent learners. Teachers must target their attention about how to learn rather than how to teach. They must play different role in category as manuals, facilitators and counselors. Therefore, modifying the teacher's and student's assignments, and creating proper relationship are the secrets to the success in promoting autonomous learning (Benson & Vollers, 1997).

Language Learning Strategies

There are lots of researchers who have defined the term dialect learning strategies (LLS) in various ways. Wenden (1991) defines LLS as, mental steps or businesses that learners use to learn a fresh language and regulate their initiatives to do so. O'Malley and Chamot (1990) identified LLS as the special thoughts or habits that individuals use to help them comprehend, learn, or retain new information. By understanding various definitions from different analysts, we can see that learning strategies are incredibly important in learning a terms. Hence, all students need to be trained on how to utilize them appropriately in order to be successful learners.

According to Hedge (2000), there are four types of learning strategies utilized by words learners, including cognitive strategies, meta-cognitive strategies, socio-affective strategies, and communication strategies.

Cognitive strategies.

Hedge (2000) defines cognitive strategies as thought procedures used straight in learning which allows learners to cope with the information presented in jobs and materials by focusing on it in several ways. According to Tudor (1996), cognitive strategies include

Repetition: duplicating a chunk of terminology (a expression or word) in the course of using words and language process.

Resourcing: Using available guide resources of information about the mark terms such as, dictionaries, textbooks, and prior work.

Grouping: Buying, classifying or labeling material found in a language activity based on common attributes; recalling information based on grouping recently done.

Note taking: Writing down key words and concepts in abbreviated verbal, graphic, or numerical form to assist performance of an language task.

Deduction/ Induction: consciously applying learned or self-developed rules to create or understand the target language.

Substitution: choosing alternate approaches, revised ideas, or different words or phrases to complete a vocabulary task.

Elaboration: Relating new information to preceding knowledge; relating various areas of new information to each other; making significant personal associations to information presented.

Summarization: Making a mental or written summation of vocabulary and information shown in a task.

Translation: making ideas from one language to another in a comparatively verbatim manner.

Transfer: using previously attained linguistic knowledge to aid a language activity.

Inference: Using available information to predict the meanings or utilization of unfamiliar terminology items associated with dialect jobs, to forecast results, or to fill in absent information.

Meta-cognitive strategies.

According to Oxford (1990), metacognitive strategies are activities which go beyond purely cognitive devices, which provide a method for learners to organize their own learning process. Oxford also mentions that we now have three metacognitive strategies such as centering learning, organizing and planning learning, and evaluating learning. In addition, Tudor (1996) also claims that metacognitive strategies contain planning, monitoring and evaluating; a few of these strategies are

Planning: previewing the managing concept or concept of an anticipated learning activity (advance company); proposing strategies for handling an upcoming task; generating an idea for the parts, series, main ideas, or terms functions to be used in handling a task (organizational planning).

Directed attention: Deciding in advance to attend generally to a learning activity and to dismiss irrelevant destructors; maintaining attention during activity execution.

Selective attention: deciding beforehand to wait to specific aspects of language suggestions or situational details that help out with performance of a task; participating to specific areas of language suggestions during task execution.

Self-management: understanding the conditions that help one efficiently accomplish language responsibilities and organizing for the occurrence of these conditions controlling one's vocabulary performance to maximize use of what is already known.

Self-monitoring: checking, verifying, or fixing one's understanding or performance in the course of a language process.

Problem recognition: Explicitly discovering the central point needing image resolution in a task or identifying an element of the duty that hinders its successful conclusion.

Self-evaluation: looking at the outcomes of your respective own language performance against an internal measure of completeness and reliability; checking one's words repertoire, strategy use, or capability to perform the task.

Thus, it is very essential to instruct students about metacognitive strategies in order to make their dialect learning effectively.

Socio-affective Strategies.

Oxford (1990) the word affective strategies make reference to emotion, motivation, attitudes, and beliefs. He claimed that affective strategies are concerned with the affective components of the learners such as self-esteem, attitudes, confidence, desire, and stress. Oxford (1990) also advised that there are three main sets of affective strategies: lowering your anxiety, encouraging yourself, and taking your emotional temperatures. While Tudor (1996) suggested a few of the affective strategies are:

Questioning for clarification: requesting explanations, verification, rephrasing, or instances about the materials; asking for clarification or verification about the duty; posing questions to the personal.

Cooperation: working together with peers to resolve a problem, pool information, check a learning job, model a words activity, or get feedback on dental or written performance.

Self-talk: Reducing anxiousness by using mental techniques that produce one feel proficient to do the learning task.

Self-reinforcement: providing personal drive by planning rewards for just one self when a dialect activity has been successfully completed.

