Maintenance and Operation of Lubricant Systems

Activity 1 Explain the reason and the applications of three different kinds of lubricant.

  • Greases: are solid or semisolid lubricants and generally contain soaps, mineral oil, and various additives. These are highly viscous advertisement adhere well to steel areas. Although used thoroughly in machinery, greases are of limited utilization in manufacturing functions.
  • Graphite: is weak in shear alone its basal planes and therefore has a minimal coefficient of friction in that direction. It really is an effective stable lubricant, particularly at elevated temps. In a vacuum or an inertgas atmosphere, friction is high; in truth, graphite can be abrasive in these situations. We are able to apply graphite either by massaging it on floors or by making it part of a colloidal (dispersion of small allergens).
  • Glasses: is a solid material, wine glass becomes viscous at raised heat and, therefore, can provide as a liquid lubricant. Viscosity is a function of temperatures, but not of pressure, and is determined by the sort of goblet. Poor thermal conductivity also makes glass attractive, since it operates as a thermal hurdle between hot work bits and relatively cool dies. Glass lubrication is normally found in such applications as hot extrusion and forging.

Activity 2 Describe the operation and maintenance of three different lubrications systems.

Oil circulatory systems:

In Petrol circulatory systems, the olive oil is continuously supplied to various moving parts and bearings. In such systems, oil functions both as lubricant and also as coolant by earning away heat produced in the bearings/moving parts. The essential oil after lubrication is delivered to tank either directly or through filters. These systems are large, employing reservoirs of capacity which range from few a huge selection of liters to a large number of liters. The pushes are heavy duty, intended for continuous running, with stream rate ranging from few tens of LPM to few a large number of LPM. These systems are widely used for plant life like Cement, Sugars, Paper, Power generation. Metal as well as heavy duty machineries.

Full Force Supply systems:

In a complete force-feed lubrication system, the main bearings, rod bearings, camshaft bearings, and the complete valve mechanism are lubricated by essential oil under pressure. On top of that, the entire force-feed lubrication system provides lubrication under great pressure to the pistons and the piston pins. That is accomplished by openings drilled the distance of the hooking up fishing rod, creating an olive oil passage from the attaching rod bearing

To the piston pin bearing. This passing not only feeds the piston pin bearings but also provides lubrication for the pistons and cylinder wall surfaces. This system is used in virtually all motors that include full-floating piston pins.

Force Give food to systems:

A quite more complete pressurization of lubrication is achieved in the force-feed lubrication system Petrol is pressured by the engine oil pump from the crankcase to the main bearings and the camshaft bearings. Unlike the mixture system the connecting-rod bearings are also fed oil under great pressure from the pump.

Oil passages are drilled in the crankshaft to lead olive oil to the connecting-rod bearings. The passages deliver oil from the key bearing journals to the fishing rod bearing journals. In some engines, these beginning are holes that line up once for each crankshaft trend. In other motors, there are annular grooves in the key bearings by which oil can nourish constantly in to the opening in the crankshaft.

The pressurized essential oil that lubricates the connecting-rod bearings continues on to lubricate the pistons and wall space by squirting out through strategically drilled openings. This lubrication system can be used in virtually all motors that are equipped with semifloating piston pins.

Activity 3: Describe the operation of 1 seal, one type of packaging and two different types of bearing with a typical application for each one.

Seal: End face seals: This type of seal uses both rigid and flexible basic principles that maintain contact at a closing interface and slide on one another, allowing a rotating component to a pass through a sealed case. The elements are hydraulically and mechanically packed with a spring and coil or other device to maintain contact.

In general the end face seal is covered to the pump end plate by the gasket or O- diamond ring as well as the rotating seal face runs against the fixed couch (the opposing surface lapped to high amount of flatness).

An end face mechanised seal, also known as a mechanical face seal but usually simply as a mechanical seal, is a type of seal utilised in rotating equipment, such as pumps and compressors.

