The report describes an investigation of how linear and non-linear voltage divider kind of circuit depends on the use of Ohm's regulation (1).

The linear circuit was contains series resistors. Separating the total resistance of the circuit into two parts, the circuit functions as a voltage divider across which productivity voltages, and are taken. The record hence is also analyze the operation of the voltage divider and finds that the full total voltage drop around an individual close way divides on the list of series resistors in volumes directly proportional to the level of resistance values (2) so the method where and are the output voltages across the level of resistance and respectively was derive.

The exploration was conduct under selection of DC and AC suggestions voltages therefore the ratio between your end result voltages was set alongside the required percentage of 2:1. This is successfully matched up within the tolerance of ±5% thus; the proportionality of the outcome voltages to the source voltages demonstrates the linearity of the circuit and it applicability to Ohm's laws.

The non-linear circuit was contains 1k resistor and a filament bulb. The inspection was conduct under range of DC and AC source voltages and demonstrates the recorded way of measuring of the productivity voltage over the bulb, , had not been showing linear tendency with respect to the input voltage, . Inspection of the IV chrematistic of the filament bulb demonstrates the bulb is a non-ohmic conductor. Considering the linear band the resistance of 61. 2 was found

## Introduction

## Work objective

Choosing the right equipment and components is vital when designing digital circuits. This needs to be done carefully so the measurements will be as exact as you can. This report seeks to find a procedure of deciding on the best resistors and the technique of using them. This concept together with how to recognise resistors values, measuring potential difference across a component and the physics of the filament bulb will be analyzed in the backdrop to the test work.

Understanding the specs lay out in the task is key factor in concluding the sensible work. The statement will examine the theory applied to the voltage divider and utilizing the definition of current, voltage, electrical power resistance and vitality, the statement will have the voltage divider solution and the assumption these formula are based on. The report will then present the prediction based on the theory.

The survey will show the method of the way the wide selection of reading is to be taken and describe which variables will change and which factors will be kept the same. Also, the particular solution to test the prediction and concluding the exercise script will be presented as well as the reason for why this method was chosen.

Finally, the report will analyze one of the simple basic circuits: the voltage divider. The statement will measure the evidence and types of procedures and a comment on the accuracy and reliability and consistency of the result. The past section will suggest ways the way of measuring could be made more accurate and reliable and exactly how this test might be extended.

## Background to the experimental work

## RESISTOR POWER RATINGS

Determine the full total resistance: The full total series resistance, , is the total of most resistors in the series circuit.

## THE RESISTORS COLOR CODES

The resistors found in this experiment are normal fix resistor produced using carbon film. The resistive carbon uniformly distributed across the high-grade ceramic pole. In order to differentiate between the resistors value and confirming the ideals and tolerance when they are connected to the circuit, a color coding system can be used. The resistors found in this test are coded with four bands. The first and the next band nearer to the end symbolize the first and second digit respectively. The third band presents the multiplier, i. e. the amount of zeros following a second digit. In this experiment the previous band signify tolerance value of ±5% and it is a rare metal color. The desk in appendix 3 shows the amount of resistance value of any resistor with 4-band color code.

## MEASURING VOLTAGE

A DMM has a "floating" common, so it can be connected to any point in the circuit and browse the correct voltage between the two leads.

Measuring voltage with oscilloscope may build a grounding problem since the generator and the oscilloscope have one common ground. The problem occurs when wanting to measure the voltage over the component that's not connected to earth. Trying to do so, will effectively short out of the circuit all the components that connected from the terminal of which the dimension is taken to the bottom terminal and the voltage measured is meaningless. This is become very important when current sensitive components like the filament bulb are connected in the circuit. The resistor is which means current limiting impedance. Shorting out the resistor could raise the current to levels that might lead to permanent harm to the bulb. The answer to the problem will be to recognise the grounding tips of the circuit and connecting the oscilloscope to these factors only. To learn the voltage across the aspect which is not connected to ground, the method used is to subtract the measured voltage from the suggestions voltage

## THE FILAMENT Light fixture (7)

The filament is made of tungsten wire and it is essentially a tool for converting electrical power type energy into an output of radiant energy in the form of light and heat. According the temperatures of which the filament glows will determine the looks of the light emitted. The tungsten cable is very fine in diameter; the cable is coil as shown in Fig. 1. 1. 4-1.