Therefore, good terms learners should know how to control their thoughts and behaviour about learning (Oxford 1990).

Communication Strategies.

According to Hismanoglu (2000), communication strategies are employed by speakers when confronted with some difficulties because of the undeniable fact that their communication was misunderstood or was not caught obviously. Hedge (2000) also claims that learners use communication strategies to make them understood also to maintain a chat; these strategies contain gesture, mime, synonym, and paraphrases. The importance of the strategies is to help learners try discussions when they practice the words and assist learners in getting their concept across or clarify what the presenter conveyed.

Learner Attitudes, Drive and Self-Esteem

Benson and Voller (1997) state that terms learning is not merely a cognitive job; Learners do not think about their learning in terms of the terms input to which they are exposed. Somewhat, the success of a learning activity is partly contingent upon learners' stance into the world and the training activity specifically, their sense of personal, and their prefer to learn. That's, language learning includes affective elements such as attitudes, drive and self-esteem.

The term behaviour make reference to "learned motivations, value values, evaluations, what one thinks is appropriate, or responses oriented towards getting close or avoiding (Wenden, 1998, pp, 52-53)". You will discover two kinds of behaviour which are incredibly essential: attitudes learners hold about their role in the training process, and their capacity as learner. Thus, it appears that if learners have positive behaviour towards their learning, then those behaviour will play an important role in increasing learners' drive, and contribute to their successes in learning.

In educational context, many experts or experts have described the term determination differently. So you can find little contract on the precise meaning of the term. Matching to Dornyei (2001) the daddy of motivational strategies relates the term inspiration as a keen, determined, and enthusiastic learner who have good reasons for learning. "Motivation explains why people decide to take action, how hard they are going to pursue it and exactly how long they are willing to sustain the activity" (Dornyei, 2001, p. 7). Furthermore, corresponding to Gardner and Macintyre (1993) show that motivation consist of three elements, including desire to accomplish a goal, effort prolonged in this route and satisfaction with the task.

Indeed, people are motivated in several ways and to different diplomas. And learners should encourage concentrating more on the intrinsic motivation because it emerges with the inner drive or interest of the learners in doing something which they can support their motivation longer. Therefore, determination is an integral factor that contributes to the success of words learning. If learners tend to be more aware of the importance of motivation, they will be more likely to achieve their desire goals or final results.

Indeed, attitudes and motivation will be the idea of self-esteem (Thanasoulas, 2007). Adam (1983) defines self-esteem as a proportion found by dividing one's successes in areas of life of importance to a given individual by the failures in them or one's success. Matching to Branden (2001), self-esteem is the amount of self-confidence (a sense of personal capacity) and self-respect (a feeling of personal value). If learners have a high self-esteem, then they may achieve highly in their learning process. Conversely, if they have a minimal self-esteem, then it can result in negative attitudes towards their learning, possibly deteriorate their cognitive perform and decreasing their success (Wenden, 1991)

All in all, learners need to be willing to have fee of their own learning. They ought to use the right strategies plus having positive attitudes, intrinsic motivation and high self-esteem. And many of these do contribute a lot in leading those to largely flourish in language learning. Most importantly, they should use every opportunity that they obtain in order to find out the vocabulary effectively and efficiently. Thus, educators and students should be accountable in fostering autonomous learning (Eyob 2008).

Chapter Three


In this section, methodological information on the analysis will be shown. The first section will present the entire research design of the proposal. The next section will identify about test size and sample technique. The 3rd section will talks about about data collection tool. Inside the fourth, the facts regarding the data collection process are dealt with. Finally, the fifth section will demonstrate the ethical account.

Research Design

To do this review, the researcher will utilizes a questionnaire in order to describe the current practice of autonomous learning by level 7 students at C institution. Employing this method, it will also assist to illustrate the fundamental problems that obstacle the practice.

The method will be ideal in attempting to describe the behaviour, opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of an example or the whole human population (Creswell, 2005). On top of that, it'll include cross-sectional studies using questionnaires and concentration group interviews for data collection.

Sample size and Sampling technique

The research will be conducted by means of a research study. The mark populations of the study will be Level 07 students at C school whose levels are pre-intermediate. The sample of about 60 students of the entire inhabitants will be chosen purposively to complete the questionnaire research. Besides, four to six 6 students may also be decided on purposively to require in the concentration group discourse. The researcher will intend to choose a non-probabilistic convenient sampling process of the analysis because, as its name suggests, it be convenient, fast, low priced and less-time consuming. Also, it'll be easy to perform and the individuals will be available and voluntary to take part in the study. Yet, the sampling may fail to represent the complete population and be limited by make a generalizability of the studies because of its aspect (Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2007).