Packing: O-ring: Is actually a packing and it is also known as tonic joint, this is a mechanical gasket in the shape of your torus. It has a cross-section with a disc-shaped; additionally it is a loop of elastomer. O-rings are one of the most typical seals used in machine design because they're inexpensive and easy to make, reliable, and also have simple mounting requirements. They can seal tens of megapascals (a large number of psi) pressure.

An O-ring is basically defined by its section diameter and the internal diameter of the O-Ring.

O jewelry have many effective features including

  • Low cost suit static
  • dynamic duties
  • space efficient
  • seals in both directions
  • fluid pressure assists sealing
  • Suitable for those fluids-using appropriate elastomers.

Two different kinds of bearings:

Plain bearing:

In general basic bearing have massaging floors usually with lubricants. The rigidity of plain bearing are Good, provided wear is low, however, many slack is generally present. In addition, it has an extremely low velocity to an extremely high sleep. Simple bearing is the simplest type of bearing, widely used, relatively high friction, suffers from stiction in some applications. Some bearings use pumped lubrication and react similarly to fluid bearings. At high rates of speed life can be very short.

Rolling-element bearing:

A rolling-element rotary bearing runs on the shaft in a much larger hole, and cylinders called "rollers" firmly fill the area between your shaft and hole. As the shaft becomes, each roller operates as the logs in these example. Yet, because the bearing is around, the rollers never fall out from under the strain. A rolling-element bearing is a bearing which carries a load by putting round elements between the two pieces. The relative movement of the portions causes the round elements to rotate with hardly any rolling amount of resistance and with little sliding. It is the first and best-known rolling-element bearings are units of logs laid on the ground with a sizable stone block at the top. As the rock is pulled, the logs roll along the ground with little sliding friction. As each log comes out the trunk, it is relocated to leading where the stop then rolls to it.

Activity 4: Describe two different kinds of screwed fasting and two different kinds of rivet supplying a typical request for each and every one.

Two different types of screwed fasting:

Bolts and Nut products:

Bolts and nuts can be made from material, brass, lightweight aluminum alloys and plastic material.

There are all sorts of bolts and nut products with different sizes for example
  • M6x25 high tensile bolt BZP
  • M2 full not zinc

The above metric blots and nuts and given as metallic.

The specifications for bolts and nut products:

Example: M8x1. 5x50

'M' specifies that it is metric.

The quantity next to the letter 'M' which is '8' specifies the diameter in millimeters.

'1. 5' specifies the tread pitch in millimeters.

'50' specifies the distance of the shank in millimeters.

There are other bolts for example:

  • Tap bolt
  • A bolt that is threaded completely to the head.
  • Eye bolt
  • A bolt with a looped mind.
  • Toggle bolt

A bolt with a special nut known as a wing. It really is designed to be utilized where there is absolutely no access to side of the materials where in fact the nut is situated. Usually the wing is originate loaded and expands after being put into the gap.

The durability of the bolts

Can be recognized by reading the amounts stamped on the head of the bolts, these are described the grad of the bolt found in certain applications with the effectiveness of the bolt.

High-strength material bolts will often have a hexagonal brain with a global Company for Standardization(ISO) strength rating stamped on the top.

Studs and nuts:


  • Road studs: These are generally used on hard surfaces, such as streets or very acquired ground. They are normally four to six 6 sided, small and even in size and blunt.
  • Ice studs: these are also created for use on hard floors, but generally have an extended, sharper point than street studs, to provide traction on slippery floors.
  • Grass studs: are also called bullet studs, they come in a number of lengths but are always bigger and shaper than highway studs and generally slim to allow them to dig into hard, dried out ground.
  • Mud Studs: are being used on extremely soft or wet riding surfaces where profound traction is necessary. They may be bigger thanRoad Studsbut often curved on top and come in several different lengths. Mud Studscan also be rectangular in form, known asBlock Studs. SomeMud Studsare knownasOlympic Studs*which are long and sharp and used for extremely slippery ground

Two different kinds of rivets:

Blind rivets.

These types of blind rivets have non-locking mandrels and are averted for critical structural bones because the mandrels may fall out, scheduled to vibration or other reasons, going out of a hollow rivet that will have a significantly lower load carrying ability than stable rivets. Furthermore, due to mandrel they may be more horizontal to failure from corrosion and vibration.

