Application conditions and economic benefits associated with thermo-chemical networks
Thermo-chemical potential of absorption and desorption has high potential to capture and use residual temperature at low heat ranges. Due to loss-free move and storage space of the captured energy probable, long-distance travel and medium-term storage area offer interesting potentials to work with residual heat. Therefore, the aim of the EU H2020 job H-DisNet is to develop networks a lot like district heating networks using thermo-chemical liquids (TCF) rather than water. The paper will give an release to the technology that can offer heating, cooling and drying services in a single network and discuss its economics.
First, use situations describe promising program scenarios. Requirements are derived from the use instances, first, for the book technology and, second, the application form situations, i. e. the properties or industrial processes, in which the services are applied. This includes temp and humidity requirements as well as further conditions of a good application. Depending on the services requirements, features of the thermo-chemical technology, like the used TCF, will be driven so that the thermo-chemical technology can fulfill the service requirements. Operation settings will be presented the show, how in specific use cases the technology works. An overview of the operation of the network will be provided.
Second, for an financial assessment, typical existing alternatives for the assistance, that thermo-chemical technology is suggested, will be detailed. These conventional technologies form the backdrop for an economic comparison. The aim of the economic contrast is showing the advantages of the thermo-chemical technology for the key stakeholders involved with such a network. The aim is to provide research that the thermo-chemical network technology is marketable.
Nowadays, an always increasing attention has been positioned on reducing the energy consumption used for heating, cooling and drying with a causing abatement in the CO2 development. As a matter of known fact, a massive quantity of fossil fuel is utilized as primary energy source for air-conditioning and commercial operations causing a constant conversion to C02 that is quickly increasing and expediting the global weather change. It has been calculated that the vitality depleted for heating and cooling of buildings (home or in the service sector) and industrial processes accounts for 50% of the EU's total annual energy use . That is mostly because of the fact that almost 50 % of the EU's properties are old and absence in efficiency, green energy is narrowly found in these industries and plenty of heat produced by industrial procedures is dissipated into the atmosphere or into normal water, missing the opportunity for its restoration.
Through the development of an optimized, more efficient and less cost-consuming utilization of the energy options, it will be possible to accomplish a reduction in the power imports, obtaining a diminution in the costs and, at exactly the same time, an environmental advantage, represented by a reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases.
District home heating is one of the possible technologies in the direction of this purpose since it remarkably concurs to an improved use of the vitality sources, specially the alternative energies. Nevertheless, this technology reveals several drawbacks, like the temperature required that can preclude the use of some systems that use lower heat, the remarkable temperature losses occurring through the transport in pipelines and the need for integration with storage space systems in order to get the match between the demand and the sources with time and location.
Therefore, this paper will be addressed to the explanation of Intelligent Crossbreed Thermo-Chemical District Networks, an innovative kind of district network predicated on the job of thermo-chemical essential fluids (TCFs) instead of drinking water as energy storage area medium. Through this technology it will be possible to obtain an energy-efficient exploitation of the resources, specially the unemployed low-grade industrial warmth and thermal renewable, resulting in the achievement of any lasting energy system. Additionally, by the use of liquid desiccant as TCF to be able to obtain a loss-free long-distance transportation and a medium-term storage area it will be possible to obtain significant cost reductions, causeing this to be technology absolutely interesting for citizens, employees and industry.
The paper begins in Section 2 with a explanation of the liquid desiccant technology to be able to understand the ability of the system for cooling and heating applications. Section 3 studies the characteristics and the primary advantages due to the integration of the TCF with the district network. Section 4 picks up the possible business models enthusiastic about the utilization of the Hybrid Area Network. The final two section of the newspaper address the subject from an monetary point of view, identifying the price factors for this kind of system (Section 5) and the associated economic savings related to the several applications (Section 6).
- LIQUID DESICCANT TECHNOLOGY
The current research on Hybrid District Networks relates to the requirement of obtaining a district network that allows the bond with consumers at a larger distance, such for the heating and cooling of domestic and service properties that are usually located definately not industrial vegetation.
In truth, the temperature level of waste high temperature and renewable energy is generally too low, providing to higher amounts that are accountable for increased energy leaks and higher costs, related to an increased price for the pipelines. With this direction, it should be seen the always growing curiosity about absorption and reversible thermo-chemical procedures for district warming.
The closed region network system is a well-developed technology that utilizes absorption warmth pumps and chillers to provide cooling and heating for home and service complexes (!!REPETITION). However, this technology will not allow to benefit from industrial waste material energy or green energy that are positioned in a remote control position admiration to the service, besides not allowing a period shift between your source and the demand area.
For this reason, an innovative open system district heating system, based on the work of liquid desiccant as the thermo-chemical transporter of energy, that allows to split the regeneration and absorption aspect and to identify them in various places, is under research.
Desiccant-based TCFs have the potential to provide simultaneous and multiple on-site functions and services, such as warming, cooling, de/re-humidification, energy storage space and energy transport. Water desiccants exploit the hygroscopic properties of a sodium (MgCl2, CaCl2, LiBr, LiCl etc. ) solution for removing the moisture content from the ambient outdoor air, until the attainment of a predicament of equilibrium of its vapour pressure your of the inbound air. Because of this, the dehumidification capacity of the desiccant can be evaluated through its equilibrium vapour pressure.
For example, an commercial process waste-heat influenced air-conditioning system is shown in Fig. X in a counter-flow filled bed construction.
