Microprocessor structured robotics arm


Robotic arm is becoming popular in the world of robotics. The essential part of the robotic arm is a programmable microprocessor. The microprocessor founded brick with the capacity of driving essentially three stepper motors design to form an anthropomorphic framework. The first design was for experimental use on the human-size industrial automatic robot arm called PUMA 560 which stands for Programmable Universal Machine for Assemblage. This individuals size automatic robot was used to explore issues in adaptable object handling and compliance control in grasp actions it was done in Bejczy city & in the Jan, 1986. This paper explains the method of interfacing the robotic arm stepper motors with the programmed 8051-based microprocessor which are being used to process and control the robot operations. We've employed the assembly language in encoding our microcontroller of the microprocessor. An example robot which can grab by magnetizing and release small items by demagnetizing is made for demonstrating the technique explained.

1. Introduction

A robotic arm is a robot manipulator which is programmable and its functions are almost similar to that of individual arm. The links of such a manipulator are linked by joints allowing either rotational movement or translational displacement. Kinematic string can be developed by the links of the manipulator. The business end of the kinematic string of the manipulator is named the end effecter which is analogous to the human being hand. The end effecter can be designed to perform any desired job such as welding, gripping, spinning etc. , with regards to the application. The automatic robot arms can be autonomous or handled manually and can be used to perform a variety of jobs with great reliability. The robotic arm can be set or mobile (i. e. wheeled) in the type and can be created for professional or home applications.

2. Robotic Arm

The term robotics, the meaning and the analysis of robots was done by a famous international scientist Isaac Asimov. Robotics is a branch which involves elements of mechanised and electrical engineering in it, as well as control theory, processing and now manufactured intellect in it where we can implement it in the various fields. Based on the Robot Institute of America, "A robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator made to move materials, parts, tools or special devices through varying programmed movements for the performance of a number of tasks. How we are going to use robotic term in the form of arm is named as robotics arm. To be able to perform any useful job the automatic robot must interface with the surroundings, which may consist of nourishing devices, other robots, and most importantly people. As the robot with which we are going to deal with are arm which is therefore known as robotic arm

3. Types Of Robotic Arm

There are various types of the robotic arm available for sale for the several tasks these are the following.

i. Cartesian Automatic robot / Gantry Robot.

ii. Cylindrical Robot.

iii. Spherical Automatic robot / Polar Robot.

iv. SCARA Robot.

v. Articulated Automatic robot.

vi. Parallel Robot.

4. Block Diagram For Robotic Arm

The method employed in designing and engineering of the robotic arm is situated upon the functional characteristics and features of the microcontrollers of the microprocessor, stepper motors, the electronic digital circuit diagram & most importantly the coding of the microcontroller of the microprocessor and mainly the stepper motors.

This work can successfully complete the defined efficiency means it defines all the functions of the robotic arm. A sample robot which can rotate, magnetize an subject, lower and raise its arm, by being controlled by the 8051 microcontroller of any microprocessor is built effectively and it was called as robotic arm. The 8051-development panel is soldered and it used the mandatory procedure for the right operation of the controller. The 8051 development table has been interfaced to the stepper motors in a way that the anthropomorphic like framework can be manipulated from the control keys at the base of the framework which is robotic arm. These keys help control the complete system of the robotic arm. These four control keys have the uncommon task from the other person which is discussed the following.


The ON button puts on the machine while the OFF button puts off the machine. This is only the task allotted to them merely to ON also to Off of the robotic arm.


The START button starts the initial movement of the whole arm from its reset point, while the STOP button can take the arm back to its reset button after conclusion of its activity applied for the mandatory task.


When this button is turned to the RIGHT-LEFT part it triggers movement from right to left, while the LEFT-RIGHT part triggers movement from kept to right. It is employed only for the right and still left movement.

Rotation Of 180/90

When the button is on 180, it causes a rotation of 180 degree of the base stepper motor, however when placed on 90 diplomas, it causes rotation of 90 degrees. It means it is utilized for the 90 and 180 level rotations.

5. Mechanical Structure Of The Arm

For the structure of any kind of the robot we should have any type of the theory over which we have to work for its construction. Same is the situation of the robotic arm for its construction we need its mechanical framework. In creating our robotic arm, we made use of three stepper motors and gears since our composition is a three dimensional structure. An average prototype that we employed for the construction of your robotic arm. There is a stepper motor unit at the bottom of the arm, which is employed for circular movement of the whole framework for the easiness of the duty; another stepper reaches the shoulder which allows for upward and downward activity of the arm again used based on the task given to the robotic arm; while the last stepper motor is used at the wrist that allows for the picking of items by the magnetic hands.

6. Robotic Arm Design Process

It includes various items related to the designing of the microprocessor based mostly robotics arm. All those points which clarify them are as follows

Defining The Problem

i. Identifying the purpose of a development.

ii. Figuring out specific requirements.

A community wants to construct a robotic arm. Design and build a prototype device which could meet this need. Design and create a prototype device which could meet this need. You will need to determine what problem you are trying to solve before you try to design and create a robotic arm to solve a difficulty.