A drive rivet:

A drive rivet can be an appearance of blind rivet that has a little mandrel protruding from the top that is motivated together with a hammer to flicker out the end inserted in the opening. Normally, this is used to rivet solid wood sections into place since the hole doesn't need to be drilled completely the panel, producing a beautiful pleasing appearance.

They can be used with

  • plastic,
  • metal,
  • Other materials and require no special setting up tool apart from a hammer and perhaps a backing stop.

P5-Decribe the procedure of two different kinds of cam and supporters and two different types of linage device.

Two different kinds of cam and fans

Cam enthusiasts are much like needle or cylindrical roller bearings with a thick-walled external ring.

The crowned outer surface of the outer ring prevents border tensions if the roller runs in a twisted or willing location. They are really grease full ready-to-mount models appropriate for all types of cam drives, songs and conveyor systems.

In its place of an inner ring cam followers have a difficult threaded pin to permit the cam follower to be quickly and easily attached to the machine mechanism through a hexagonal nut. Axial advice is provided via an essential flange on the exterior ring at the top of the pin and a part.

Cam supporters are obtainable in three different internal designs. Usually, the cam fans have concentric seating on the pin, but some are also accessible with a strange collar shrunk to the stud. Cam follower bearings with back of the shirt allow an perfect connections with the cam and allow fewer stringent developed tolerances for the mechanism.

Two different types of linkage system:

A mechanised linkage is a series of rigid links associated through joints to form a shut series, or some closed down chains. Every linkage has two or more bones, and the joints have a number of degrees of flexibility to allow movement between the relations. A linkage is called a mechanism if two or more links are movable regarding a fixed link.

  1. Four-bar linkage mechanisms:

The four-bar linkage is one more mechanism which confirms general uses. It is establish in applications such as

  • windscreen wiper drives,
  • Vehicle suspension devices and
  • Everyday uses such as the depends on kitchen cupboard doors and squeeze-mop mechanisms.

Two of the links spin about fixed centers and are linked with a coupler linkage. The fourth link is formed by the frame or bed dish which has the long term centers of rotary motion. It must be observed that the amount of inversion of equipment is add up to the number of links, which in this case is four links.

  1. Reverse movement linkage.

As the top bar moves to the left the base bar steps to the right. The pubs move in reverse directions. an additional way of describing this linkage is the route of movement in one club is reversed in the other fishing rod. The fixed pivot is the centre of rotation.

(P6): explain the set up and operation of

Two different sorts of belt drive

Flat belts:

Flat belts are used largely for transmitting light plenty. Since they are flexible, this makes them appropriate for applications where there is some misalignment among shafts; they probably will be crossed to provide opposition directions of turning round to the pulleys. They may also be twisted to add shaft which are not in the same plane.

Vee belts:

Vee belts (also named V-belt or wedge rope) solved the slippage and set up problem. It really is the essential belt for ability transmission. They provide the best mixture of grip, speed of movement, insert of the bearings, and long service life. They are usually continuous, and their common cross-section shape is trapezoidal. The "V" form of the belt monitors in a mating groove in the pulley (or sheave), with the effect that the belt cannot slip off. The belt also will hold into the groove as the strain increases the much larger the load, the larger the wedging action improving torque transmitting and making the vee belt an helpful solution, requiring less width and stress than even belts.

Two different sorts of string drive:

A chain is a method of moving rotary action between two parallel shafts. The string drive is positive, effective and high torques can be sent. The chain is generally made from steel although plastic chains have been developed.

Roller String: Roller chain or bush roller string is the sort of chain most regularly used for transmission of mechanical electricity on

  • bicycles,
  • motorcycles,
  • and in industrial and agricultural equipment.

It is an easy, dependable, and successful means of electric power transmission.

Two different kinds of gear train.

