Hexagonal Club Splitting Experiment


Information Available
  • Failure of the bar was experienced during cold forming procedure.
  • The pub was made by hot forming.
  • The condition was hexagonal, the initial club size was about 20mm.
  • The material used in the product was mild metallic.

Fig (1): Fracture function, split section in the bar

The composition of mild steel
According to the chemical analysis survey that was done by atomic emission spectrometry (AES) the sample contains the following elements


Wt %




0. 143


0. 73


0. 043


0. 345


0. 035


0. 015

metallurgist analysis suggested to occurrence of 0. 04% S which is known as high content of Sulphur to use in metal. Sulphur lowers ductility and notched impact toughness and has little results on the longitudinal mechanical properties.

The variables of forming process: the compressive causes applied by the rolls to reduce the width of the material or changes its cross sectional area, the contour of the move gap and spin configurations.

The requested lab tests
More specific and correct information should be accessible to look for the basic reason behind the failure. The following techniques could be useful
  • X-Ray Diffraction (XRD): to get enough data about the substance structure of the club materials and the crystallography composition. As well, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).
  • Ultrasonic evaluation: to calculate the scale, orientation, condition and mother nature of flaws.

Manufacturing process: Hot Rolling:


In all rolling processes, cooling the metallic is a critical factor. The speed of which the rolled product is cooled will affect the mechanical properties of the metal. Cooling speed is manipulated normally by spraying normal water on the material as it moves through and/or leaves the mill, although once in a while the rolled metallic is air-cooled using large followers.

(internal defect in metallic during manufacturing) Centreline segregation occurs within constantly cast slab and this influences the sort of the localised microstructure. Elements which are inclined to segregate in structural steels include C, Mn, Si, P, S and Nb and an accurate measure of the segregation depth can be acquired using electron probe microanalysis. It really is known that such segregation can affect the fracture toughness together with other properties. There is growing matter among customers and regulating bodies that present requirements do not take sufficient profile of this simple fact. It really is, therefore, important a quantitative marriage be established between your strength of the segregating elements and the fracture toughness so that compositional alterations to the mother or father plate can be made to be able to optimise properties. Since it is not possible to obtain commercial samples of dish having managed segregation characteristics it is intended to displace the central segregated region in commercial slab with inserts of known composition and thickness. It is also intended to perform a limited diagnosis of the weldability of the segregated examples including the affect on the HAZ toughness. (1)


The prediction of defect during moving process is so complex because that relates to multiple variables including cool rating, composition, distribution of carbides, deformation, etc.

In this research study there is a rolling defect which in known as divide end or "crocodiling". This happening initiates as a split forming along the center planes of the deformed pub.

The cracks in this example are made by cleavage fracture at the centerline of the club, resulted from the stresses during drawing. Within the drawing process the hydroststic stress components are fundamentally tensile stresses. The fracture device of cracking was generally cleavage in the route perpendicular to the rod plane. (2)

The major parameters that affect mechanical properties and formability will work temperature, temps of anneals between operations, percentage of lowering after the last anneal, and temp of final heat treatment.

1. Effect of centreline segregation on the toughness of structural steels

2. Wla R. A. Toughness of Ferritic Stainless steels. 1980.

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