Data collection tools

Chamot (2004) suggests that appropriate methods in executing this kind of the analysis have to be utilized. Those recommending studies tools in data collection are concentrate organizations, interviews and questionnaires. Also, these methods will help the researcher to guarantee the trustworthiness and validity and do the analysis in ethical and feasible way.


The self-administered questionnaire will be utilized in order to obtain descriptive and frequencies data of the analysis. The researcher will employ this questionnaire since it can be implemented with or with no existence of the researcher and it will be easy to analyze with many software applications deals (Wilson & Mclean, 1994). Furthermore, Questionnaires will be acquainted to many people. Nearly everyone has had some experience completing questionnaires and they generally do not make people apprehensive. Questionnaires will also reduce bias; there exists uniform question demonstration no middle-man bias. Also, the researcher's own viewpoints will not effect the respondent to answer questions in a certain manner because there are no verbal or aesthetic clues to influence the respondent. Nevertheless, the researcher should invest great deal of time to build up, pilot, and refine questionnaire and data accumulated may lack of overall flexibility of responding (Wilson & Mclean, 1994). The pace of go back will also turn into a major matter when the researcher uses this data collecting instrument (Anderson & Arsenault, 1998).

Focus Group Discussion

The researcher use a concentration group dialogue as a second data collection tool for this study. To be able to verify the data collected from the questionnaire and also to make the info more enriched and valid. By using focus group debate, the researcher can explore more insights in a few particular areas found from the results of the questionnaire and can cross check and probe more info about the analysis. Moreover, emphasis group will give you a collective view rather than an individual view and it will be cost-effective and less time-consuming. It will produce a big amount of data (Mogan, 1988). However, emphasis group may produce the data less than the survey and the info may lack overall stability as group disagreement and even issues may come up. Also, Data obtained from focus group will be difficult to analyze concisely(Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2007). .

Data collection process

The self-administered questionnaires will be distributed to the individuals by the end of their category by research administrators (the researcher, assistants and their professors). Since there are two ways to complete self-administered questionnaires, the participants will have a decision to complete questionnaires either in the presence or in the absence of research administrators (Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2007). When the participants decide to fill in the questionnaire in their presences, the study administrators will avoid creating potential threats, inserting pressure and creating uncomfortable feeling and any affects on members. The participant could also need more clarification and additional time for you to complete the questionnaire, therefore the research administrators will need to be friendly, patient and helpful. In addition, the study administrators will ensure that every participant will completes all items in questionnaire properly by checking the questionnaires before finally acquiring the questions. Alternatively, if individuals want to complete questionnaire elsewhere (at homes or workplaces) the study administrators will reassure them that it will be always convenient and available for the study administrators to address any queries or issues that the individuals may have. By doing so, the researcher will enable the members to complete the questionnaire in private and also to devote as enough time as they wish. Furthermore, the researcher will be able to maximize higher rate delivered questionnaires with good and much more genuine respond (Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2007).

There will be four to six 6 participants invited purposely to participate in the concentrate group. To hire focus group successfully, the researcher will use his facilitation, management and communication skills to harmonize the group debate. There could be some disagreement and even issues existing. Hence, the researcher will works hard to establish a favorable environment where everyone seems pleased and comfortable with group process by preventing hypersensitive questions and being as versatile and adaptive as you can. Moreover, a couple of participants in the group may dominate the complete group debate intentionally or unintentionally; voices of the other members may be refused, so the researcher will control dominating individual, encourage identical discourse and balance the contribution. Also, the researcher will remain conscious of time and value each participant's contribution irrespective of their background, experiences and education (Anderson & Arsenault, 1998).

Ethical Considerations

The researcher are certain to get formal endorsement from Royal University of Phnom Penh (RUPP) and official permission from C institution and participants prior performing this review Kemmis and Mc Taggaart (1992). In addition, the researcher will be genuine and open to notify each participant about natures and purposes of the research. All the members will be invited to take part willingly and voluntarily without having to be coerced or tricked, and they'll have right to discontinue at any time in this research. In addition, the researcher will show great admiration for the members' privateness and time. For instance, the questionnaire will not be given before or during their class but by the end of their school and members will be permitted to take the questionnaire to their home to complete and take it back to the study administrators tomorrow or the following day. Besides, the analysts will be glade and can not be reluctant to clarify any questions which might happen. Also, the researcher could keep all the individuals' names private. Particularly, the individuals mentioned in focus group will be tackled as Pupil 1, Learner 2, University student 3, and so on. Lastly, the study will require special permission from the focus group participants to record their voices Relating to (Anderson & Arsenault, 1998).

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