The strong TCF-solution (i. e. TCF-rich relative to water), typically a desiccant, is sprayed at the top of the absorber, ambient air (or gas) gets into the absorber in the bottom and transfers its water to the TCF. As some heat is liberated, the TCF solution temperature rises and hence the solution vapour pressure. Heat exchange process typically takes place over a packed bed/spray tower or gravity motivated wetted wall membrane column made with the minimum amount pressure drop (Jain et al. , 2007) with end result humidity manipulated by the heat and attentiveness of the TCF solution. The dehumidified air exits at the top of the absorber and can be used to meet vegetable specific energy requirements. The warm but now diluted TCF solution leaves underneath of the absorber and it is pumped for regeneration. The regeneration process has typically the same construction as the absorber and it is driven by the inbound industrial process waste heating gas stream; the now diluted TCF is sprayed over this stream and normal water in the TCF solution evaporates, reducing the gas temperature and increasing its humidity. The now strong TCF solution is pumped back again to the absorber to restart the air-conditioning process.
Industrial manufacturing plants typically have multiple requirements for energy in their locality; the recently described system can exploit the low-grade process waste products heat to supplement (or even replace) local needs: (1) Industrial Drying, because the ambient air (or other gases) can be dried and then cooled for utilisation anywhere else on site; (2) Warming and/or Humidification, because the ambient air is heated up as it passes through the absorber, which yields a warmer and more humid gas stream that can be used locally with matching personal savings in energy requirements; (3) Cooling, by utilising the dried up air as the an source into an evaporative cooling system, an additional re-humidification stage may be used to produce a cooling effect and thus to complement local air-conditioning lots; and (4) Loss-Free Energy Storage, since through the transformation of heat to TCF potential is possible to move and store warmth and TCF potential into the hybrid area network with almost total insufficient energy reduction. As there may be significant prospect of thermal energy storage thus interacting with/offsetting hourly, daily and seasonal energy source/demand.
- THERMO-CHEMICAL NETWORK TECHNOLOGY
The aim of a Crossbreed Thermo-Chemical District Network is to broaden the utilization of district sites through the realization of your multifunctional optimized system, in a position to simultaneously fulfill warming, cooling and drying procedures and also to be included with already existing thermal district networks, leading to the achievements of a far more sustainable process.
Through the restoration of industrial waste material high temperature and the exploitation of low heat energy sources (e. g. renewables, such as solar thermal or geothermal) is possible to obtain via the regeneration process a TCF with high energy in the condition of TCF-concentrate that can be used as a thermo-chemical energy storage space medium. That is one of the peculiar features of the innovative region network because the thermo-chemical energy safe-keeping in the focus water desiccant is roughly loss, offering the chance to enhance the storage term between time and days, which permits to load the mismatch in the schedule between available heat and demand, to heighten the move distance of the heat, that can be long up to 50 kilometres [X] with pipelines characterised by a lower or absent insulation with a causing decrease in costs.
This feature, together with the increased energy density of the TCF-concentrated (higher than the water, employed in the conventional district heat) will business lead to the obtaining of an extremely promising system from an monetary point of view. Moreover, the characteristics of transport and cheapness of this cutting-edge technology allow to provide also the locations with lower high temperature demand.
Another advantage is usually that the salts found in the perfect solution is as water desiccants within an open district network system (MgCl2, MgSO4, CaCl2, LiBr, LiCl, Ca(NO3)2, TEG) are in the majority of the circumstances cheap and, for the characteristics of open up system, they need to be whenever you can non-toxic and environmental harmless. Particularly, the MgCl2 (produced as by-product from sea-water processing) and the CaCl2 (produced from industrial procedures) result to be extremely cheap and therefore economically viable.
The environmental gain displayed by the reduction in the principal energy usage and in the CO2 creation is another key property of the system. Furthermore, the simpler pipeline infrastructure, which is characterised by the use of recyclable plastic material pipes with no anti-frost safeguard, will allow to significantly decrease the exploitation of recycleables.
Lastly, the liquid desiccants present health properties that can ensure humidity control of the procedure air, leading to an amelioration of the in house comfort and forestalling the maturation of mould fungi.
- ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF HYBRID Area NETWORKS
The attainment of benefits in conditions of financial, technical and environmental features are the main conditions for the get spread around of the thermo-chemical region network. The aim is to achieve profitability and efficiency for both suppliers and consumers, changing costs into income.
The implementation of this strategy could lead many perks to different classes: (1) Citizens could benefit from a regular monthly and yearly cost decrease for energy-effective cooling and heating determined to be which range from 1500-2000 to 300-500 [X], all together achieving a much better indoor comfort, made certain by the humidity control of the thermo-chemical system. Additionally, this could lead to a greater stabilization of the costs, because the network is mainly predicated on the consumption of alternative energies, which cost is more predictable esteem to fossil fuels, characterised by an extremely volatile price. (2) Industry could also be enormously enthusiastic about the job of area thermo-chemical networks to degree of reducing its energy costs by 4-10% with opportunities characterised by a payback period lower than 5 years [X] and of obtaining a sustainable process, able to lower its energy use. Concurrently, this technology could lead to a far more environmental safe process with reductions in the CO2 and air pollution, contributing to a significant improvement in the related health problems.
In order to estimate the economic potential of the technology an research based on the study of business circumstances engaged on the occupation of waste heating has been taken as the idea of reference point [x]. The main four identified sectors are: (1) Built Environment Business To Customer (B2C); for this business model, the client platform are new properties and offices as well as the renewal of electricity buildings (usually property of the municipalities), apartments rentals (usually possessed by property firms) and offices. Another opportunity is the utilization of TCFs into an already existing cross types network to be able to improve its energy efficiency. Municipalities and casing corporations have a fundamental role in this business design because in the majority of the cases they have a previously established romantic relationship with the formerly defined customers. To level of reaching the success of the project is vital that both of the parts, public party and individuals, don't mind spending time in saving energy which is made certain by the same split of the income between your parts. (2) Built Environment Business To Business (B2B);
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