Smart material are the ones that change in reaction to changing conditions in their encircling or in the application of other directed affects such as moving an electric demand through them. Modern products ever more use them, t shirts that change color with changes in temperatures. Smart materials are the materials that have one or more properties that can be significantly transformed in a managed style such as stress, temps, wetness, pH, electric or magnetic domains.
Types of smart material
Piezoelectric - On making use of a mechanised stress to these materials it generates an electric current. Piezoelectric microphones transform changes in pressure triggered by acoustics waves into a power signal.
Shape memory - After deformation of the materials they bear in mind their original form and get back in to its original form when heated. Applications include condition memory stents - pipes threaded into arteries that expand on heating up to body temperature to allow increased blood flow.
Thermo chromic - They are the materials which change their color in response to changes in temp. They are used in bathplugs that change color when the is too hot.
Photo chromic - These materials change color in response to changes in light conditions. Uses include security printer ink sand dolls that 'tan' in the sun.
Magneto rheological: this is a substance that fluids become stable when located in a magnetic field. They could be used to construct dampers that suppress vibrations. These can be used for structures and bridges to control the damaging ramifications of,
For example, high winds or earthquakes.
1. 1 pH-sensitive polymers
These are materials which swell/collapse when the pH of the encompassing advertising changes.
PH very sensitive or pH responsive polymers are materials which will react to the changes in the pH of the surrounding medium by varying their proportions. Such materials swell or collapse with regards to the pH of these environment. This tendencies is exhibited because of the existence of certain functional teams in the polymer chain.
1. 2 Magnetostrictive materials exhibit change in form consuming magnetic field and also display change in their magnetization consuming mechanical stress
Fig 1. 1
Magnetostrictive material (inside) then magnetizing coil over it and magnetic enclosure concluding the magnetic circuit (outside the house)
It can convert magnetic energy into kinetic energy that can be used to build receptors.
1. 3 Temperature-responsive polymers
These are materials which changes upon temperature.
A temperature-responsive polymer is a polymer which undergoes a physical change when exterior thermal is applied. The capability to undergo such changes makes this course of polymers the category of smart materials.
1. 4 Self-healing materials
These materials have intrinsic ability to correct damage due on track usage, thus expanding the material's lifetime. They are the course of smart materials which may have the structurally contained ability to repair damage induced by mechanical use over time. The inspiration comes from biological systems, that have the capability to mend after being wounded. Initiation of cracks and other types of damage on the microscopic level has been proven to improve thermal, electro-mechanical, and acoustical properties, and finally lead to whole scale failing of the materials. Usually, breaks are mended yourself, which is difficult because cracks are often hard to find. A material (polymers, ceramics, etc) that can intrinsically perfect damage triggered by normal use could lower creation costs of a variety of industrial procedures through longer part life span, reduction of inefficiency as time passes induced by degradation, as well as prevent costs incurred by materials failure
Applications of Smart Materials
There a wide range of prospects for such ma