The deeper the spacing of the coils the hotter the filament can operate.

The filament light fixture to be used in this experiment is yellowish filament light size 4mm and it is graded at 12V, 30mA with output energy of 0. 7 Lumens. The perfect operation condition for AC is stabilized 50Hz. This light is hypersensitive to operation with DC as the main one direction current stream causes an impact named 'DC notching' where in fact the filament wire is now weak. The record will identify the metallic (tungsten) filament lamp device by the current voltage (I/V) characteristics and can explain the difference in behavior of the tungsten filament lamp.

## Figure. 1. 4-1 Solo Coil filament (7)

## UNCERTAINTY IN CALCULATED Ideals (8)

(1. 1. 5-1)

where can have any integer value, is the number of observations and signify any of the observation. Having obtained a mean value, , the accuracy of the test will be quantified utilizing the formula for standard deviation, , for the special circumstance where all data tips have equal weight

(1. 1. 5-2 )

The standard deviation, identified by Eq. (1. 1. 5-2) supplies the random uncertainty estimate for any one of the measurements used to compute. The standard deviation of the mean value of a set of measurements, when all measurement have equivalent statistical weight is given by

The leads to this report will be explained in term of the percent or fractional uncertainty, . Multiply by 100. The relationship between and is really as follows

## Theory

## Governing equations

Electron stream current is described to be into the negative side of each resistor and out of the negative side of each resistor and out of the more positive (less negative) side. Based on the source - electrons stream current is described to be from the negative side of the source and in to the positive side.

## Figure. 1-1 Single-loop circuit with voltage source vs.

so that the current can be said to be the loop current and flows continuously round the loop from a to b to c to d and back again to a. The bond of resistor is Fig 2. 1-1 is said to be a series interconnection since all the elements bring the same current. To be able to determine, we use the rule of superposition where voltage options in series add algebraically and Kirchhoff's voltage low surrounding the loop: The amount of all voltage drops around a single closed journey in a circuit is equal to the full total source voltage, for the reason that loop.

(2. 1-5)

(2. 1-6)

Solving for, we have

Thus, the voltage across the nth resistor is and can be acquired as

A voltage drop results from a decrease in energy level over the resistor.

A voltage divider is a string arrangement of resistor linked to a voltage source. Thus, the voltage showing up across one of a series resistors connected in series with a voltage source will be the ratio of its amount of resistance to the full total resistance.

This circuit shown in Fig 2. 1-2 demonstrates the rule of voltage section, and the circuit is named a voltage divider or potential divider

In general, the voltage divider process is represented by the equation

where, is the voltage across the nth resistor of N resistors linked in series.

A voltage divider is so named because the voltage drop across any resistor in the series circuit is divided down from the total voltage by an amount proportional compared to that resistance value with regards to the total resistance.

Comparing the circuit shown in number 2. 1-1 and the circuit shown in physique 2. 1-2, the current are indistinguishable when and the resistance is reported to be an equaivient resistance of the series connection of resistors and.

To determine the resistance and required so that the ratio between the voltages cross and will be 2:1 we consider the voltage over the first resistance

And over the second resistance

The lab script desire, so division of the first formula in the second results

The continuous of proportionality is named the gain of the voltage divider. The value of the gain is determined by the resistance RA and RB (4)

Choosing the worthiness of the resistors. It wasn't possible to decided to go with values. . .

The total level of resistance between any two tips in a string circuit is add up to the sum of all resistors linked in series between those two points.

In our simple circuit if the voltage source connected to a level of resistance Rx and Ry as shoen in body, because of this circuit

If all the resistors in a series circuit are of equivalent value, the full total resistance is the amount of resistor multiplied by the resistance value of 1 resistor.