Epicyclic gearing or planetary gearing is a products system that involves a number of external gears, or entire world mechanism, rotating about a central, or sunshine gear. Typically, the planet gears are mounted on a movable arm or carrier which itself may turn relative to the sun products. Epicyclic gearing systems could also incorporate the utilization associated with an outer ring equipment or annulus, which meshes with the earth gears.

(P7): Describe the agreement and operation of:

Two different types of transmission shaft

  1. Power transmission shafts are mainly utilized in two wheeler and four wheeler vehicles. These shafts contain steel joint elements and a material pipe connected to each other. To supply more rigidity to shafts, a plastic pipe is inserted into metal pipe thus creating a composite power transmission shaft having more durability and rigidity.
  2. Automotive transmitting shafts are specially designed and found in two wheelers as well as four wheelers. These shafts are vital hollow type shafts that maintain a perfect balance between static strength and fatigue durability.
Two different kinds of Couplings: Shaft couplings are used in machinery for several purposes, the most common ones are
  • To give the connection of shafts of models those are made separately like a motor and generator and also to provide for disconnection for fixes or alternations.
  • To give misalignment of the shafts or to introduce mechanical flexibility.
  • To decrease the transmission of great shock loads in one shaft to another.

Rigid Slide Couplings: This type of coupling does not have any flexibility; therefore it is essential for the shafts that aretobe linked to maintain good positioning, both laterally and angularity, in order abnormal loadson the coupling, on the shafts, or on the shaft bearings. Rigid couplings do not support misalignment and therefore shouldn't be usedindiscriminately.

Types of Rigid Couplings:

  • Sleeve or muff coupling: It is the simplest type of rigid coupling, made of cast flat iron. Itconsists of your hollow cylinder whose innerdiameter is equivalent to that of the shaft. It really is fitted in the ends of both shafts through a gibhead key.
  • Clamp coupling: Clamp coupling is sometimes called a compression coupling or a ribbed coupling. Clamp coupling is a modification and a noticable difference of the sleeve coupling. This coupling is manufactured in two parts that happen to be machined to match the shaft and are completed off about the periphery and on both ends.
  • Flange coupling: A flange coupling usually pertains to a coupling having two independent cast iron flanges. Each flange is attached to the shaft end and keyed to it. The faces are turned up at right viewpoint to the axis of the shaft.

Two different types of clutch:

  • Dog clutch: is a type ofclutchthat lovers two turning shafts or other revolving device not byfrictionbut by disturbance. The two elements of the clutch are designed such that one will push the other, leading to both to rotate at the same swiftness and will never slip. Dog clutches are being used inside manual automotive transmissions to lock different gears to the rotating insight and outcome shafts.
  • Cone clutch: functions the same goal as a disk or plateclutch. However, instead of mating two spinning disks, the cone clutch uses two conical surfaces to transmit torque by friction. The cone clutch transfers an increased torque than plate or drive clutches of the same size because of the wedging action and increased surface. Cone clutches are generally now only found in low peripheral swiftness applications although they were once common in automobiles and other combustion engine transmissions.

Two different sorts of breaks:

  • Disc brakes: are constructed of cast iron or ceramic composites. The usage of these types of breaks ate to stop or slow the rotation of a wheel.
  • Hydraulic brakes: use brake liquid, and normally filled with ethylene glycol the reason behind this is because to copy pressure from the managing unit and also to brake mechanism which is normally near the wheel.

(P8): Describe using diagrams the overall layout operation of any Pneumatic actuation system:

Pneumatic systems provide a softer action and are also not able to deliver such large makes. Besides the cons pneumatic systems have some advantages that happen to be
  • Simplicity of Design and Control

Machines are often designed using standard cylinders & other components. Control is really as easy as it is simple ON - OFF type control.

  • Reliability

Pneumatic systems tend to have long operating lives and require very little maintenance. Because gas is compressible, the gear is less inclined to be harmed by great shock. The gas in pneumatics absorbs excessive pressure, whereas the fluid of hydraulics straight transfers power.

  • Storage

Compressed Gas can be stored, allowing the use of machines when electrical power is lost.

  • Safety

Very low potential for fire (in comparison to hydraulic engine oil). Machines can be designed to be overload safe.

