CE 1. 1 "Turn the air conditioning on, it's 45 certifications Celsius already", said my mum. The weariness of stifling heat with the tops of dried up 45 diplomas Celsius radiated in her firmness. But there was no electricity for days gone by 9 hours. Wretched in the talk about of disbelief, I realized the painful issue of Electricity load losing was worsening daily. That's while i considered to channelize my anatomist skills to beat this issue. And it was back then in 7th Semester of my Bachelors of Mechanical Engineering (School of Executive and Technology, Lahore) in 2012, I designed to utilize the scorching high temperature to produce electricity and design an alternative for the traditional method. I later pitched this idea to my professors who needed me under their wings and mentored me to design and present it as your final year project.
I was proceeding a group of 4 associates.
CE 1. 2 During my fifth semester in the college or university I studied a subject related to renewable energy resources and it fascinated me big time. Many of these resources are environmentally friendly and they would be here to provide us even though the other conventional energy resources would be depleted. Especially in country like Pakistan, it is the need of hour to explore the renewable resources. Despite getting the potential, Pakistan is energy deficient. I made a decision to work on alternative energy resources during my final year task in an attempt to help the country with potential ways to create energy.
Nature of project
CE 1. 3 The mother nature of the task was to study the alternative resources currently deployed in the country and the scope of sustainable energy in the united states. Particularly, Concentrated Solar Power was the primary concentrate of the job including development of focused solar thermal vitality by using Parabolic Trough Technology.
Objective of the Project
CE 1. 4 The goal of the task was to create 1MW solar powered energy seed using parabolic trough technology and help Pakistan to conquer energy crisis utilizing the economical energy resources.
Nature of My Particular work area
- Assigning jobs to team members
- Keep an eye on the task done by group members
- Arrange conferences between group members and supervisor
- Selection of technology for solar power
- Design calculations
- Report writing
CE 1. 6 Organizational structure
Personal Anatomist Activity
CE 1. 7 After being determined as leader it was my responsibility to start the project right away. So that it could be completed on time. I divided the task into different parts and assigned each part to different person in the group. I put to perform the design calculations and report writing. Other two people had to do books review, decide on a storage system and provide conclusion and advice.
CE 1. 8 To control the entire project it was necessary to set target times for each and every activity, I used Microsoft task to help me in job planning. While assigning the tasks to the associates, I also ensured to provide them a specific time period to finish each activity. After assigning the responsibilities I kept track of their shows by conducting recurrent conferences. If someone was lagging behind, I made sure to help him end the duty within recommended time. It helped me too much to finish the project efficiently prior to the due date.
CE 1. 9 I needed to keep the supervisor aware of the progress of project. Through the project I had developed many conferences with the supervisor for the assessment and as well as to record the progress of associates and myself. I had formed to keep record of all the activities from start of the project till the finish and present them to the supervisor from time to time to see whether we were on track or not.
CE 1. 10 Basically solar power can be utilized in two various ways to produce the energy; Concentrating solar power and Photovoltaic. I had to choose which technology we were going to use in our project. The reason behind selecting the concentration technology was that the absorbing materials are more expensive than the reflecting materials. In awareness technology a large surface of reflecting materials concentrates the solar powered energy on to a smaller absorbing surface of an collector. Second reason was, anticipated to small size of the collector surface the rate of heat loss from the collector would be low and they can be utilized at an elevated temperature.
CE 1. 11 After selecting the concentrating solar powered energy as main source, I had formed to choose one of the man ways to concentrate solar power like Parabolic Trough, Solar powered energy Tower, Dish String, Fresnel reflectors. Keeping the local conditions in Lahore in mind and also to get just a little flexibility I decided on parabolic trough. Local conditions in Lahore are much suitable to produce vitality using a parabolic trough and it could also be used with constant monitoring or seasonally altered, depending after the efficiency needed and money available.
CE 1. 12 To get started with the coming up with, first I had formed to get the prices of enthalpies at different factors of the cycle. After that I had formed to calculate the energy required from attention and fluid and cooling advertising flow rates necessary to produce 1MW electricity. That energy helped me to choose the field necessity and configure solar registered.
CE 1. 13 On the foundation on the environment locally in Lahore, I had developed to create some input guidelines for the design. The solar irradiation in Lahore was enough to produce the required insight temp and on the base of temperature the value of operating pressure was set.
- Power Productivity at Turbine Shaft
- Steam Pressure to Inlet of Turbine
- Steam Pressure at the electric outlet of Turbine
- Steam Heat to Inlet of Turbine
- Specific heating capacity water
CE 1. 14 In making different assumptions were made based on literature review.
Assumptions found in calculations receive below
- Steam Generator Efficiency = 85
- Isentropic Efficiency of Turbine
- Isentropic Efficiency of Pump
- Reflectors & Absorber's Combined Efficiency
- Land Usage Factor
- Condenser Water Heat range Difference
- Solar Insulation
CE 1. 15 After placing all the guidelines and assumptions I did Enthalpy Computations.
