Conveyor Bases Sorting System - Color Sensor Signal



This survey analyses the best strategy for interfacing the colour sensor with the microprocessor by using either Comparators or Analogue to Digital Convertors (ADC) in the process. Concentrating mainly on advantages and disadvantages of these two components, we can conclude which one is more effective and responsive with cost, time taken up to process the programme and dependability. Using C programming a microprocessor is programmed to be able to detect the colour of the things passed on the conveyor belt using LDR.

Analogue to Digital Convertor (ADC):

It is something that changes the type analogue alerts (from a light source or sound transmission) to digital result signal by a process called quantization, which is also called as digital signal processing this is the process of mapping a sizable set of input worth to a countable smaller set in place. Generally, the digital productivity signal is in binary amount that is proportional to the input values.

Component parts of ADC:

There are seven different components within the ADC that define the whole processing circuit which include,

  1. Set-Reset latch - has 2 inputs and outputs which used as storage element in ADC
  2. Clock - a constant input sign that fluctuates between high and low and is employed coordinate the activities of the circuit.
  3. AND gate - a basic logic gate which has only high inputs (1) to begin the transformation when prompted.
  4. Counter - an electronic device which stores the number of times something occurred and used immediately with the clock transmission.
  5. DAC - to convert the digital alerts to analogue productivity signals when commanded (reverse function associated with an ADC)
  6. DATA latch - can take the outcome of counter-top as its input and convert the analogue signals into digital outputs.
  7. Comparator - that compares two voltages or currents and changes its output depending on which is bigger.

Advantages of ADC:

Some benefits of using the ADC in this shade sensor interfacing system with the microprocessor are listed below,

  1. Cheap in expense and velocity varies to different ADC for example flash ADC is the speediest of all its kind.
  2. ADC has higher quality than by using a comparator.
  3. Less steps and components as it pertains to programming in a microprocessor
  4. Clock in ADC helps to keep the circuit in time and provides a square wave input.
  5. Set-reset function allows the circuit to be functioned and keeps it in control.
  6. It changes any suggestions voltages, even from 1V to 5V into a digital output (flashing LED from less bright to very glowing screen) through its built in components whereas in a comparator it is either 0 from 0V to 2V and 1 from 2. 5V to 5V.

Disadvantages of ADC:

Also the disadvantages of using the ADC are,

  1. Slow in acceleration compared to a comparator device as ADC has more part parts than comparator.
  2. Each and every parts have to be earthed correctly.
  3. Have to possess many inputs in to the encoder (for 4 tad outputs - 16 suggestions signals and then for 5 bit its double the inputs).
  4. ADC has several resources of problems like quantization error. These are measured in least significant little bit (LSB)


Comparator is an electronic device that compares the input two voltages or currents and outputs the higher or bigger (1) digital indication. It consists of a special high -gain differential amplifier which are commonly found in devices that measure and digitize analogue indicators, such as Analogue to Digital Convertors (ADC). Comparators are also being installed within analogue to digital convertors (ADC).

Advantages of comparator:

Using the comparators in the microprocessors in the circuit can have some positive impact on the project. Some of them are,

  1. Cheaper in expense in comparison with other devices of amplifying.
  2. Comparators does not require an exterior vitality source such as additional current or voltage source since the power originates from the processor.
  3. These are in regular working condition and very compact and solid model and are extremely easy to handle. Can be portable as well.
  4. Electrical comparators have very less moving parts and the pointer is very light and not sensitive to the vibrations.

Disadvantages of comparator:

Some of the cons of using the comparators are,

  1. Heating of coils in the calculating unit may cause zero drift and can transform the calibration.
  2. If only a set scale is utilized with a moving pointer then with high magnifications a very small range is obtained, in this case it'll be from 0V to 2V it's low (0) and from 2V to 5V it's high (1).


Using an Analogue to Digital Convertor could be the possible solution in this shade sensor operating-system as there are more benefits from ADC than Comparator. Since ADC has higher image resolution and uses two registers to track record the values from their 10 items of inputs, it is more reliable and accurate with a few quantization and bubble errors. Comparator is one of the parts in ADC and it can only be used to differentiate two or less items as they have no more than two outputs but ADC has lots of.

Therefore, with ADC we can identify the three different coloured things through this shade sensor.

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