The procedure for the pneumatic system that is shown above:

The compressor will get filtered air form air filter and delivers via an after-cooler to the compressed air device. Then the air is distributed to different applications as well as the pneumatic cylinder. Pneumatic systems utilize gas that is compressed under extremely ruthless. For a few applications where in fact the air must be perfectly dry, the system also includes a moisture separator. The useful use of pneumatics will come in adding that compressed gas to make use of, at its most elementary level a pneumatic system supports compressed gas in a specially designed fish tank and then we release some of that gas into an expandable chamber. The expandable area of the chamber has a fishing rod mounted on it so that as it expands the fishing rod goes outward.

Hydraulic actuation systems:

Air has a minimal density and is compressible at the same time as hydraulic essential oil has a higher density and is almost incompressible. Therefore, hydraulic systems have the capability to function at much advanced pressure and deliver the huge positive makes which are essential in applications such as hydraulic presses and lifts. Hydraulic actuation system has advantages that happen to be the following

Advantages of hydraulics

  • Liquid (as a gas is also a 'liquid') does not absorb any of the offered energy.
  • Capable of moving much higher lots and providing higher forces because of the incompressibility.
  • The hydraulic working substance is basically incompressible, resulting in a minimum ofspringaction. When hydraulic substance flow is quit, the slightest action of the strain releases the pressure on the load; you don't have to "bleed off" pressurized air to release the strain on the load.

The process of the Hydraulic actuation systems that is shown above:

The system has motor-driven pump which pulls filtered petrol from the reservoir and distributes it via a pressure regulator to the positions where it's important. The pump works constantly and the excess olive oil which is not essential for types of procedures is diverted back again to the tank by the pressure regulator. It must be mentioned that the business generally gives a relatively little workshop in the locality of the pump and reservoir. It is not sensible to provide engine oil under pressure over large ranges for the reason that of pressure drop and the necessity for a come back tube. A manual or automated control valve materials essential oil to the actuation cylinder and directs return essential oil to the reservoir.

A mechanised handling system:

The transfer of materials, components and assemblies through the manufacturing stages often will take position on roller or belt conveyors.

Mechanical handling has a broad variety of handling. Lifting equipment used in growing business is extensive and occasionally it is extremely meticulous.

The roller conveyer is most expected easy and simple form where produced goods are approved among work stations along a keep tabs on having rollers. Materials are regularly shifted through the motor-driven belts conveyer. The belts are from frequently looked after on concave roller so that is comes in the center.

(P9): Describe with the aid of diagrams the overall layout and procedure of

Steam power generation flower: Though the main process in vapor power stop is the transformation of high temperature energy into electrical energy, it consists of many steps because of its proper working and good efficiency. The whole arrangement of an steam power place could be divided into pursuing steps: The heavy steam generating plant contain boiler and its own auxiliary gadgets for the utilisation of flue gases.

Boiler: The heat made by the using up of coal in the boiler is used to produce vapor at temperature and pressure. The flue gases produced during combustion is passed through the excellent heater, economiser, air- preheater and lastly exhausted into the atmosphere through chimney.

Super Heater: The vapor produced in the boiler offers moisture content so that it is dried and superheated (i. e. vapor temperatures is increased above boiling point of normal water)by the flue gases on the path to chimney. Super heating up ensures two benefits initially the entire efficiency of the machine is increased and secondly the corrosion to the turbine cutting blades due to condensation in later periods is averted. The superheated vapor from superheater is fed to steam turbine by means of a primary valve.

Air preheater: Air preheater increases the temperature of the environment supplied to coal for combustion using flue gases. Air is drawn in using a required draught fan and is also approved through preheater before providing it to the boiler. This process increases the thermal efficiency and steam capacity per square meter of the boiler surface.

Steam Turbine: The dry and super warmed steam from superheater is given to the turbine by means of a main valve. Because of the striking or effect impact of the steam on the blades of turbine it begins spinning i. e. heat energy is converted to mechanised energy. After presenting warmth energy to the turbine the heavy steam is worn out to a condenser which condenses the worn out steam by means of a cold water circulation.