The total power in a resistive circuit is the amount of all the individual power of the resistor making up the series circuit. Surface (Common) is zero volts with respect to all tips referenced to it in the circuit. Negative earth is the word used when the negative part of the source is grounded. Positive earth is the term used when the positive part of the foundation is grounded. The voltage across an open up aspect always equals to the source voltage. The voltage across a shorted element is always 0 V.

The circuit made was consisting of series string of resistors linked to a voltage source. Although there may be a range there are two voltage drop over the resistors: One across R1 and one across R2. These voltages drops are V1 and V2 respectively, as indicated iun the schematic. Since each resistor has the same current, the voltage drops are proportional to the level of resistance value. For instance if R2 us twice of R1. Then your valye of V2 is twice that of V1. The full total voltage drop around an individual closed route divides one of the series resistors in portions directly proportional to the resistance value. The voltage divider is an important software of series circuits. This report will derive and apply the voltage-divider formulation in order to obtain percentage of 2:1 between end result voltages.

Kirchhoff's voltage law

Total power

If three equivalent resistors are used in a voltage divider, the voltage across each one will be one-third of the source voltage. A potentiometer can be used as an adaptable voltage divider.

The voltage divider formula can be written as

The electricity dissipated by the resistor in a string circuit is the same as the power supplied by the foundation.

The theory applied to the circuit includes a few calculation to develop a method for determining the way the voltage divided among series resistors.

The level of resistance between two terminals can be considered as you part and the resistance between other two terminals can be viewed as as another part.

The knowledge of the way the filament lamp fixture behaves under differing conditions of current and voltage is vital in building electric circuits includes the filament lamp therefore quality would be shown as a graph of the existing (y-axis) versus voltage (x-axis) for the filament light fixture. It'll show how the electric current moving through the component varies as the voltage across the filament lamp is gradually raises by the experimenter. The electric energy in this experiment is the centered variable i. e. it is dependent upon the voltage setting chosen by the experimenter.

## Assumptions statement

The resistors found in this experiment receive with a certain tolerance of 5%

The exact resistor values don't matter, so long as their percentage is correct

The method and the approximate guidelines given above assume that negligible current moves from the outcome. This is true if Vo is linked to a tool with a higher level of resistance such as voltmeter or an IC source.

## Experimental treatment and results

## Experimental procedure

## APPARTUS AND COMPONENETS

Breadboard

Black line - to hook up between the circuit and the negative source terminal

Red wire - to connect between the circuit and the positive supply terminal

EL302Tv DC Power Supply - to provide DC voltage

MTX3240 5MHz Transmission generator

TDS2002B digital oscilloscope - to measure the productivity AC voltage

Fluke 115 digital multimeter - to assess result DC voltage

Resistor Carbon Film 5% 0. 25W brown-black-red-gold

Resistor Carbon Film 5% 0. 25W brown-black-red-gold

Resistor Carbon Film 5% 0. 25W brown-black-red-gold

Filament lamp T1. 25 12V 30mA, bi-pin

2 Croc Clips

T-Piece

Electronics Test Probe

## REPERTORY OF METHODS

The setup of the equipment needs to performed correctly and skilfully. The amounts measured are. . . Checking out for mistakes in the measuring tools and the necessity to do something should problems are found

This experiment starts with the three 1 k carbon film resistors with tolerance of 5% and electricity rating of 0. 25W. Confirming the right resistors are being used by looking at it with 1 k shade coding: Brown-Black-Red-Gold and measuring and recording their beliefs as R1, R2 and R3

Connecting both lower limbs of the resistors in series on the breads board. Connect the bread mother board to the power source and the multimeter as shown in figure. . . . the negative terminal of the energy source and the red probe to the positive terminal of the power supply to track record the foundation voltage Vin, move the red probe to the terminal point A to record the voltage drop across R1.

To record the voltage across the "upper resistor" change the multimeter connection to the circuit as shown in figure. . . . noting the voltage drop over the other two resistors as V2

The main function of the 1 k resistor in this circuit is to regulate the existing and the voltage over the light fixture. If too much current circulation through the filament light fixture it is demolished so the resistor is employed to limit the existing.