Researching And Designing

i. Gathering information.

ii. Discovering specific information on the look which must be satisfied.

iii. Identifying possible and different design solutions.

iv. Planning and planning an appropriate structure which includes drawings.

Creating A Prototype

i. Testing the look.

ii. Troubleshooting the look.

Building Your Robot

Construction work can now begin. Here are some sites that aid in

i. Structure.

ii. Gear combinations.

iii. Arm mechanisms.

iv. Placing receptors.

v. Tips and techniques.

vi. The Art work of LEGO Design by Fred Martin - a fantastic learning resource for building quite strong structures.

Programming And Testing Your Robot

Now it's time to program your automatic robot. This can be achieved in many different ways. Use can achieve rudimentary intelligence in your automatic robot by using only relays, potentiometers, bump switches plus some discrete components. You are able to increase complexness in intelligence in your automatic robot with the addition of more detectors and carrying on in the same vein of using hardwired reasoning. By introducing a far more sophisticated control element, the microprocessor, you introduce a significant new tool in resolving the automatic robot control problem.

Evaluating Your Robot

i. Evaluate the design.

ii. Measure the planning process.

As building and encoding work progresses, and the design begins to consider condition, you will automatically perform tests on the look. You will also need to complete systems checks at various levels of the structure. If the tests show that you have failing in a joint, or that part of your composition is not achieving specifications, then you will have to make alterations in your plan. When building and coding is complete, the whole task must be tested to see if it does the job that it was designed. An analysis must then be written. This will be a statement outlining the strengths and weaknesses in your design. It will express where you have succeeded and where you have didn't achieve the goals set out in the requirements.

7. Overall Arm Design

The two hands used both have six levels of independence, and are installed on the humanoid robot cog. The arms are mirror image of one another. The kinematics of the arm is designed to be similar as that of the human arm. You can find two bones each at make, elbow and wrist although axis of the first elbow joint is coincident with the co-axes of the shoulder joints. The forearms has length identical to that of the distance of the human being arm.

8. Market Applications Of Robotics Arm

Applications of robotic arm are extremely effective on the market world. There are various fields where there is a considered need of the robotic arm these can be described the following.


Robotic arm can be used in several ways in the motor vehicle field.

i. Power train Control

ii. Body Electronics

iii. Driver Information Systems

iv. Chassis

v. Safety

vi. Automotive Networking


Robotic arm can be used in several ways in the consumers.

i. Mobile Consumer Electronics

ii. Home Electronics


Robotic arm can be utilized in different ways in the commercial field.

i. Stock Automation

ii. Building Control

iii. Metering

iv. Medical

v. Point of Sale/Kiosks

vi. Home Appliances


Robotic arm can be utilized in several ways in the medical field.

i. Home Portable

ii. Diagnostics and Therapy

iii. Imaging

iv. Intelligent Hospitals


Robotic arm can be used in several ways in the networking field.

i. Network Security

ii. Home and SOHO Networking

iii. Network Storage

9. Future-Scope

The scope of this work for creation of robotics arm involves confirming the 8051 micro-controller of microprocessor. Suggestions/output (I/O) impulses are compatible with that of the robotic arm stepper motors and evaluation of the robot's electric motor signals through encoding the 8051 microcontroller of the microprocessor. Set up programming is utilized to develop the programs for the EPROM 2732 on the 8051 micro-controller of the microprocessor system that calls for robot's motor sign as I/O and regulates the robot procedure programmatically. We have assumed that after determining the program issues for the Automatic robot with the 8051 microcontroller, the same knowledge can be extended to make very complex robots with increased functionality. While using technique used in the making of the robotic arm we can also make other robots for different tasks.


Finally from this issue we can conclude a robotic arm can be an instrument by means of which we can do any sort of the task and make use of it in the manner in which manner you want to solve the task. The controlling software found in this robotic arm can be basic for any type of automatic robot arm and group of sensors. This paper introduces a set of design concepts which seek to reduce robotic applications design and execution time so minimizing the errors within any practical execution as well. Experiments show that the solution offered in this paper, although its limitations, allow the robotic applications custom made to save development time while keeping the entire complexity low. There is open-source applications which take care of similar problems nevertheless they are not well equipped for small control applications. We have learnt that because of limitations in the programming language used to develop the application and the final software itself is highly delicate to implementation issues. Also, to completely verify the design principles it would be necessary to measure the effort necessary to design a control software for multiple and heterogeneous systems.


I give thanks to GOD almighty for guiding me throughout the term paper. I would like to thank all those who have contributed to the completion of the word newspaper and helped me with valuable ideas for improvement. I am extremely pleased to Mr. JAGDEEP SINGH, Section of Gadgets AND Marketing communications, for providing me with best facilities and atmosphere for the creative work direction and encouragement. I say thanks to all my friends for extending their cooperation within my term paper. Above all I'd like to thank my parents without whose blessings; I would not have been able to accomplish my goal.


The personal references for the word paper directed at me are as follows

www. robotics. com (Robotics history, background)

www. orca-robotics. com (Robot controlling)

www. wikipedia. com (microprocessor structured robotics arm)

www. google. com (Workshop Article on robotic arm)

www. google. com (applications of robotics arm)

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