Alternator: The vapor turbine is coupled for an alternator; the alternator converts the mechanical energy into electricity. The electrical output is used in the bus pubs through transformer, circuit breaker and isolators.

Feed Water: The condensed normal water stated in the condenser can be used as feed drinking water, some amount of drinking water may be lost in the circuit but it is compensated using an external source and the cycle repeats and gives a much better efficiency to the system.

Cooling Set up: Inorder to increase the efficiency of the vegetable the steam coming from the turbine is condensed utilizing a condenser. The water circulation for cooling vapor in condenser is take from an all natural source like river, stream etc and the out arriving warm water from condenser is discharged in a few lower part of water source. In scarcity of water the from the condenser is cooled and reused with the aid of a chilling tower.

Refrigeration system:

There are several heating transfer loops in a refrigeration system as shown above. Thermal energy techniques from kept to right as it is extracted from the space and expelled in to the out-of-doors through five loops of high temperature transfer
  • Indoor air loop. Inside the left loop, in house air is powered by the source air enthusiast through air conditioning coil, where it exchanges its high temperature to cold water. The cool air then cools the building space.
  • Chilled drinking water loop. Influenced by the cold water pump, water dividends from the cooling coil to the chiller's evaporator to be re-cooled.
  • Refrigerant loop. Using a phase-change refrigerant, the chiller's compressor pushes warmth from the chilled water to the condenser normal water.
  • Condenser water loop. Normal water absorbs heat from the chiller's condenser, and the condenser drinking water pump delivers it to the air conditioning tower.
  • Cooling tower loop. The cooling tower's supporter drives air across an wide open movement of the hot condenser water, transferring the heat to the outdoors.

There are two important types of refrigeration system. They will be the;

  • Vapour-compression system
  • The vapour-absorption system.

The two types are being used for commercial purposes and local refrigerators and each of them work on the standard that when a liquid vanishes, it takes in concealed heat from its surroundings. The liquids used in refrigerators and freezers are called refrigerants. They are made to evaporate at a heat range below 0 levels Celsius and in doing so; they take in latent heat and maintain the wintry space at a sub-zero temp.

A refrigerant must have a minimal freezing point so that it will not solidify or form slush in the reduced temperature area of the refrigeration cycle. And yes it should have a high value because of its latent warmth of vaporisation to increase the transfer of heating energy through the cycle.

Compression refrigeration cycles take good thing about the fact that highly compressed fluids at a certain temperature tend to get colder when they are allowed to expand. In case the pressure change is high enough, then your compressed gas will be hotter than our source of cooling (outside air, for case) and the widened gas will be cooler than our desired winter. In cases like this, fluid is employed to cool a low heat range environment and reject the heat to a high temperature environment. Vapour compression refrigeration cycles have two advantages. First, a huge amount of thermal energy must change a water to a vapor, and for that reason a whole lot of heat can be taken off the air-conditioned space. Second, the isothermal character of the vaporization allows removal of temperature without nurturing the heat of the working substance to the heat of whatever has been cooled. Which means that the heat copy rate remains high, because the nearer the working fluid temp approaches that of the surroundings, the lower the rate of heat copy.

An air condition system: An Air-condition system is the entire automatic control of the in house atmosphere to keep up comfortable and healthy conditions. Its goal is to provide clean, fresh air at a temps and humidness level that is comfortable to the occupants. The essential ingredients in an air-con system are a lover to blow air around, a frosty surface to cool and dehumidify the environment, a warm surface and a source of drinking water vapour. In a huge system there will also be a tangle of tubes to distribute the air and accumulate it again. Notice that the frigid surface has two indie jobs to do: it is used to cool air which is also used to dehumidify, by condensing normal water from air.

Advantages of Pneumatic systems over Hydraulic systems:

  • Extremely cheaper then hydraulic systems.
  • The power transmitter, air, is openly available.
  • Cleaner systems as air leakage do not create a mess.
  • Due to high pressure Hydraulic essential oil becomes scorching after ongoing use. It can cause harm/burns if someone touches it.
  • Usually has available circuits and we don't have to stress about the go back circuit.