The Rankine cycle and brand diagram of such a system are shown below
Figure 1: Real Rankine cycle (non-ideal)
The real life Rankine cycle is composed of 6 operations as shown above in number 1.
Stage 1-2, boiler increases the fluid temperatures and pressure to convert it to a spot where in fact the addition of latent temperature will lead to the transformation of water into wet steam, as shown from point 2-3; Level 3-4 causes a pressure increase to convert the damp liquid into superheated vapor. After the work done by the vapor, level 5-6, the losses in pressure and heat anticipated to turbine work leading to the next level where condensation occurs. The working fluid is heated somewhat to enhance the efficiency of the machine and the pattern is repeated again. The procedure is illustrated in physique 1.
The amount 2 shows each one of these processes in a parabolic trough system. From stage 1-2, concentrated solar energy increases the smooth heat range and pressure. Level 2-3 turns this fluid into wet steam, using solar technology. During stage 3-4, further addition of energy changes the water into superheated vapor. Pressurized superheated vapor expands in a steam turbine which runs a generator to create electricity. Within the last level, this low pressure and temperature steam, eventually, condenses into substance again.
Figure 2: Parabolic Trough System
The worth of enthalpies and entropies at different heat and stresses, at different points in Rankine circuit, were taken from the steam desk. The enthalpy of heavy steam at the inlet of vapor turbine (h4) at the pressure and temp values of
The entropy of vapor at the inlet of vapor turbine (S4) at the pressure and temperature values of
Because the perfect extension in the steam turbine was Isentropic
The entropy of the vapor at the leave of steam turbine can be established from the formula
The entropies of vapor at the exit of vapor turbine (SE) at the pressure value of
So, by using above given formulation, the valve of dryness small percentage was
To find the enthalpy of vapor at the leave of heavy steam turbine (Ideal), following equation was used
The enthalpies of heavy steam at the leave of heavy steam turbine (SE) at the pressure value of
The isentropic efficiency of the heavy steam turbine was presented with by the following relation
The actual dryness fraction now can be determined from the following relation
The enthalpy of steam following the condenser at the stage 6 was presented with by
V1 is the precise level of the saturated water taken from the steam stand at P5
The work of pump was determined using the formula
The enthalpy of water at the electric outlet of pump i. e. at stage 1 was presented with as
The isentropic efficiency of the pump was presented with by the next relation
Using above formula, the actual value of enthalpy can be calculated
CE 1. 16 Using the enthalpies calculated in the earlier step, I computed the steam movement rate. The power required to convert the saturated liquid from point 1 into superheated steam to point 4 is given by
The work productivity/kg of steam move of the turbine was given by
The power productivity at the store of turbine was obtained by dividing the system end result by generator efficiency so that it was presented with by
This productivity was add up to turbine work productivity/kg of vapor flow multiplied by its movement rate so distributed by the following formula
CE 1. 17 Steam circulation rate was used to compute the condenser drinking water circulation rate.
If the heat differential of inlet and wall socket of condenser is then
So, the total energy that people require from solar amount to create 1MW electricity was computed by
This is the quantity of energy we must produce from the awareness of solar irradiance using solar field includes reflectors and receivers.
CE 1. 18 After calculating the energy required from solar concentration, I used that energy to compute how big is filed required. I already possessed the assumed worth of solar insulation "G" and mixed efficiency of absorber and reflectors. Reflector area was computed using following formula
Where is the reflector area in m2
Taking into account the land usage factor Lu=60%
CE 1. 19 Within the last step I determined the overall efficiency of the flower by taking ratio of power output to power input.
So the entire efficiency comes out to be
CE 1. 20 In protection discussions I cautioned my associates to be careful round the hot surfaces. I put the indicators near high temperature and ruthless points. I suggested my group customers to safeguard their pores and skin by covering it or by using sunscreen, while working outside, so that they could avoid sunburns. Because of these precautions, project was completed with no personal injuries.
CE 1. 21 After all the hard back yards of 6 months, I was able to present my design of 1 1 MW ability vegetable run by solar power aimed to lessen energy insufficiency. I provided it as my last year job (combined electricity point presentation + project record) before job supervisor, chairman of mechanical engineering division and an external examiner. It was a stepping natural stone in electricity industry in Pakistan. 1 MW power herb can produced sufficient energy to appeal to the normal procedure of the community households. Additionally, the innovation cannot only decrease the global carbon feet print but it might also shift the reliance from already depleting traditional fossil fuel resources. This task helped to understand that its need of the day to change our emphasis to renewable energy resources to handle energy insufficiency, more local councils are actually encouraging to switch to micro energy renewable resources and design such plants. In the end, I would like to state that it was a great honor for me personally to see people getting creativity from might work and using the renewable energy to fix the biggest issue of the united states.
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