Connect the circuit on the loaf of bread panel as shown if shape. . . below

Measure the source voltage, VS and the voltage across the filament, Vf for different Source voltage as shown in table 2. Calculate the existing, If using Ohm's rules. Calculate the resistance of the filament Rf

Vs(V) Vr (V) IF=VR/R (A) VF(V) RF=VF/IF (Ohm)

2

4

6

8

## .

## .

## .

Table 3. 1. 2 I-V characteristics of any filament

Resistance at A (Vf=1V), RA=

Resistance at B (Vf=3V), RB=

It is clear that the amount of resistance at B is greater. That is because

## Results

[The results that appear in this section will be those on which the discussions will be based and that the visual plots will be symbolized. Results will as a rule have the devices of the SI, although some may have traditional items, e. g. electric motor rate/rpm. ]

Table 2 Amplifier gain as a function of frequency

'from the measurements of input transmission amplitude and output indication amplitude the voltage gain has been determined as shown in Stand 2'

Axes shall not need arrow minds at their ends, and section marks on an axis shall not be closer than 20 mm.

Data things should preferably be shown by small circles, squares or triangles with a dot in the centre; crosses, either vertical or inclined, can be utilized when all the options have been fatigued.

Do not use color to distinguish between curves on a single amount; use different legends (e. g. circle and square) as well as perhaps different series types (e. g. ongoing and shattered). Give a legend key to spell it out the curves.

Keep a number clear of extraneous text message and lines, like a right position and a computation to find out a slope.

It would also help to show a slim lined grid.

## Discussion

## Interpretation of and/or commentary on the results

'The conversation is the interpretation of and/or commentary on the results and the reasoning on which the conclusions are founded'.

For example, in a physique showing the variation of voltage gain of any amplifier with rate of recurrence might exhibit a slight upsurge in gain at high rate of recurrence before the key street to redemption off in gain. Your words in the discussion should give reasons for this behaviour.

A variable resistor that can be assorted by moving a knob or slider may be used for this experiment. Joining the pot's three knee so that it could act as a potential divider. Changing the potentiometer device before voltmeter register exactly 1/3 of total voltage between the wiper and the positive terminal and examining that this proportion maintain for dual the voltage.

## Precision estimation

It is in the Conversation section an estimation of the detail of your outcomes should be given.

## Conclusions

'The conclusions symbolizes a definite and orderly presentation of the deductions made after full concern of the results of the work. . . . . . . . . the details of any involved discussion or result should not be included'.

Making sure the power scores of the resistors are enough for the application

Not all componenets follow Ohm's legislation for the variant of current with voltage. Ohm's rules describes the behaviour of metals but even for these materials the law is merely obeyed under very specific conditions of frequent heat range and pressure. Thus Ohm's legislations explains obly the behaviour of one kind of material (metals) under very specific conditions.

The voltage divider is a very important basic circuit. The voltage divider is a simple circuit that can be highly accurate if not packed down. Understanding the basic principle of voltage divider helps in developing sensor systems and guide how to provide reference point voltages to an electronic circuit in an analog-to-digital converter. use resistors within an appropriate configuration. low resistance values will draw a substantial amount of current from the initial source. That is probably satisfactory if the original source can be an electronic power supply, but not if it's an actual battery pack. Thus, this use of your voltage divider is affordable and appropriate in some circumstances, but not in all conditions The proportionality of voltage drops (proportion of one to another) is totally a function of level of resistance values. the voltage drop across each resistor is also a set proportion of the resource voltage.

The voltage divider is a very important basic circuit, and exploring the calculation above with various ideals can provide you insight into a large number of practical circuit applications.

The ratio of individual resistance to total amount of resistance is equivalent to the proportion of specific voltage drop to total resource voltage in a voltage divider circuit. That is known as the voltage divider solution, and it is a short-cut method for determining voltage drop in a series circuit without going right through the existing calculation(s) of Ohm's Rules.

Voltage dividers find vast software in electric meter circuits, where specific combinations of series resistors are being used to "separate" a voltage into precise proportions within a voltage way of measuring device.

nn linear amount of resistance thus Ohm's law is only applicable at the linear strap of the bulb resistance which is found to be 61. 2.

conclusions about the work you does including any suggestions or changes to the experiment

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