(D1): Justify the utilization of shell tellus engine oil 27 lubricant and the splash lubrication system in the lathe machines in the college or university machine shop:

Shell tellus petrol 27and 37 lubricants:

Shell Tellus Oils engine oil 27 are superior quality hydraulic natural oils generally acknowledged to be the 'standard-setter' in neuro-scientific executive hydraulic and fluid electricity lubrication. Shell tellus essential oil 27 has high lubrication properties and excellent low friction characteristics in hydraulic systems functioning at low or broadband. Prevents stick-slip problems in critical applications permitting very fine control of equipment. Because of the explanations mentioned above shell tellus petrol 27 is scored among the best lubricant for lathe machine.

Shell Tellus Engine oil 37 is an much better version of shell tellus engine oil 27. Shell Tellus Oil 37 Is a higher performance nutrient hydraulic olive oil which is normally acknowledged to be the marketplace leader in the field at commercial hydraulic and fluid power transmission. Tellus is dependant on solvent-refined, high viscosity index mineral oil and complimentary chemicals, and offers thermal stability, amount of resistance to oxidation, anti-wear and anti-foaming properties, low friction and excellent air and water release. It is suited to ultra-fine filtration which is versatile for several other applications. The shell tellus essential oil 37 meets specs and requirements of the next
  • DIN 51524 Part 11
  • Vickers 1-286-S and M-2950-S
  • Denison HF-O, HF-1 and HF-2
  • Mannesmann
  • Cincinnati Milicron P68, P69 and P70
  • ISO 11158 HM
  • GM LS/2
  • AFNOR NF-E 48-601
  • Bosch Rexroth Ref 17421-001 and RD 220-1/01. 03
  • Swedish Standard SS 15 54 34 AM

It is utilized on applications such as:

  • Industrial hydraulic systems
  • Mobile hydraulic smooth power transmission systems
  • Circulating olive oil systems
  • General machine lubrication

The performance benefits are as listed below:

  • Excellent thermal stability - enhances system reliability and cleanliness
  • Outstanding anti-wear - results longer pump and component life and reduced substitution costs
  • Excellent oxidation level of resistance - reduces oil replacement cost
  • Excellent hydrolytic stableness - provides cover from corrosion of brass components in pushes and brings about reduced replacement costs
  • Outstanding filterability - improves efficiency of filtration systems to attain system cleanliness targets
  • Excellent air-release - minimizes chances of pump cavitation and oxidation degradation of the oil
  • Good water separation - helps to protect systems components from corrosion and wear

Splash lubrication system in the lathe machines:

Proper lubrication of machine tools is the duty of the operator. To be able to ensure that the machine runs properly and retains its accuracy and reliability, regular lubrication is required. The lubrication system ensures duly olive oil delivery to the device guide ways, bearing helps and gears to avoid them from untimely weariness.

Before working the lathe, ensure that all lubricants are at their proper levels. Being that lathes are different, it is impossible to cover the lubrication routine for every one of the types of lathes found in the machine shop. Utilize the charts found below as a guide for the correct lubrication points entirely on most types of lathes. Utilize the graph to find similar lubrication details and the types of lubrication needed for the machines in our shop. If you find that the machine that you will be using is dramatically different from your machine found in the illustration, ask an instructor for the lubrication schedule for your particular machine.

Some examples where splash lubrication systems are available in a lathe machines:

  • Gears in the gearbox are splash lubricated from an oil tank that is part of the gearbox. An olive oil sight window is typically situated on leading or side face of the gearbox
  • The apron gears are splash lubricated from an petrol reservoir that is part of the apron. On new style lathes, the apron petrol fish tank is also the tank for the manually operated pump that lubricates the bedways, cross slip ways, and nut.

(D2): Justify the choice of rivets in the make of aero plane make:

Aluminum alloy is utilized as the materials for some aeroplane rivets. You can find five common types available, each scored specifically by its durability and temper conditions, which is the problem where the aluminum was produced. The softer metal rivet is utilized for nonstructural parts, like a map case or other small item that does not have much weight pressed against it. Other factors in determining the type of rivet material will be the corrosion properties, power of the attachment points, kind of material being fastened and the good care necessary for the rivets before and after they're attached to an aircraft.

There are numerous kinds of rivets you can use in the production of aeroplane, such as solid rivets, blind rivets, flush rivets, drive rivets or friction lock rivets. Nevertheless the predominant group of rivets found in construction of aeroplanes are sturdy and blind rivets.

Solid Shank Rivets: The solid shank rivet is utilized for repair work. The materials of the rivet is determined by the materials of the aeroplanes part being bonded. Sound rivets are one of the oldest and most reliable types of fasteners and are used in applications where reliability and safety count. Solid rivets comprise simply of any shaft and mind which are deformed with a hammer or rivet gun.

Blind Rivets: Blind rivets are usually used in regions of the aircraft which may have limited access to both factors of the materials being bonded or for nonstructural parts of the aircraft that not require the full strength of the shank rivet. The special rivets in this category are known as blind rivets because they are being used in areas where one brain cannot be seen. The blind rivets have specific properties that want special tools and set up procedures in comparison with shank rivets.

Countersunk Mind Rivets: Countersunk brain rivets are being used where a smooth finish off is desired. The 100-level countersunk head has been used as the typical in america. The universal mind rivet (AN470) has been followed as the typical for protruding-head rivets, and may be used as a replacement for the roundhead, flathead, and brazier brain rivet. These rivets may also be purchased in two sizes by designating a "0. 5" after the primary length.

Aircraft rivets are determined by the grades on the manufacturer's mind, and the alloys are symbolized by a letter (or words) in the part amount.

The two major types of rivets found in aircraft are the common sturdy shank rivets, which must be powered using an air-driven gun and bucking pub; and special (blind) rivets, that happen to be installed with special assembly tools. Sturdy shank rivets are used widely during assembly and repair work. These are recognized by the material which they are created, the head type, size of shank, and temper condition.

The strength and temper conditions of aluminium alloy rivets are identified by digits and letters just like those used to recognize sheet stock.

The 1100, 2017-T, 2024-T, 2117-T, and 5056 rivets will be the six grades usually available. AN-type aircraft sturdy rivets can be identified by code markings on the rivet minds. A rivet made of 1100 materials is selected as an "A" rivet, and has no head marking. The 2017-T alloy rivet is chosen as a "D" rivet and has an elevated teat on the head. Two dashes over a head suggest a 2024-T alloy specified as a "DD" rivet. The 2117-T rivet is chosen as an "AD" rivets, and has a dimple on the head.

A "B" designation is directed at a rivet of 5056 material and is designated with an elevated cross on the top. Each type of rivet is discovered by a part number to allow the user to select the correct rivet. The figures are in series and each series represents a particular type of head.



  • http://www. technolube. co. uk/systems. php
  • http://images. yahoo. com/images?consumer=safari&rls=en&q=Drive%20rivet&oe=UTF-8&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wi
  • http://images. google. com/imgres?imgurl=http://www. amifast. com/images/pin-drive-rivet-zinc-lrg. jpg&imgrefurl=http://www. amifast. com/constructionfast. html&usg=_Ng9yYPvLyi9CcZzy1kn7xvP7q4g=&h=588&w=441&sz=39&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=TFQp4RKhjrX4oM:&tbnh=135&tbnw=101&prev=/images%3Fq%3DDrive%2Brivet%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dsafari%26rls%3Den%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1
  • http://machinedesign. com/article/straight-facts-on-blind-rivets-0316
  • http://www. nutsboltsandthings. co. uk/
  • http://www. boltdepot. com/Fastener-Information/Type-Chart. aspx
  • http://www. shell. co. uk/


  • Mechanical technology (third release) by D H BACON and R C STEPHENS
  • Engineering technology by LAWRENCE SMYTH and LIAM HENNESSY
  • Engineering GNVQ by MIKE TOOLEY
  • BTEC national anatomist book

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)